Abstract

We present the design and performance of a feedhorn-coupled bolometer array intended for a sensitive 350-µm photometer camera. Silicon nitride micromesh absorbers minimize the suspended mass and heat capacity of the bolometers. The temperature transducers, neutron-transmutation-doped Ge thermistors, are attached to the absorber with In bump bonds. Vapor-deposited electrical leads address the thermistors and determine the thermal conductance of the bolometers. The bolometer array demonstrates a dark noise-equivalent power of 2.9 × 10-17 W/√Hz and a mean heat capacity of 1.3 pJ/K at 390 mK. We measure the optical efficiency of the bolometer and feedhorn to be 0.45–0.65 by comparing the response to blackbody calibration sources. The bolometer array demonstrates theoretical noise performance arising from the photon and the phonon and Johnson noise, with photon noise dominant under the design background conditions. We measure the ratio of total noise to photon noise to be 1.21 under an absorbed optical power of 2.4 pW. Excess noise is negligible for audio frequencies as low as 30 mHz. We summarize the trade-offs between bare and feedhorn-coupled detectors and discuss the estimated performance limits of micromesh bolometers. The bolometer array demonstrates the sensitivity required for photon noise-limited performance from a spaceborne, passively cooled telescope.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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2001 (1)

J. Yoon, J. Clarke, J. M. Gildemeister, A. T. Lee, M. J. Myers, P. L. Richards, J. T. Skidmore, “Single superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for arrays of low-temperature sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 371–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

D. J. Benford, C. A. Allen, J. A. Chervenak, M. M. Freund, A. S. Kutyrev, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Shafer, J. G. Staguhn, E. N. Grossman, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, J. M. Martinis, S. W. Nam, O. D. Reintsema, “Multiplexed readout of superconducting bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1909–1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Hargrave, B. Maffei, R. Hermoso, G. Gannaway, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, C. V. Haynes, C. E. Tucker, S. H. Moseley, J. J. Bock, L. Rodriguez, “A low-background He-3 bolometer array test facility and its use in evaluating prototype arrays for FIRST-SPIRE,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 444, 427–431 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, E. N. Grossman, J. M. Martinis, C. D. Reintsema, M. E. Huber, “Superconducting multiplexer for arrays of transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4043–4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

W. Holmes, J. M. Gildemeister, P. L. Richards, V. Kotsubo, “Measurements of thermal transport in low stress silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2250–2252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S-F. Lee, J. M. Gildemeister, W. Holmes, A. T. Lee, P. L. Richards, “Voltage-biased superconducting transition-edge bolometer with strong electrothermal feedback operated at 370 mK,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3391–3397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

A. T. Lee, P. L. Richards, S. W. Nam, B. Cabrera, K. D. Irwin, “A superconducting bolometer with strong electrothermal feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1801–1803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

K. D. Irwin, “An application of electrothermal feedback for high-resolution cryogenic particle detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1998–2000 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. J. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Schaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/TopHat program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

J. J. Bock, A. E. Lange, “Performance of a low-pass filter for far-infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7254–7257 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

P. L. Richards, “Bolometers for infrared and millimeter waves,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Stefanyi, C. C. Zammit, R. Rentzsch, P. Fozooni, J. Saunders, M. T. Lea, “Development of a Si bolometer for dark matter detection,” Physica B 194, 161–162 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. deMoor, J. Wouters, F. Vanovermeire, N. Coron, J. Camps, P. deMarcillac, G. Jegoudez, J. Leblanc, P. Schuurmans, N. Severijns, W. Vanderpoorten, L. Vanneste, “Enhanced performance of a bolometric detector at mK temperatures in high magnetic fields,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 93, 295–300 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

E. E. Haller, “Physics and design of advanced IR bolometers and photoconductors,” Infrared Phys. 25, 257–266 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1982 (2)

J. C. Mather, “Bolometer noise—nonequilibrium theory,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1125–1129 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Koshchenko, Y. Kh. Grinberg, “Thermodynamic properties of Si3N4,” Neorg. Mater. 18, 1064–1066 (1982).

1959 (1)

P. H. Keesom, G. Seidel, “Specific heat of germanium and silicon at low temperatures,” Phys. Rev. 133, 33–39 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Ade, P.

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

Ade, P. A. R.

P. C. Hargrave, B. Maffei, R. Hermoso, G. Gannaway, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, C. V. Haynes, C. E. Tucker, S. H. Moseley, J. J. Bock, L. Rodriguez, “A low-background He-3 bolometer array test facility and its use in evaluating prototype arrays for FIRST-SPIRE,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 444, 427–431 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

S. E. Church, B. Philhour, A. E. Lange, P. A. R. Ade, B. Maffei, R. Nartallo-Garcia, M. Dragovan, “A compact high-efficiency feed structure for cosmic microwave background astronomy at millimeter wavelengths,” in Submillimetre and Far-Infrared Space Instrumentation, Proceedings of the 30th Embedded Systems Laboratory, ESA SP-388 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1996).

Agnese, P.

P. Agnese, C. Buzzi, P. Rey, L. Rodriguez, J.-L. Tissot, “New technological development for far-infrared bolometer arrays,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXV, B. F. Andresen, M. S. Scholl, eds., Proc. SPIE3698, 284–290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Allen, C. A.

D. J. Benford, C. A. Allen, J. A. Chervenak, M. M. Freund, A. S. Kutyrev, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Shafer, J. G. Staguhn, E. N. Grossman, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, J. M. Martinis, S. W. Nam, O. D. Reintsema, “Multiplexed readout of superconducting bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1909–1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amoudry, F.

N. Coron, G. Artzner, P. DeMarcillac, H. H. Stroke, A. Benoit, F. Amoudry, H. L. Ravn, B. Jonson, J. P. Torre, O. Testard, G. Dambler, J. Leblanc, G. Jegoudez, J. P. Lepeltier, “Thermal spectrometry of particles and gamma rays with cooled bolometers of mass up to 25 grams,” in Superconducting and Low Temperature Particle Detectors, G. Waysand, G. Chardin, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989), p. 115.
[CrossRef]

Artzner, G.

N. Coron, G. Artzner, P. DeMarcillac, H. H. Stroke, A. Benoit, F. Amoudry, H. L. Ravn, B. Jonson, J. P. Torre, O. Testard, G. Dambler, J. Leblanc, G. Jegoudez, J. P. Lepeltier, “Thermal spectrometry of particles and gamma rays with cooled bolometers of mass up to 25 grams,” in Superconducting and Low Temperature Particle Detectors, G. Waysand, G. Chardin, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989), p. 115.
[CrossRef]

Balbi, A.

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

Bathia, R.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Beeman, J. W.

J. J. Bock, H. M. Del Castillo, A. D. Turner, J. W. Beeman, A. E. Lange, P. D. Mauskopf, “Infrared bolometers with silicon nitride micromesh absorbers,” in Submillimetre and Far-Infrared Space Instrumentation, Proceedings of the 30th Embedded Systems Laboratory, ESA SP-388 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1996).

Benford, D. J.

D. J. Benford, C. A. Allen, J. A. Chervenak, M. M. Freund, A. S. Kutyrev, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Shafer, J. G. Staguhn, E. N. Grossman, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, J. M. Martinis, S. W. Nam, O. D. Reintsema, “Multiplexed readout of superconducting bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1909–1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Benoit, A.

N. Coron, G. Artzner, P. DeMarcillac, H. H. Stroke, A. Benoit, F. Amoudry, H. L. Ravn, B. Jonson, J. P. Torre, O. Testard, G. Dambler, J. Leblanc, G. Jegoudez, J. P. Lepeltier, “Thermal spectrometry of particles and gamma rays with cooled bolometers of mass up to 25 grams,” in Superconducting and Low Temperature Particle Detectors, G. Waysand, G. Chardin, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989), p. 115.
[CrossRef]

Bock, J.

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

J. Glenn, J. Bock, P. D. Mauskopf, A. T. Lee, “Numerical optimization of integrating cavities for diffraction-limited millimeter-wave bolometer arrays,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Bock, J. J.

P. C. Hargrave, B. Maffei, R. Hermoso, G. Gannaway, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, C. V. Haynes, C. E. Tucker, S. H. Moseley, J. J. Bock, L. Rodriguez, “A low-background He-3 bolometer array test facility and its use in evaluating prototype arrays for FIRST-SPIRE,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 444, 427–431 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Mauskopf, J. J. Bock, H. Del Castillo, W. H. Holzapfel, A. E. Lange, “Composite infrared bolometers with Si3N4 micromesh absorbers,” Appl. Opt. 36, 765–771 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Bock, A. E. Lange, “Performance of a low-pass filter for far-infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7254–7257 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Bock, H. M. Del Castillo, A. D. Turner, J. W. Beeman, A. E. Lange, P. D. Mauskopf, “Infrared bolometers with silicon nitride micromesh absorbers,” in Submillimetre and Far-Infrared Space Instrumentation, Proceedings of the 30th Embedded Systems Laboratory, ESA SP-388 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1996).

J. J. Bock, H. G. LeDuc, A. E. Lange, J. Zmuidzinas, “A monolithic bolometer array suitable for FIRST,” in The Far Infrared and Submillimetre Universe, Proceedings of the ESA Symposium, ESA SP-401 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1997).

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Borrill, J.

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

Boscaleri, A.

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Buzzi, C.

P. Agnese, C. Buzzi, P. Rey, L. Rodriguez, J.-L. Tissot, “New technological development for far-infrared bolometer arrays,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXV, B. F. Andresen, M. S. Scholl, eds., Proc. SPIE3698, 284–290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cabrera, B.

A. T. Lee, P. L. Richards, S. W. Nam, B. Cabrera, K. D. Irwin, “A superconducting bolometer with strong electrothermal feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1801–1803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Camps, J.

P. deMoor, J. Wouters, F. Vanovermeire, N. Coron, J. Camps, P. deMarcillac, G. Jegoudez, J. Leblanc, P. Schuurmans, N. Severijns, W. Vanderpoorten, L. Vanneste, “Enhanced performance of a bolometric detector at mK temperatures in high magnetic fields,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 93, 295–300 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cardoni, P.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Cheng, E. S.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. J. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Schaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/TopHat program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Chervenak, J. A.

D. J. Benford, C. A. Allen, J. A. Chervenak, M. M. Freund, A. S. Kutyrev, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Shafer, J. G. Staguhn, E. N. Grossman, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, J. M. Martinis, S. W. Nam, O. D. Reintsema, “Multiplexed readout of superconducting bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1909–1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, E. N. Grossman, J. M. Martinis, C. D. Reintsema, M. E. Huber, “Superconducting multiplexer for arrays of transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4043–4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Church, S. E.

S. E. Church, B. Philhour, A. E. Lange, P. A. R. Ade, B. Maffei, R. Nartallo-Garcia, M. Dragovan, “A compact high-efficiency feed structure for cosmic microwave background astronomy at millimeter wavelengths,” in Submillimetre and Far-Infrared Space Instrumentation, Proceedings of the 30th Embedded Systems Laboratory, ESA SP-388 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1996).

Clarke, J.

J. Yoon, J. Clarke, J. M. Gildemeister, A. T. Lee, M. J. Myers, P. L. Richards, J. T. Skidmore, “Single superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for arrays of low-temperature sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 371–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Coron, N.

P. deMoor, J. Wouters, F. Vanovermeire, N. Coron, J. Camps, P. deMarcillac, G. Jegoudez, J. Leblanc, P. Schuurmans, N. Severijns, W. Vanderpoorten, L. Vanneste, “Enhanced performance of a bolometric detector at mK temperatures in high magnetic fields,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 93, 295–300 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Coron, G. Artzner, P. DeMarcillac, H. H. Stroke, A. Benoit, F. Amoudry, H. L. Ravn, B. Jonson, J. P. Torre, O. Testard, G. Dambler, J. Leblanc, G. Jegoudez, J. P. Lepeltier, “Thermal spectrometry of particles and gamma rays with cooled bolometers of mass up to 25 grams,” in Superconducting and Low Temperature Particle Detectors, G. Waysand, G. Chardin, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989), p. 115.
[CrossRef]

Corruccini, R. J.

R. J. Corruccini, J. J. Gneiwek, “Specific heat and enthalpy of some solids at low temperatures,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Mongr.21 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1960).

Cottingham, D. A.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. J. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Schaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/TopHat program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Crill, B. P.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

Dambler, G.

N. Coron, G. Artzner, P. DeMarcillac, H. H. Stroke, A. Benoit, F. Amoudry, H. L. Ravn, B. Jonson, J. P. Torre, O. Testard, G. Dambler, J. Leblanc, G. Jegoudez, J. P. Lepeltier, “Thermal spectrometry of particles and gamma rays with cooled bolometers of mass up to 25 grams,” in Superconducting and Low Temperature Particle Detectors, G. Waysand, G. Chardin, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989), p. 115.
[CrossRef]

de Bernardis, P.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

de Troia, G.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Del Castillo, H.

P. D. Mauskopf, J. J. Bock, H. Del Castillo, W. H. Holzapfel, A. E. Lange, “Composite infrared bolometers with Si3N4 micromesh absorbers,” Appl. Opt. 36, 765–771 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Del Castillo, H. M.

J. J. Bock, H. M. Del Castillo, A. D. Turner, J. W. Beeman, A. E. Lange, P. D. Mauskopf, “Infrared bolometers with silicon nitride micromesh absorbers,” in Submillimetre and Far-Infrared Space Instrumentation, Proceedings of the 30th Embedded Systems Laboratory, ESA SP-388 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1996).

deMarcillac, P.

P. deMoor, J. Wouters, F. Vanovermeire, N. Coron, J. Camps, P. deMarcillac, G. Jegoudez, J. Leblanc, P. Schuurmans, N. Severijns, W. Vanderpoorten, L. Vanneste, “Enhanced performance of a bolometric detector at mK temperatures in high magnetic fields,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 93, 295–300 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Coron, G. Artzner, P. DeMarcillac, H. H. Stroke, A. Benoit, F. Amoudry, H. L. Ravn, B. Jonson, J. P. Torre, O. Testard, G. Dambler, J. Leblanc, G. Jegoudez, J. P. Lepeltier, “Thermal spectrometry of particles and gamma rays with cooled bolometers of mass up to 25 grams,” in Superconducting and Low Temperature Particle Detectors, G. Waysand, G. Chardin, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989), p. 115.
[CrossRef]

deMoor, P.

P. deMoor, J. Wouters, F. Vanovermeire, N. Coron, J. Camps, P. deMarcillac, G. Jegoudez, J. Leblanc, P. Schuurmans, N. Severijns, W. Vanderpoorten, L. Vanneste, “Enhanced performance of a bolometric detector at mK temperatures in high magnetic fields,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 93, 295–300 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dragovan, M.

S. E. Church, B. Philhour, A. E. Lange, P. A. R. Ade, B. Maffei, R. Nartallo-Garcia, M. Dragovan, “A compact high-efficiency feed structure for cosmic microwave background astronomy at millimeter wavelengths,” in Submillimetre and Far-Infrared Space Instrumentation, Proceedings of the 30th Embedded Systems Laboratory, ESA SP-388 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1996).

Farese, P.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Farooqui, K.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. J. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Schaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/TopHat program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Ferreira, P.

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

Fixen, D. J.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. J. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Schaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/TopHat program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Fozooni, P.

P. Stefanyi, C. C. Zammit, R. Rentzsch, P. Fozooni, J. Saunders, M. T. Lea, “Development of a Si bolometer for dark matter detection,” Physica B 194, 161–162 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Freund, M. M.

D. J. Benford, C. A. Allen, J. A. Chervenak, M. M. Freund, A. S. Kutyrev, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Shafer, J. G. Staguhn, E. N. Grossman, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, J. M. Martinis, S. W. Nam, O. D. Reintsema, “Multiplexed readout of superconducting bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1909–1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ganga, K.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. J. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Schaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/TopHat program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

Gannaway, G.

P. C. Hargrave, B. Maffei, R. Hermoso, G. Gannaway, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, C. V. Haynes, C. E. Tucker, S. H. Moseley, J. J. Bock, L. Rodriguez, “A low-background He-3 bolometer array test facility and its use in evaluating prototype arrays for FIRST-SPIRE,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 444, 427–431 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Giacometti, M.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Gildemeister, J. M.

J. Yoon, J. Clarke, J. M. Gildemeister, A. T. Lee, M. J. Myers, P. L. Richards, J. T. Skidmore, “Single superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for arrays of low-temperature sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 371–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S-F. Lee, J. M. Gildemeister, W. Holmes, A. T. Lee, P. L. Richards, “Voltage-biased superconducting transition-edge bolometer with strong electrothermal feedback operated at 370 mK,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3391–3397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Holmes, J. M. Gildemeister, P. L. Richards, V. Kotsubo, “Measurements of thermal transport in low stress silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2250–2252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, J.

J. Glenn, J. Bock, P. D. Mauskopf, A. T. Lee, “Numerical optimization of integrating cavities for diffraction-limited millimeter-wave bolometer arrays,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Gneiwek, J. J.

R. J. Corruccini, J. J. Gneiwek, “Specific heat and enthalpy of some solids at low temperatures,” Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Mongr.21 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1960).

Griffin, M. J.

P. C. Hargrave, B. Maffei, R. Hermoso, G. Gannaway, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, C. V. Haynes, C. E. Tucker, S. H. Moseley, J. J. Bock, L. Rodriguez, “A low-background He-3 bolometer array test facility and its use in evaluating prototype arrays for FIRST-SPIRE,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 444, 427–431 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Griffin, B. M. Swinyard, L. Vigroux, “The SPIRE instrument for FIRST,” in UV, Optical, and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jakobsen, eds., Proc. SPIE4013, 184–195 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grinberg, Y. Kh.

V. I. Koshchenko, Y. Kh. Grinberg, “Thermodynamic properties of Si3N4,” Neorg. Mater. 18, 1064–1066 (1982).

Grossman, E. N.

D. J. Benford, C. A. Allen, J. A. Chervenak, M. M. Freund, A. S. Kutyrev, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Shafer, J. G. Staguhn, E. N. Grossman, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, J. M. Martinis, S. W. Nam, O. D. Reintsema, “Multiplexed readout of superconducting bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1909–1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, E. N. Grossman, J. M. Martinis, C. D. Reintsema, M. E. Huber, “Superconducting multiplexer for arrays of transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4043–4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haller, E. E.

E. E. Haller, “Physics and design of advanced IR bolometers and photoconductors,” Infrared Phys. 25, 257–266 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hanany, S.

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

Hargrave, P. C.

P. C. Hargrave, B. Maffei, R. Hermoso, G. Gannaway, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, C. V. Haynes, C. E. Tucker, S. H. Moseley, J. J. Bock, L. Rodriguez, “A low-background He-3 bolometer array test facility and its use in evaluating prototype arrays for FIRST-SPIRE,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 444, 427–431 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, C. V.

P. C. Hargrave, B. Maffei, R. Hermoso, G. Gannaway, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, C. V. Haynes, C. E. Tucker, S. H. Moseley, J. J. Bock, L. Rodriguez, “A low-background He-3 bolometer array test facility and its use in evaluating prototype arrays for FIRST-SPIRE,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 444, 427–431 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hermoso, R.

P. C. Hargrave, B. Maffei, R. Hermoso, G. Gannaway, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, C. V. Haynes, C. E. Tucker, S. H. Moseley, J. J. Bock, L. Rodriguez, “A low-background He-3 bolometer array test facility and its use in evaluating prototype arrays for FIRST-SPIRE,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 444, 427–431 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hilton, G. C.

D. J. Benford, C. A. Allen, J. A. Chervenak, M. M. Freund, A. S. Kutyrev, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Shafer, J. G. Staguhn, E. N. Grossman, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, J. M. Martinis, S. W. Nam, O. D. Reintsema, “Multiplexed readout of superconducting bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1909–1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hivon, E. F.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Hoffer, G.

G. Hoffer, “Superconducting junction bolometers,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif., 1980).

Holmes, W.

W. Holmes, J. M. Gildemeister, P. L. Richards, V. Kotsubo, “Measurements of thermal transport in low stress silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2250–2252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S-F. Lee, J. M. Gildemeister, W. Holmes, A. T. Lee, P. L. Richards, “Voltage-biased superconducting transition-edge bolometer with strong electrothermal feedback operated at 370 mK,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3391–3397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holzapfel, W. H.

Hristov, V. V.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Hrsitov, V.

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

Huber, M. E.

J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, E. N. Grossman, J. M. Martinis, C. D. Reintsema, M. E. Huber, “Superconducting multiplexer for arrays of transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4043–4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iacoangeli, A.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Inman, C. A.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. J. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Schaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/TopHat program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Irwin, K. D.

D. J. Benford, C. A. Allen, J. A. Chervenak, M. M. Freund, A. S. Kutyrev, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Shafer, J. G. Staguhn, E. N. Grossman, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, J. M. Martinis, S. W. Nam, O. D. Reintsema, “Multiplexed readout of superconducting bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1909–1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, E. N. Grossman, J. M. Martinis, C. D. Reintsema, M. E. Huber, “Superconducting multiplexer for arrays of transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4043–4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Lee, P. L. Richards, S. W. Nam, B. Cabrera, K. D. Irwin, “A superconducting bolometer with strong electrothermal feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1801–1803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Irwin, “An application of electrothermal feedback for high-resolution cryogenic particle detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1998–2000 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jaffe, A. H.

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

Jegoudez, G.

P. deMoor, J. Wouters, F. Vanovermeire, N. Coron, J. Camps, P. deMarcillac, G. Jegoudez, J. Leblanc, P. Schuurmans, N. Severijns, W. Vanderpoorten, L. Vanneste, “Enhanced performance of a bolometric detector at mK temperatures in high magnetic fields,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 93, 295–300 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Coron, G. Artzner, P. DeMarcillac, H. H. Stroke, A. Benoit, F. Amoudry, H. L. Ravn, B. Jonson, J. P. Torre, O. Testard, G. Dambler, J. Leblanc, G. Jegoudez, J. P. Lepeltier, “Thermal spectrometry of particles and gamma rays with cooled bolometers of mass up to 25 grams,” in Superconducting and Low Temperature Particle Detectors, G. Waysand, G. Chardin, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989), p. 115.
[CrossRef]

Jonson, B.

N. Coron, G. Artzner, P. DeMarcillac, H. H. Stroke, A. Benoit, F. Amoudry, H. L. Ravn, B. Jonson, J. P. Torre, O. Testard, G. Dambler, J. Leblanc, G. Jegoudez, J. P. Lepeltier, “Thermal spectrometry of particles and gamma rays with cooled bolometers of mass up to 25 grams,” in Superconducting and Low Temperature Particle Detectors, G. Waysand, G. Chardin, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989), p. 115.
[CrossRef]

Keesom, P. H.

P. H. Keesom, G. Seidel, “Specific heat of germanium and silicon at low temperatures,” Phys. Rev. 133, 33–39 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Koshchenko, V. I.

V. I. Koshchenko, Y. Kh. Grinberg, “Thermodynamic properties of Si3N4,” Neorg. Mater. 18, 1064–1066 (1982).

Kotsubo, V.

W. Holmes, J. M. Gildemeister, P. L. Richards, V. Kotsubo, “Measurements of thermal transport in low stress silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2250–2252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kowitt, M. S.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. J. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Schaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/TopHat program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Kutyrev, A. S.

D. J. Benford, C. A. Allen, J. A. Chervenak, M. M. Freund, A. S. Kutyrev, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Shafer, J. G. Staguhn, E. N. Grossman, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, J. M. Martinis, S. W. Nam, O. D. Reintsema, “Multiplexed readout of superconducting bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1909–1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lange, A. E.

P. D. Mauskopf, J. J. Bock, H. Del Castillo, W. H. Holzapfel, A. E. Lange, “Composite infrared bolometers with Si3N4 micromesh absorbers,” Appl. Opt. 36, 765–771 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Bock, A. E. Lange, “Performance of a low-pass filter for far-infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7254–7257 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Bock, H. M. Del Castillo, A. D. Turner, J. W. Beeman, A. E. Lange, P. D. Mauskopf, “Infrared bolometers with silicon nitride micromesh absorbers,” in Submillimetre and Far-Infrared Space Instrumentation, Proceedings of the 30th Embedded Systems Laboratory, ESA SP-388 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1996).

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

J. J. Bock, H. G. LeDuc, A. E. Lange, J. Zmuidzinas, “A monolithic bolometer array suitable for FIRST,” in The Far Infrared and Submillimetre Universe, Proceedings of the ESA Symposium, ESA SP-401 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1997).

S. E. Church, B. Philhour, A. E. Lange, P. A. R. Ade, B. Maffei, R. Nartallo-Garcia, M. Dragovan, “A compact high-efficiency feed structure for cosmic microwave background astronomy at millimeter wavelengths,” in Submillimetre and Far-Infrared Space Instrumentation, Proceedings of the 30th Embedded Systems Laboratory, ESA SP-388 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1996).

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Lea, M. T.

P. Stefanyi, C. C. Zammit, R. Rentzsch, P. Fozooni, J. Saunders, M. T. Lea, “Development of a Si bolometer for dark matter detection,” Physica B 194, 161–162 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leblanc, J.

P. deMoor, J. Wouters, F. Vanovermeire, N. Coron, J. Camps, P. deMarcillac, G. Jegoudez, J. Leblanc, P. Schuurmans, N. Severijns, W. Vanderpoorten, L. Vanneste, “Enhanced performance of a bolometric detector at mK temperatures in high magnetic fields,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 93, 295–300 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Coron, G. Artzner, P. DeMarcillac, H. H. Stroke, A. Benoit, F. Amoudry, H. L. Ravn, B. Jonson, J. P. Torre, O. Testard, G. Dambler, J. Leblanc, G. Jegoudez, J. P. Lepeltier, “Thermal spectrometry of particles and gamma rays with cooled bolometers of mass up to 25 grams,” in Superconducting and Low Temperature Particle Detectors, G. Waysand, G. Chardin, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989), p. 115.
[CrossRef]

LeDuc, H. G.

J. J. Bock, H. G. LeDuc, A. E. Lange, J. Zmuidzinas, “A monolithic bolometer array suitable for FIRST,” in The Far Infrared and Submillimetre Universe, Proceedings of the ESA Symposium, ESA SP-401 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1997).

Lee, A. T.

J. Yoon, J. Clarke, J. M. Gildemeister, A. T. Lee, M. J. Myers, P. L. Richards, J. T. Skidmore, “Single superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for arrays of low-temperature sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 371–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S-F. Lee, J. M. Gildemeister, W. Holmes, A. T. Lee, P. L. Richards, “Voltage-biased superconducting transition-edge bolometer with strong electrothermal feedback operated at 370 mK,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3391–3397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Lee, P. L. Richards, S. W. Nam, B. Cabrera, K. D. Irwin, “A superconducting bolometer with strong electrothermal feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1801–1803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Glenn, J. Bock, P. D. Mauskopf, A. T. Lee, “Numerical optimization of integrating cavities for diffraction-limited millimeter-wave bolometer arrays,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

Lee, S-F.

Lepeltier, J. P.

N. Coron, G. Artzner, P. DeMarcillac, H. H. Stroke, A. Benoit, F. Amoudry, H. L. Ravn, B. Jonson, J. P. Torre, O. Testard, G. Dambler, J. Leblanc, G. Jegoudez, J. P. Lepeltier, “Thermal spectrometry of particles and gamma rays with cooled bolometers of mass up to 25 grams,” in Superconducting and Low Temperature Particle Detectors, G. Waysand, G. Chardin, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989), p. 115.
[CrossRef]

Maffei, B.

P. C. Hargrave, B. Maffei, R. Hermoso, G. Gannaway, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, C. V. Haynes, C. E. Tucker, S. H. Moseley, J. J. Bock, L. Rodriguez, “A low-background He-3 bolometer array test facility and its use in evaluating prototype arrays for FIRST-SPIRE,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 444, 427–431 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Church, B. Philhour, A. E. Lange, P. A. R. Ade, B. Maffei, R. Nartallo-Garcia, M. Dragovan, “A compact high-efficiency feed structure for cosmic microwave background astronomy at millimeter wavelengths,” in Submillimetre and Far-Infrared Space Instrumentation, Proceedings of the 30th Embedded Systems Laboratory, ESA SP-388 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1996).

Martinis, J. M.

D. J. Benford, C. A. Allen, J. A. Chervenak, M. M. Freund, A. S. Kutyrev, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Shafer, J. G. Staguhn, E. N. Grossman, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, J. M. Martinis, S. W. Nam, O. D. Reintsema, “Multiplexed readout of superconducting bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1909–1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, E. N. Grossman, J. M. Martinis, C. D. Reintsema, M. E. Huber, “Superconducting multiplexer for arrays of transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4043–4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Masi, S.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Mather, J. C.

Mauskopf, P.

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

Mauskopf, P. D.

P. D. Mauskopf, J. J. Bock, H. Del Castillo, W. H. Holzapfel, A. E. Lange, “Composite infrared bolometers with Si3N4 micromesh absorbers,” Appl. Opt. 36, 765–771 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

J. Glenn, J. Bock, P. D. Mauskopf, A. T. Lee, “Numerical optimization of integrating cavities for diffraction-limited millimeter-wave bolometer arrays,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

J. J. Bock, H. M. Del Castillo, A. D. Turner, J. W. Beeman, A. E. Lange, P. D. Mauskopf, “Infrared bolometers with silicon nitride micromesh absorbers,” in Submillimetre and Far-Infrared Space Instrumentation, Proceedings of the 30th Embedded Systems Laboratory, ESA SP-388 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1996).

Meyer, S. S.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. J. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Schaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/TopHat program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Miglio, L.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Moseley, S. H.

D. J. Benford, C. A. Allen, J. A. Chervenak, M. M. Freund, A. S. Kutyrev, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Shafer, J. G. Staguhn, E. N. Grossman, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, J. M. Martinis, S. W. Nam, O. D. Reintsema, “Multiplexed readout of superconducting bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1909–1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Hargrave, B. Maffei, R. Hermoso, G. Gannaway, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, C. V. Haynes, C. E. Tucker, S. H. Moseley, J. J. Bock, L. Rodriguez, “A low-background He-3 bolometer array test facility and its use in evaluating prototype arrays for FIRST-SPIRE,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 444, 427–431 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Myers, M. J.

J. Yoon, J. Clarke, J. M. Gildemeister, A. T. Lee, M. J. Myers, P. L. Richards, J. T. Skidmore, “Single superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for arrays of low-temperature sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 371–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S. W.

D. J. Benford, C. A. Allen, J. A. Chervenak, M. M. Freund, A. S. Kutyrev, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Shafer, J. G. Staguhn, E. N. Grossman, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, J. M. Martinis, S. W. Nam, O. D. Reintsema, “Multiplexed readout of superconducting bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1909–1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Lee, P. L. Richards, S. W. Nam, B. Cabrera, K. D. Irwin, “A superconducting bolometer with strong electrothermal feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1801–1803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nartallo-Garcia, R.

S. E. Church, B. Philhour, A. E. Lange, P. A. R. Ade, B. Maffei, R. Nartallo-Garcia, M. Dragovan, “A compact high-efficiency feed structure for cosmic microwave background astronomy at millimeter wavelengths,” in Submillimetre and Far-Infrared Space Instrumentation, Proceedings of the 30th Embedded Systems Laboratory, ESA SP-388 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1996).

Netterfield, C. B.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

Oh, S.

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

Page, L. A.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. J. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Schaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/TopHat program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Palangio, P.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Pascale, E.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

Philhour, B.

S. E. Church, B. Philhour, A. E. Lange, P. A. R. Ade, B. Maffei, R. Nartallo-Garcia, M. Dragovan, “A compact high-efficiency feed structure for cosmic microwave background astronomy at millimeter wavelengths,” in Submillimetre and Far-Infrared Space Instrumentation, Proceedings of the 30th Embedded Systems Laboratory, ESA SP-388 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1996).

Piacentini, F.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Piccirillo, L.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. J. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Schaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/TopHat program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Puchalla, J. L.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. J. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Schaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/TopHat program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Rabii, B.

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

Raccanelli, A.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Rao, S.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Ravn, H. L.

N. Coron, G. Artzner, P. DeMarcillac, H. H. Stroke, A. Benoit, F. Amoudry, H. L. Ravn, B. Jonson, J. P. Torre, O. Testard, G. Dambler, J. Leblanc, G. Jegoudez, J. P. Lepeltier, “Thermal spectrometry of particles and gamma rays with cooled bolometers of mass up to 25 grams,” in Superconducting and Low Temperature Particle Detectors, G. Waysand, G. Chardin, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989), p. 115.
[CrossRef]

Reintsema, C. D.

J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, E. N. Grossman, J. M. Martinis, C. D. Reintsema, M. E. Huber, “Superconducting multiplexer for arrays of transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4043–4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reintsema, O. D.

D. J. Benford, C. A. Allen, J. A. Chervenak, M. M. Freund, A. S. Kutyrev, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Shafer, J. G. Staguhn, E. N. Grossman, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, J. M. Martinis, S. W. Nam, O. D. Reintsema, “Multiplexed readout of superconducting bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1909–1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rentzsch, R.

P. Stefanyi, C. C. Zammit, R. Rentzsch, P. Fozooni, J. Saunders, M. T. Lea, “Development of a Si bolometer for dark matter detection,” Physica B 194, 161–162 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rey, P.

P. Agnese, C. Buzzi, P. Rey, L. Rodriguez, J.-L. Tissot, “New technological development for far-infrared bolometer arrays,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXV, B. F. Andresen, M. S. Scholl, eds., Proc. SPIE3698, 284–290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Richards, P. L.

J. Yoon, J. Clarke, J. M. Gildemeister, A. T. Lee, M. J. Myers, P. L. Richards, J. T. Skidmore, “Single superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for arrays of low-temperature sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 371–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S-F. Lee, J. M. Gildemeister, W. Holmes, A. T. Lee, P. L. Richards, “Voltage-biased superconducting transition-edge bolometer with strong electrothermal feedback operated at 370 mK,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3391–3397 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Holmes, J. M. Gildemeister, P. L. Richards, V. Kotsubo, “Measurements of thermal transport in low stress silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2250–2252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Lee, P. L. Richards, S. W. Nam, B. Cabrera, K. D. Irwin, “A superconducting bolometer with strong electrothermal feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1801–1803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Richards, “Bolometers for infrared and millimeter waves,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

Rodriguez, L.

P. C. Hargrave, B. Maffei, R. Hermoso, G. Gannaway, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, C. V. Haynes, C. E. Tucker, S. H. Moseley, J. J. Bock, L. Rodriguez, “A low-background He-3 bolometer array test facility and its use in evaluating prototype arrays for FIRST-SPIRE,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 444, 427–431 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Agnese, C. Buzzi, P. Rey, L. Rodriguez, J.-L. Tissot, “New technological development for far-infrared bolometer arrays,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXV, B. F. Andresen, M. S. Scholl, eds., Proc. SPIE3698, 284–290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Romeo, G.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Ruhl, J.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. J. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Schaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/TopHat program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

Saunders, J.

P. Stefanyi, C. C. Zammit, R. Rentzsch, P. Fozooni, J. Saunders, M. T. Lea, “Development of a Si bolometer for dark matter detection,” Physica B 194, 161–162 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scaramuzzi, F.

F. Piacentini, P. A. R. Ade, R. Bathia, J. J. Bock, A. Boscaleri, P. Cardoni, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, G. de Troia, P. Farese, M. Giacometti, E. F. Hivon, V. V. Hristov, A. Iacoangeli, A. E. Lange, S. Masi, P. D. Mauskopf, L. Miglio, C. B. Netterfield, P. Palangio, E. Pascale, A. Raccanelli, S. Rao, G. Romeo, J. Ruhl, F. Scaramuzzi, “Boomerang: a balloon-borne millimeter wave telescope and total power receiver for mapping anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background” (to be published).

Schaefer, R. K.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. J. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Schaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/TopHat program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Schuurmans, P.

P. deMoor, J. Wouters, F. Vanovermeire, N. Coron, J. Camps, P. deMarcillac, G. Jegoudez, J. Leblanc, P. Schuurmans, N. Severijns, W. Vanderpoorten, L. Vanneste, “Enhanced performance of a bolometric detector at mK temperatures in high magnetic fields,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 93, 295–300 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, G.

P. H. Keesom, G. Seidel, “Specific heat of germanium and silicon at low temperatures,” Phys. Rev. 133, 33–39 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Severijns, N.

P. deMoor, J. Wouters, F. Vanovermeire, N. Coron, J. Camps, P. deMarcillac, G. Jegoudez, J. Leblanc, P. Schuurmans, N. Severijns, W. Vanderpoorten, L. Vanneste, “Enhanced performance of a bolometric detector at mK temperatures in high magnetic fields,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 93, 295–300 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shafer, R. A.

D. J. Benford, C. A. Allen, J. A. Chervenak, M. M. Freund, A. S. Kutyrev, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Shafer, J. G. Staguhn, E. N. Grossman, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, J. M. Martinis, S. W. Nam, O. D. Reintsema, “Multiplexed readout of superconducting bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1909–1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Silverberg, R. F.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. J. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Schaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/TopHat program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Skidmore, J. T.

J. Yoon, J. Clarke, J. M. Gildemeister, A. T. Lee, M. J. Myers, P. L. Richards, J. T. Skidmore, “Single superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for arrays of low-temperature sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 371–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smoot, G. F.

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

Staguhn, J. G.

D. J. Benford, C. A. Allen, J. A. Chervenak, M. M. Freund, A. S. Kutyrev, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Shafer, J. G. Staguhn, E. N. Grossman, G. C. Hilton, K. D. Irwin, J. M. Martinis, S. W. Nam, O. D. Reintsema, “Multiplexed readout of superconducting bolometers,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 21, 1909–1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stefanyi, P.

P. Stefanyi, C. C. Zammit, R. Rentzsch, P. Fozooni, J. Saunders, M. T. Lea, “Development of a Si bolometer for dark matter detection,” Physica B 194, 161–162 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stroke, H. H.

N. Coron, G. Artzner, P. DeMarcillac, H. H. Stroke, A. Benoit, F. Amoudry, H. L. Ravn, B. Jonson, J. P. Torre, O. Testard, G. Dambler, J. Leblanc, G. Jegoudez, J. P. Lepeltier, “Thermal spectrometry of particles and gamma rays with cooled bolometers of mass up to 25 grams,” in Superconducting and Low Temperature Particle Detectors, G. Waysand, G. Chardin, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989), p. 115.
[CrossRef]

Swinyard, B. M.

M. J. Griffin, B. M. Swinyard, L. Vigroux, “The SPIRE instrument for FIRST,” in UV, Optical, and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jakobsen, eds., Proc. SPIE4013, 184–195 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Testard, O.

N. Coron, G. Artzner, P. DeMarcillac, H. H. Stroke, A. Benoit, F. Amoudry, H. L. Ravn, B. Jonson, J. P. Torre, O. Testard, G. Dambler, J. Leblanc, G. Jegoudez, J. P. Lepeltier, “Thermal spectrometry of particles and gamma rays with cooled bolometers of mass up to 25 grams,” in Superconducting and Low Temperature Particle Detectors, G. Waysand, G. Chardin, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989), p. 115.
[CrossRef]

Timbie, P. T.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. J. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Schaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/TopHat program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Tissot, J.-L.

P. Agnese, C. Buzzi, P. Rey, L. Rodriguez, J.-L. Tissot, “New technological development for far-infrared bolometer arrays,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXV, B. F. Andresen, M. S. Scholl, eds., Proc. SPIE3698, 284–290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Torre, J. P.

N. Coron, G. Artzner, P. DeMarcillac, H. H. Stroke, A. Benoit, F. Amoudry, H. L. Ravn, B. Jonson, J. P. Torre, O. Testard, G. Dambler, J. Leblanc, G. Jegoudez, J. P. Lepeltier, “Thermal spectrometry of particles and gamma rays with cooled bolometers of mass up to 25 grams,” in Superconducting and Low Temperature Particle Detectors, G. Waysand, G. Chardin, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989), p. 115.
[CrossRef]

Tucker, C. E.

P. C. Hargrave, B. Maffei, R. Hermoso, G. Gannaway, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, C. V. Haynes, C. E. Tucker, S. H. Moseley, J. J. Bock, L. Rodriguez, “A low-background He-3 bolometer array test facility and its use in evaluating prototype arrays for FIRST-SPIRE,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 444, 427–431 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. D.

J. J. Bock, H. M. Del Castillo, A. D. Turner, J. W. Beeman, A. E. Lange, P. D. Mauskopf, “Infrared bolometers with silicon nitride micromesh absorbers,” in Submillimetre and Far-Infrared Space Instrumentation, Proceedings of the 30th Embedded Systems Laboratory, ESA SP-388 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1996).

Vanderpoorten, W.

P. deMoor, J. Wouters, F. Vanovermeire, N. Coron, J. Camps, P. deMarcillac, G. Jegoudez, J. Leblanc, P. Schuurmans, N. Severijns, W. Vanderpoorten, L. Vanneste, “Enhanced performance of a bolometric detector at mK temperatures in high magnetic fields,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 93, 295–300 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vanneste, L.

P. deMoor, J. Wouters, F. Vanovermeire, N. Coron, J. Camps, P. deMarcillac, G. Jegoudez, J. Leblanc, P. Schuurmans, N. Severijns, W. Vanderpoorten, L. Vanneste, “Enhanced performance of a bolometric detector at mK temperatures in high magnetic fields,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 93, 295–300 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vanovermeire, F.

P. deMoor, J. Wouters, F. Vanovermeire, N. Coron, J. Camps, P. deMarcillac, G. Jegoudez, J. Leblanc, P. Schuurmans, N. Severijns, W. Vanderpoorten, L. Vanneste, “Enhanced performance of a bolometric detector at mK temperatures in high magnetic fields,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 93, 295–300 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vigroux, L.

M. J. Griffin, B. M. Swinyard, L. Vigroux, “The SPIRE instrument for FIRST,” in UV, Optical, and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jakobsen, eds., Proc. SPIE4013, 184–195 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, G.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. J. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Schaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/TopHat program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Winant, C. D.

A. T. Lee, P. Ade, A. Balbi, J. Bock, J. Borrill, A. Boscaleri, B. P. Crill, P. de Bernardis, H. Del Castillo, P. Ferreira, K. Ganga, S. Hanany, V. Hrsitov, A. H. Jaffe, A. E. Lange, P. Mauskopf, C. B. Netterfield, S. Oh, E. Pascale, B. Rabii, P. L. Richards, J. Ruhl, G. F. Smoot, C. D. Winant, “MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background,” 3 K Cosmology: EC-TMR Conference, L. Maiani, F. Melchiorri, N. Vittorio eds., Rep. 476 (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), p. 224.

Wouters, J.

P. deMoor, J. Wouters, F. Vanovermeire, N. Coron, J. Camps, P. deMarcillac, G. Jegoudez, J. Leblanc, P. Schuurmans, N. Severijns, W. Vanderpoorten, L. Vanneste, “Enhanced performance of a bolometric detector at mK temperatures in high magnetic fields,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 93, 295–300 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, J.

J. Yoon, J. Clarke, J. M. Gildemeister, A. T. Lee, M. J. Myers, P. L. Richards, J. T. Skidmore, “Single superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for arrays of low-temperature sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 371–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zammit, C. C.

P. Stefanyi, C. C. Zammit, R. Rentzsch, P. Fozooni, J. Saunders, M. T. Lea, “Development of a Si bolometer for dark matter detection,” Physica B 194, 161–162 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J. W.

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. J. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Schaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/TopHat program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Zmuidzinas, J.

J. J. Bock, H. G. LeDuc, A. E. Lange, J. Zmuidzinas, “A monolithic bolometer array suitable for FIRST,” in The Far Infrared and Submillimetre Universe, Proceedings of the ESA Symposium, ESA SP-401 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 1997).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. A. Chervenak, K. D. Irwin, E. N. Grossman, J. M. Martinis, C. D. Reintsema, M. E. Huber, “Superconducting multiplexer for arrays of transition edge sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4043–4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Yoon, J. Clarke, J. M. Gildemeister, A. T. Lee, M. J. Myers, P. L. Richards, J. T. Skidmore, “Single superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer for arrays of low-temperature sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 371–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Irwin, “An application of electrothermal feedback for high-resolution cryogenic particle detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1998–2000 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Lee, P. L. Richards, S. W. Nam, B. Cabrera, K. D. Irwin, “A superconducting bolometer with strong electrothermal feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1801–1803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Holmes, J. M. Gildemeister, P. L. Richards, V. Kotsubo, “Measurements of thermal transport in low stress silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2250–2252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. Lett. Commun. (1)

M. S. Kowitt, E. S. Cheng, D. A. Cottingham, K. Farooqui, D. J. Fixen, K. Ganga, C. A. Inman, S. S. Meyer, L. A. Page, L. Piccirillo, J. L. Puchalla, J. Ruhl, R. K. Schaefer, R. F. Silverberg, P. T. Timbie, G. Wilson, J. W. Zhou, “The MSAM/TopHat program of anisotropy measurements,” Astrophys. Lett. Commun. 32, 273–281 (1995).

Infrared Phys. (1)

E. E. Haller, “Physics and design of advanced IR bolometers and photoconductors,” Infrared Phys. 25, 257–266 (1985).
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Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Array of micromesh bolometers designed for photometry at λ = 350 µm. Each device has a 725-µm-diameter absorber with a grid spacing of 72.5 µm and a filling factor of 0.077. The absorber is suspended by five 5-µm-wide, 240-µm-long support legs. The thermistors are placed to one side of the absorber and read out with two leads deposited on a single, 18-µm-wide support member. The pixel spacing is 1.75 mm to allow the array to be tested with 1fλ or 2fλ f/5 feeds, although only the 2fλ feeds were eventually tested in a 19-element format.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative trade-offs in the mapping speed, background-limited NEP, number of detectors and jitter positions, and detector throughput for 1fλ, 1.4fλ, and 2fλ feedhorn-coupled arrays and 0.5fλ bare arrays. Feedhorn-coupled arrays have slightly lower mapping speeds than a bare array and require jittering, but have higher background NEPs, fewer pixels, and less sensitivity to instrumental radiation. We assume a focal ratio at the detector of f/5 in calculating the detector throughput for bare pixels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Variation of resistance with temperature is displayed for selected channels. (b) The distribution of the fitted parameters R 0 and Δ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Variation of the electrical power with bolometer temperature, derived from dark load curves and R 0, Δ parameters, is displayed for selected channels. (b) The distribution of the fitted parameters G 0 and β.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Determination of the thermal conductance as a function of temperature derived from load curves taken over a range of baseplate temperatures, as denoted.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Detector speed of response measured by signal amplitude to a chopped source as a function of modulation frequency. The curves are best-fit single-pole filter functions, A 0(1 + ω2τ2)-1/2, with the fitted amplitude and time constant.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured response to a chopped source as a function of bias. We applied a small correction for a 15% drift encountered during the measurements. Curves show calculated electrical responsivity derived from the detector load curve.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral response of detector system with Fourier-transform spectroscopy (dashed curve) and product of the spectra of the six spectral filter elements in the filter stack (solid curve). The fringes in the detector system are real and were later reduced when the cold optical cavity was blackened. The low-frequency leak at 22 cm-1 in the filter stack is eliminated by the 23.5-cm-1 waveguide cutoff.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Far-field beam patterns through the single-mode feedhorn and cold reimaging optics. The theoretical profile is calculated for the single-mode feed only and does not include the optics. The measured profiles show an asymmetric shoulder at ±5°, presumably because of the onset of the cold pupil stop.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of measured and predicted noise levels under dark and light conditions. We measured the NEP by averaging V n from 2 to 3 Hz and dividing by the electrical responsivity S e . The calculated NEP agrees closely with the measured value, with the largest discrepancy of ∼20% apparent under dark conditions. The NEP was also measured under dark conditions with the temperature of the focal plane increased (open circles) to match the detector responsivity at Q = 2.3 pW (open squares). The comparison of these two NEPs can be used to accurately determine the relative contributions of detector and photon noise.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Low-frequency noise spectra of three detectors acquired over 1280 s. A noise model including amplifier, Johnson noise in the thermistor and load resistor, phonon, and photon noise is plotted for each detector. The model does not include the postdemodulation 0.015-Hz high-pass filter incorporated in the lock-in amplifier. Traces are spaced by multiplicative factors of 10 and 100.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Parameters of the Bolometer Array

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Table 2 Thermal Heat Capacity Budget at T = 390 mKa

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Table 3 Average Detector Performancea

Equations (11)

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NEP=γ4kBT02G1/2,
τ=C/G11+,
Gabs=π2kB2/3e2n+1T/Z0=1.3×10-10T W/K.
Cabs/σ=2n+1/Z0CVρ,
τth=fthCabs/Gabs=fthCVρ/T6e2/2π2kB2σ,
εth=ΔToptΔTth=GthGopt=1+αsGsup/Gabs-1,
QBG=νIvλ2ηoptηbolηlyotΔvv,
NEFD=2hνQBG1/2AeffηoptηbolηapΔνν  ηlyotηap2ηbol1/2,
δF=NEFD2tNmapNpix1/2  MS-2,
R=R0 expΔ/T.
P=TcT GTdT,

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