Abstract

We propose an in-line digital microscopic holography system for testing of microstructures. With the incorporation of a long-distance microscope with digital holography, the system is capable of imaging test microstructures with high resolution at sufficient working distances to permit good illumination of samples. The system, which was developed in an in-line configuration, achieves high imaging capacity and exhibits properties that are favorable for micromeasurement. We demonstrate the performance of the system with experiments to determine the displacement of a silicon microcantilever and with investigations of the microscopic resolution capability.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Umeda, “Review on the importance of measurement technique in micromachine technology,” in Microlithography and Metrology in Micromachining II, M. T. Postek, C. Friedrich, eds., Proc. SPIE2880, 26–38 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. C. Brown, R. Pryputniewicz, “Holographic microscope for measuring displacements of vibrating microbeams using time-averaged, electro-optic holography,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1398–1405 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. A. Salbut, M. Kujawinska, “Grating microinterferometer for local in-plane displacement/strain field analysis,” in International Conference on Applied Optical Metrology, P. K. Rastogi, E. Gyimesi, eds., Proc. SPIE3407, 490–494 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. K. Wernicke, O. Kruschke, N. Demoli, H. Gruber, “Investigation of micro-opto-electro-mechanical components with a holographic microscopic interferometer,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials and Composites II, S. R. Doctor, C. A. Lebowitz, G. Y. Baaklini, eds., Proc. SPIE3396, 238–243 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. U. Schnars, W. Juptner, “Direct phase determination in hologram interferometry with use of digitally recorded holograms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2011–2015 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. Yamaguchi, T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1268–1270 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Pedrini, P. Froning, H. Fessler, H. Tiziani, “In-line digital holographic interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6262–6269 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Lai, B. Kemper, G. Bally, “Off-axis reconstruction of in-line holograms for twin-image elimination,” Opt. Commun. 169, 37–43 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. O. Kruschke, G. K. Wernicke, T. Huth, N. Demoli, H. Gruber, “Holographic interferometric microscope for complete displacement determination,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2448–2456 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. J. Pryputniewicz, “Heterodyne holography applications in studies of small components,” Opt. Eng. 24, 849–854 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Bonnotte, P. Delobelle, L. Bornier, “Two interferometric methods for the mechanical characterization of thin film by bulging tests. Application to single crystal of silicon,” J. Mater. Res. 12, 2234–2248 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Seebacher, W. Osten, W. P. Jueptner, “Measuring shape and deformation of small objects using digital holography,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Applications, R. J. Pryputniewicz, G. M. Brown, W. P. Jueptner, eds., Proc. SPIE3479, 104–115 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, H. T. Tiziani, “Digital double-pulsed holographic interferometry for vibration analysis,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367–374 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Wagner, S. Seebacher, W. Osten, W. Juptner, “Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of lensless Fourier holograms in optical metrology,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4812–4820 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Xu, J. Miao, A. Asundi, “Properties of digital holography based on in-line configuration,” Opt. Eng. 39, 3214–3219 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996), pp. 19–22.
  17. T. M. Kreis, W. P. Juptner, “Suppression of the dc term in digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2357–2360 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (3)

S. Lai, B. Kemper, G. Bally, “Off-axis reconstruction of in-line holograms for twin-image elimination,” Opt. Commun. 169, 37–43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Wagner, S. Seebacher, W. Osten, W. Juptner, “Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of lensless Fourier holograms in optical metrology,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4812–4820 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, J. Miao, A. Asundi, “Properties of digital holography based on in-line configuration,” Opt. Eng. 39, 3214–3219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

G. C. Brown, R. Pryputniewicz, “Holographic microscope for measuring displacements of vibrating microbeams using time-averaged, electro-optic holography,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1398–1405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, P. Froning, H. Fessler, H. Tiziani, “In-line digital holographic interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6262–6269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

I. Yamaguchi, T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1268–1270 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Kruschke, G. K. Wernicke, T. Huth, N. Demoli, H. Gruber, “Holographic interferometric microscope for complete displacement determination,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2448–2456 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Bonnotte, P. Delobelle, L. Bornier, “Two interferometric methods for the mechanical characterization of thin film by bulging tests. Application to single crystal of silicon,” J. Mater. Res. 12, 2234–2248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Kreis, W. P. Juptner, “Suppression of the dc term in digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2357–2360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, H. T. Tiziani, “Digital double-pulsed holographic interferometry for vibration analysis,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367–374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1985 (1)

R. J. Pryputniewicz, “Heterodyne holography applications in studies of small components,” Opt. Eng. 24, 849–854 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Asundi, A.

L. Xu, J. Miao, A. Asundi, “Properties of digital holography based on in-line configuration,” Opt. Eng. 39, 3214–3219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bally, G.

S. Lai, B. Kemper, G. Bally, “Off-axis reconstruction of in-line holograms for twin-image elimination,” Opt. Commun. 169, 37–43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bonnotte, E.

E. Bonnotte, P. Delobelle, L. Bornier, “Two interferometric methods for the mechanical characterization of thin film by bulging tests. Application to single crystal of silicon,” J. Mater. Res. 12, 2234–2248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bornier, L.

E. Bonnotte, P. Delobelle, L. Bornier, “Two interferometric methods for the mechanical characterization of thin film by bulging tests. Application to single crystal of silicon,” J. Mater. Res. 12, 2234–2248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brown, G. C.

G. C. Brown, R. Pryputniewicz, “Holographic microscope for measuring displacements of vibrating microbeams using time-averaged, electro-optic holography,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1398–1405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Delobelle, P.

E. Bonnotte, P. Delobelle, L. Bornier, “Two interferometric methods for the mechanical characterization of thin film by bulging tests. Application to single crystal of silicon,” J. Mater. Res. 12, 2234–2248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Demoli, N.

O. Kruschke, G. K. Wernicke, T. Huth, N. Demoli, H. Gruber, “Holographic interferometric microscope for complete displacement determination,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2448–2456 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Wernicke, O. Kruschke, N. Demoli, H. Gruber, “Investigation of micro-opto-electro-mechanical components with a holographic microscopic interferometer,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials and Composites II, S. R. Doctor, C. A. Lebowitz, G. Y. Baaklini, eds., Proc. SPIE3396, 238–243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fessler, H.

Froning, P.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996), pp. 19–22.

Gruber, H.

O. Kruschke, G. K. Wernicke, T. Huth, N. Demoli, H. Gruber, “Holographic interferometric microscope for complete displacement determination,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2448–2456 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Wernicke, O. Kruschke, N. Demoli, H. Gruber, “Investigation of micro-opto-electro-mechanical components with a holographic microscopic interferometer,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials and Composites II, S. R. Doctor, C. A. Lebowitz, G. Y. Baaklini, eds., Proc. SPIE3396, 238–243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huth, T.

O. Kruschke, G. K. Wernicke, T. Huth, N. Demoli, H. Gruber, “Holographic interferometric microscope for complete displacement determination,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2448–2456 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jueptner, W. P.

S. Seebacher, W. Osten, W. P. Jueptner, “Measuring shape and deformation of small objects using digital holography,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Applications, R. J. Pryputniewicz, G. M. Brown, W. P. Jueptner, eds., Proc. SPIE3479, 104–115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Juptner, W.

Juptner, W. P.

T. M. Kreis, W. P. Juptner, “Suppression of the dc term in digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2357–2360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kemper, B.

S. Lai, B. Kemper, G. Bally, “Off-axis reconstruction of in-line holograms for twin-image elimination,” Opt. Commun. 169, 37–43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kreis, T. M.

T. M. Kreis, W. P. Juptner, “Suppression of the dc term in digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2357–2360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kruschke, O.

O. Kruschke, G. K. Wernicke, T. Huth, N. Demoli, H. Gruber, “Holographic interferometric microscope for complete displacement determination,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2448–2456 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Wernicke, O. Kruschke, N. Demoli, H. Gruber, “Investigation of micro-opto-electro-mechanical components with a holographic microscopic interferometer,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials and Composites II, S. R. Doctor, C. A. Lebowitz, G. Y. Baaklini, eds., Proc. SPIE3396, 238–243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kujawinska, M.

L. A. Salbut, M. Kujawinska, “Grating microinterferometer for local in-plane displacement/strain field analysis,” in International Conference on Applied Optical Metrology, P. K. Rastogi, E. Gyimesi, eds., Proc. SPIE3407, 490–494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lai, S.

S. Lai, B. Kemper, G. Bally, “Off-axis reconstruction of in-line holograms for twin-image elimination,” Opt. Commun. 169, 37–43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miao, J.

L. Xu, J. Miao, A. Asundi, “Properties of digital holography based on in-line configuration,” Opt. Eng. 39, 3214–3219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Osten, W.

C. Wagner, S. Seebacher, W. Osten, W. Juptner, “Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of lensless Fourier holograms in optical metrology,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4812–4820 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Seebacher, W. Osten, W. P. Jueptner, “Measuring shape and deformation of small objects using digital holography,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Applications, R. J. Pryputniewicz, G. M. Brown, W. P. Jueptner, eds., Proc. SPIE3479, 104–115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pedrini, G.

G. Pedrini, P. Froning, H. Fessler, H. Tiziani, “In-line digital holographic interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6262–6269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, H. T. Tiziani, “Digital double-pulsed holographic interferometry for vibration analysis,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367–374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pryputniewicz, R.

G. C. Brown, R. Pryputniewicz, “Holographic microscope for measuring displacements of vibrating microbeams using time-averaged, electro-optic holography,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1398–1405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pryputniewicz, R. J.

R. J. Pryputniewicz, “Heterodyne holography applications in studies of small components,” Opt. Eng. 24, 849–854 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Salbut, L. A.

L. A. Salbut, M. Kujawinska, “Grating microinterferometer for local in-plane displacement/strain field analysis,” in International Conference on Applied Optical Metrology, P. K. Rastogi, E. Gyimesi, eds., Proc. SPIE3407, 490–494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schnars, U.

Seebacher, S.

C. Wagner, S. Seebacher, W. Osten, W. Juptner, “Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of lensless Fourier holograms in optical metrology,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4812–4820 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Seebacher, W. Osten, W. P. Jueptner, “Measuring shape and deformation of small objects using digital holography,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Applications, R. J. Pryputniewicz, G. M. Brown, W. P. Jueptner, eds., Proc. SPIE3479, 104–115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H.

Tiziani, H. T.

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, H. T. Tiziani, “Digital double-pulsed holographic interferometry for vibration analysis,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367–374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Umeda, A.

A. Umeda, “Review on the importance of measurement technique in micromachine technology,” in Microlithography and Metrology in Micromachining II, M. T. Postek, C. Friedrich, eds., Proc. SPIE2880, 26–38 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, C.

Wernicke, G. K.

O. Kruschke, G. K. Wernicke, T. Huth, N. Demoli, H. Gruber, “Holographic interferometric microscope for complete displacement determination,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2448–2456 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Wernicke, O. Kruschke, N. Demoli, H. Gruber, “Investigation of micro-opto-electro-mechanical components with a holographic microscopic interferometer,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials and Composites II, S. R. Doctor, C. A. Lebowitz, G. Y. Baaklini, eds., Proc. SPIE3396, 238–243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

L. Xu, J. Miao, A. Asundi, “Properties of digital holography based on in-line configuration,” Opt. Eng. 39, 3214–3219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, I.

Zhang, T.

Zou, Y. L.

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, H. T. Tiziani, “Digital double-pulsed holographic interferometry for vibration analysis,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367–374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Mater. Res. (1)

E. Bonnotte, P. Delobelle, L. Bornier, “Two interferometric methods for the mechanical characterization of thin film by bulging tests. Application to single crystal of silicon,” J. Mater. Res. 12, 2234–2248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, H. T. Tiziani, “Digital double-pulsed holographic interferometry for vibration analysis,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367–374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Lai, B. Kemper, G. Bally, “Off-axis reconstruction of in-line holograms for twin-image elimination,” Opt. Commun. 169, 37–43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (5)

O. Kruschke, G. K. Wernicke, T. Huth, N. Demoli, H. Gruber, “Holographic interferometric microscope for complete displacement determination,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2448–2456 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Pryputniewicz, “Heterodyne holography applications in studies of small components,” Opt. Eng. 24, 849–854 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Brown, R. Pryputniewicz, “Holographic microscope for measuring displacements of vibrating microbeams using time-averaged, electro-optic holography,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1398–1405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, J. Miao, A. Asundi, “Properties of digital holography based on in-line configuration,” Opt. Eng. 39, 3214–3219 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Kreis, W. P. Juptner, “Suppression of the dc term in digital holography,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2357–2360 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

L. A. Salbut, M. Kujawinska, “Grating microinterferometer for local in-plane displacement/strain field analysis,” in International Conference on Applied Optical Metrology, P. K. Rastogi, E. Gyimesi, eds., Proc. SPIE3407, 490–494 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Wernicke, O. Kruschke, N. Demoli, H. Gruber, “Investigation of micro-opto-electro-mechanical components with a holographic microscopic interferometer,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials and Composites II, S. R. Doctor, C. A. Lebowitz, G. Y. Baaklini, eds., Proc. SPIE3396, 238–243 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996), pp. 19–22.

A. Umeda, “Review on the importance of measurement technique in micromachine technology,” in Microlithography and Metrology in Micromachining II, M. T. Postek, C. Friedrich, eds., Proc. SPIE2880, 26–38 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Seebacher, W. Osten, W. P. Jueptner, “Measuring shape and deformation of small objects using digital holography,” in Laser Interferometry IX: Applications, R. J. Pryputniewicz, G. M. Brown, W. P. Jueptner, eds., Proc. SPIE3479, 104–115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the in-line digital microscopic holography system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spatial spectra of an off-axis hologram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Coordinate system for wave-front analysis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interference phase for displacement determination.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Out-of-plane displacement component of the microcantilever.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reconstructed images of the microcantilever.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Real images of the U.S. Air Force test target (Group 5, Elements 1–6).

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

LO:off-axis=λD/ΔN-NΔN/4.
LO:in-line=λD/ΔN-NΔN.
SWoff-axis=N-NΔN2/λD/4,
SWin-line=N-NΔN2/λD.
OpxH, yH=ApOdO1jλdLexpjkdO+jkdL+jϕpOcmxA, yAexpjk xA-xO2+yA-yO22dO×exp-jk2fxA2+yA2expjk xH-xA2+yH-yA22dLdxAdyA,
Upx1, y1   OpH×expjk x1-xH2+y1-yH22DdxHdyH.
Upx1, y1  B expjπλdOxO2+yO2expjπλDx12+y12  cmxA, yAexpjk xA2+yA22DL×exp-jk xAxO+yAyOdOexpjk21dL+1DxH2+yH2exp-jkxHxAdL+x1D+yHyAdL+y1DdxHdyHdxAdyA.
Upx1, y1  ApOdO1dL+DDDL-1dLexpjkdO+jkdL+jϕOexpjπλdOxO2+yO2expjπλdL+Dx12+y12×exp-jπλ11DL-DdLdL+DxOdO+x1dL+D2+yOdO+y1dL+D2.
wx, y=λ4π cos2β/2 Δϕx, y.
hFxH, yH=vxH, yH+R*xH, yHOxH, yH+RxH, yHO*xH, yH,

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