Abstract

The in situ quantitative profiles of temperature and OH radical concentration in a postflame region of methane–air premixed counterflow flames were measured by wavelength modulation spectroscopy with a 1.5-µm external cavity diode laser. The second harmonic (2f) signal was generated from absorption by overtone vibrational–rotational transitions of OH: the Π3/2 (v′, v″) = (2, 0) P11.5e (ν 0 = 6421.35 cm-1) or the Π3/2 (v′, v″) = (3, 1) P5.5f (ν 0 = 6434.61 cm-1) transitions. The absorption occurred in the postflame region between methane–air premixed twin flames stabilized in a two-dimensional laminar counterflow burner (Tsuji burner) with a 60-mm line-of-sight path length. The temperature and OH concentration profiles at an equivalence ratio of ϕ = 0.85 were determined by least-squares fitting of theoretical 2f line shapes to the experimental counterparts and by calculation of the ratio of the line intensities of the two different OH transitions (two-line thermometry). The measured temperature and OH concentration profiles were cross checked by Rayleigh scattering thermometry, thermocouple measurements, and two-dimensional numerical prediction of premixed combustion by use of a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism. The measurements and the prediction showed reasonable agreement.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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2000 (2)

A. Goldman, R. R. Gamache, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, C. P. Rinsland, L. S. Rothman, “HITRAN partition functions and weighted transition-moments squared,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 455–486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Gustafsson, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, S. R. Svanberg, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy with blue diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3774–3780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (3)

A. Goldman, W. G. Schoenfeld, D. Goorvitch, C. Chackerian, H. Dothe, F. Mélen, M. C. Abrams, J. E. A. Selby, “Updated line parameters for OH X2Π–X2Π (v″, v′) transitions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 435–469 (1998).

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (4)

M. G. Allen, W. J. Kessler, “Simultaneous water vapor concentration and temperature measurements using 1.31 µm diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 483–488 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, M. E. Newfield, “Scanned- and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using multiplexed diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 489–493 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Nagali, S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, J. Segall, “Tunable diode-laser absorption measurements of methane at elevated temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4026–4032 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Miller, W. J. Kessler, M. G. Allen, “Diode laser-based air mass flux sensor for subsonic aeropropulsion inlets,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4905–4912 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

1993 (1)

1986 (1)

D. C. Fourguette, R. M. Zurn, M. B. Long, “Two-dimensional Rayleigh thermometry in a turbulent nonpremixed methane–hydrogen flame,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 44, 307–317 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

S. Rajan, J. R. Smith, G. D. Rambach, “Internal structure of a turbulent premixed flame using Rayleigh scattering,” Combust. Flame 57, 95–107 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

A. Goldman, “Line parameters for the atmospheric band system of OH,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2100–2101 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tsuji, “Counterflow diffusion flames,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 8, 93–119 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers: comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, M. C.

A. Goldman, W. G. Schoenfeld, D. Goorvitch, C. Chackerian, H. Dothe, F. Mélen, M. C. Abrams, J. E. A. Selby, “Updated line parameters for OH X2Π–X2Π (v″, v′) transitions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 435–469 (1998).

Aizawa, T.

Allen, M. G.

Alnis, J.

Arroyo, M. P.

Baer, D. S.

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, M. E. Newfield, “Scanned- and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using multiplexed diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 489–493 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Nagali, S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, J. Segall, “Tunable diode-laser absorption measurements of methane at elevated temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4026–4032 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Advanced diode laser absorption sensor for in situ combustion measurements of CO2, H2O, and temperature,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 95–101.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Caracotsios, M.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, oppdif: a program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames, chemkin Collection, Release 3.5 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Chackerian, C.

A. Goldman, W. G. Schoenfeld, D. Goorvitch, C. Chackerian, H. Dothe, F. Mélen, M. C. Abrams, J. E. A. Selby, “Updated line parameters for OH X2Π–X2Π (v″, v′) transitions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 435–469 (1998).

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. I.

Coltrin, M. E.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, oppdif: a program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames, chemkin Collection, Release 3.5 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Crosley, D. R.

D. R. Crosley, “The measurement of OH and HO2 in the atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 3299–3314 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dibble, R. W.

R. W. Dibble, R. E. Hollenbach, “Laser Rayleigh thermometry in turbulent flames,” in Proceedings of the Eighteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1981), pp. 1489–1499.
[CrossRef]

Dixon-Lewis, G.

R. J. Kee, J. A. Miller, G. H. Evans, G. Dixon-Lewis, “A computational model of the structure and extinction of strained, opposed flow, premixed methane–air flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 1479–1494.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, oppdif: a program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames, chemkin Collection, Release 3.5 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Dothe, H.

A. Goldman, W. G. Schoenfeld, D. Goorvitch, C. Chackerian, H. Dothe, F. Mélen, M. C. Abrams, J. E. A. Selby, “Updated line parameters for OH X2Π–X2Π (v″, v′) transitions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 435–469 (1998).

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Evans, G. H.

R. J. Kee, J. A. Miller, G. H. Evans, G. Dixon-Lewis, “A computational model of the structure and extinction of strained, opposed flow, premixed methane–air flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 1479–1494.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, oppdif: a program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames, chemkin Collection, Release 3.5 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Flaud, J.-M.

A. Goldman, R. R. Gamache, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, C. P. Rinsland, L. S. Rothman, “HITRAN partition functions and weighted transition-moments squared,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 455–486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fourguette, D. C.

D. C. Fourguette, R. M. Zurn, M. B. Long, “Two-dimensional Rayleigh thermometry in a turbulent nonpremixed methane–hydrogen flame,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 44, 307–317 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Furlong, E. R.

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, M. E. Newfield, “Scanned- and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using multiplexed diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 489–493 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

A. Goldman, R. R. Gamache, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, C. P. Rinsland, L. S. Rothman, “HITRAN partition functions and weighted transition-moments squared,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 455–486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glarborg, P.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, oppdif: a program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames, chemkin Collection, Release 3.5 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Goldman, A.

A. Goldman, R. R. Gamache, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, C. P. Rinsland, L. S. Rothman, “HITRAN partition functions and weighted transition-moments squared,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 455–486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Goldman, W. G. Schoenfeld, D. Goorvitch, C. Chackerian, H. Dothe, F. Mélen, M. C. Abrams, J. E. A. Selby, “Updated line parameters for OH X2Π–X2Π (v″, v′) transitions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 435–469 (1998).

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Goldman, “Line parameters for the atmospheric band system of OH,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2100–2101 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Goldman (goldman@acd.ucar.edu), Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Denver, Denver, Colo. 80208 (personal communication, 2000).

Goorvitch, D.

A. Goldman, W. G. Schoenfeld, D. Goorvitch, C. Chackerian, H. Dothe, F. Mélen, M. C. Abrams, J. E. A. Selby, “Updated line parameters for OH X2Π–X2Π (v″, v′) transitions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 435–469 (1998).

Grcar, J. F.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, oppdif: a program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames, chemkin Collection, Release 3.5 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Greenberg, P. S.

Gustafsson, U.

Hanson, R. K.

V. Nagali, S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, J. Segall, “Tunable diode-laser absorption measurements of methane at elevated temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4026–4032 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, M. E. Newfield, “Scanned- and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using multiplexed diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 489–493 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Arroyo, R. K. Hanson, “Absorption measurements of water-vapor concentration, temperature, and line-shape parameters using a tunable InGaAsP diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6104–6116 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Advanced diode laser absorption sensor for in situ combustion measurements of CO2, H2O, and temperature,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 95–101.

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Spectra of Diatomic Molecules, Vol. 1 of Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure Series (Van Nostrand, New York, 1950).

Hollenbach, R. E.

R. W. Dibble, R. E. Hollenbach, “Laser Rayleigh thermometry in turbulent flames,” in Proceedings of the Eighteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1981), pp. 1489–1499.
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kamimoto, T.

Kane, D. J.

Kee, R. J.

R. J. Kee, J. A. Miller, G. H. Evans, G. Dixon-Lewis, “A computational model of the structure and extinction of strained, opposed flow, premixed methane–air flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 1479–1494.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, oppdif: a program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames, chemkin Collection, Release 3.5 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Kessler, W. J.

M. F. Miller, W. J. Kessler, M. G. Allen, “Diode laser-based air mass flux sensor for subsonic aeropropulsion inlets,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4905–4912 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Allen, W. J. Kessler, “Simultaneous water vapor concentration and temperature measurements using 1.31 µm diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 483–488 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Labrie, D.

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers: comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Larson, R. S.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, oppdif: a program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames, chemkin Collection, Release 3.5 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Long, M. B.

D. C. Fourguette, R. M. Zurn, M. B. Long, “Two-dimensional Rayleigh thermometry in a turbulent nonpremixed methane–hydrogen flame,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 44, 307–317 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lutz, A. E.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, oppdif: a program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames, chemkin Collection, Release 3.5 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meeks, E.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, oppdif: a program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames, chemkin Collection, Release 3.5 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Mélen, F.

A. Goldman, W. G. Schoenfeld, D. Goorvitch, C. Chackerian, H. Dothe, F. Mélen, M. C. Abrams, J. E. A. Selby, “Updated line parameters for OH X2Π–X2Π (v″, v′) transitions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 435–469 (1998).

Mihalcea, R. M.

R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Advanced diode laser absorption sensor for in situ combustion measurements of CO2, H2O, and temperature,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), pp. 95–101.

Miller, J. A.

R. J. Kee, J. A. Miller, G. H. Evans, G. Dixon-Lewis, “A computational model of the structure and extinction of strained, opposed flow, premixed methane–air flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 1479–1494.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, oppdif: a program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames, chemkin Collection, Release 3.5 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Miller, M. F.

Mitchell, R. E.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, oppdif: a program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames, chemkin Collection, Release 3.5 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Moffat, H. K.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, oppdif: a program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames, chemkin Collection, Release 3.5 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Müller-Dethlefs, K.

K. Müller-Dethlefs, F. J. Weinberg, “Burning velocity measurement based on laser Rayleigh scattering,” in Proceedings of the Seventeenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1979), pp. 985–992.
[CrossRef]

Nagali, V.

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, M. E. Newfield, “Scanned- and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using multiplexed diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 489–493 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Nagali, S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, J. Segall, “Tunable diode-laser absorption measurements of methane at elevated temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4026–4032 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Newfield, M. E.

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, M. E. Newfield, “Scanned- and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using multiplexed diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 489–493 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oh, D. B.

D. B. Oh, M. E. Paige, A. C. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Quantitative, in situ monitoring of combustion radicals using visible and near-infrared diode lasers and high frequency wavelength-modulation spectroscopy,” presented at the Fall Meeting of the Western States Section of the Combustion Institute (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif., 1996), paper 96F-084.

Paige, M. E.

D. B. Oh, M. E. Paige, A. C. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Quantitative, in situ monitoring of combustion radicals using visible and near-infrared diode lasers and high frequency wavelength-modulation spectroscopy,” presented at the Fall Meeting of the Western States Section of the Combustion Institute (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif., 1996), paper 96F-084.

Perrin, A.

A. Goldman, R. R. Gamache, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, C. P. Rinsland, L. S. Rothman, “HITRAN partition functions and weighted transition-moments squared,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 455–486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, L. R.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, oppdif: a program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames, chemkin Collection, Release 3.5 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Rajan, S.

S. Rajan, J. R. Smith, G. D. Rambach, “Internal structure of a turbulent premixed flame using Rayleigh scattering,” Combust. Flame 57, 95–107 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rambach, G. D.

S. Rajan, J. R. Smith, G. D. Rambach, “Internal structure of a turbulent premixed flame using Rayleigh scattering,” Combust. Flame 57, 95–107 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J.

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers: comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, W. C.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, oppdif: a program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames, chemkin Collection, Release 3.5 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Rinsland, C. P.

A. Goldman, R. R. Gamache, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, C. P. Rinsland, L. S. Rothman, “HITRAN partition functions and weighted transition-moments squared,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 455–486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

A. Goldman, R. R. Gamache, A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, C. P. Rinsland, L. S. Rothman, “HITRAN partition functions and weighted transition-moments squared,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 455–486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rupley, F. M.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, oppdif: a program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames, chemkin Collection, Release 3.5 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Schoenfeld, W. G.

A. Goldman, W. G. Schoenfeld, D. Goorvitch, C. Chackerian, H. Dothe, F. Mélen, M. C. Abrams, J. E. A. Selby, “Updated line parameters for OH X2Π–X2Π (v″, v′) transitions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 435–469 (1998).

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Segall, J.

Selby, J. E. A.

A. Goldman, W. G. Schoenfeld, D. Goorvitch, C. Chackerian, H. Dothe, F. Mélen, M. C. Abrams, J. E. A. Selby, “Updated line parameters for OH X2Π–X2Π (v″, v′) transitions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 435–469 (1998).

Silver, J. A.

J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, P. S. Greenberg, “Quantitative species measurements in microgravity flames with near-IR diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2787–2801 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Oh, M. E. Paige, A. C. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Quantitative, in situ monitoring of combustion radicals using visible and near-infrared diode lasers and high frequency wavelength-modulation spectroscopy,” presented at the Fall Meeting of the Western States Section of the Combustion Institute (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif., 1996), paper 96F-084.

Smith, J. R.

S. Rajan, J. R. Smith, G. D. Rambach, “Internal structure of a turbulent premixed flame using Rayleigh scattering,” Combust. Flame 57, 95–107 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Smooke, M. D.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, oppdif: a program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames, chemkin Collection, Release 3.5 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Somesfalean, G.

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

Stanton, A. C.

D. B. Oh, M. E. Paige, A. C. Stanton, J. A. Silver, “Quantitative, in situ monitoring of combustion radicals using visible and near-infrared diode lasers and high frequency wavelength-modulation spectroscopy,” presented at the Fall Meeting of the Western States Section of the Combustion Institute (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif., 1996), paper 96F-084.

Stewart, W. E.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, oppdif: a program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames, chemkin Collection, Release 3.5 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Svanberg, S. R.

Tamaru, T.

Tsuji, H.

H. Tsuji, “Counterflow diffusion flames,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 8, 93–119 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuji, I. Yamaoka, “Structure analysis of counterflow diffusion flames in the forward stagnation region of a porous cylinder,” in Proceedings of the Thirteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1971), pp. 723–731.
[CrossRef]

Upschulte, B. L.

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Warnatz, J.

R. J. Kee, F. M. Rupley, J. A. Miller, M. E. Coltrin, J. F. Grcar, E. Meeks, H. K. Moffat, A. E. Lutz, G. Dixon-Lewis, M. D. Smooke, J. Warnatz, G. H. Evans, R. S. Larson, R. E. Mitchell, L. R. Petzold, W. C. Reynolds, M. Caracotsios, W. E. Stewart, P. Glarborg, oppdif: a program for computing opposed-flow diffusion flames, chemkin Collection, Release 3.5 (Reaction Design, Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weinberg, F. J.

K. Müller-Dethlefs, F. J. Weinberg, “Burning velocity measurement based on laser Rayleigh scattering,” in Proceedings of the Seventeenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1979), pp. 985–992.
[CrossRef]

Yamaoka, I.

H. Tsuji, I. Yamaoka, “Structure analysis of counterflow diffusion flames in the forward stagnation region of a porous cylinder,” in Proceedings of the Thirteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1971), pp. 723–731.
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zurn, R. M.

D. C. Fourguette, R. M. Zurn, M. B. Long, “Two-dimensional Rayleigh thermometry in a turbulent nonpremixed methane–hydrogen flame,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 44, 307–317 (1986).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (2)

M. G. Allen, W. J. Kessler, “Simultaneous water vapor concentration and temperature measurements using 1.31 µm diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 483–488 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Baer, V. Nagali, E. R. Furlong, R. K. Hanson, M. E. Newfield, “Scanned- and fixed-wavelength absorption diagnostics for combustion measurements using multiplexed diode lasers,” AIAA J. 34, 489–493 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (9)

A. Goldman, “Line parameters for the atmospheric band system of OH,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2100–2101 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Arroyo, R. K. Hanson, “Absorption measurements of water-vapor concentration, temperature, and line-shape parameters using a tunable InGaAsP diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6104–6116 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, “Absorption measurements of the second overtone band of NO in ambient and combustion gases with a 1.8-µm room-temperature diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7970–7977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Upschulte, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, “Measurements of CO, CO2, OH, and H2O in room-temperature and combustion gases by use of a broadly current-tuned multisection InGaAsP diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1506–1512 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Silver, D. J. Kane, P. S. Greenberg, “Quantitative species measurements in microgravity flames with near-IR diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2787–2801 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Nagali, S. I. Chou, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, J. Segall, “Tunable diode-laser absorption measurements of methane at elevated temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4026–4032 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Miller, W. J. Kessler, M. G. Allen, “Diode laser-based air mass flux sensor for subsonic aeropropulsion inlets,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4905–4912 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Aizawa, T. Kamimoto, T. Tamaru, “Measurements of OH radical concentration in combustion environments by wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with a 1.55-µm distributed-feedback diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1733–1741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Gustafsson, G. Somesfalean, J. Alnis, S. R. Svanberg, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy with blue diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3774–3780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Reid, D. Labrie, “Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers: comparison of experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 203–210 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (1)

S. Rajan, J. R. Smith, G. D. Rambach, “Internal structure of a turbulent premixed flame using Rayleigh scattering,” Combust. Flame 57, 95–107 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (1)

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J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Variation of line intensities (top) and line intensity ratio (bottom) of two OH transitions with temperature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the partition functions predicted with the HITRAN96 database and the harmonic-oscillator rigid-rotor approximation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical setup for diode-laser absorption measurements: BS, beam splitters; PD, photodiodes; ECDL, external cavity diode laser; LPF, low-pass filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two-dimensional counterflow burner and positions of the laser beam.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Predicted line intensities and line intensity ratios for OH and H2O.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured 2f spectrum of (a) postflame gases of propane–air premixed counterflow twin flames at equivalence ratios of ϕ = 0.7–0.9 and (b) heated low-pressure water vapor at temperatures T = 800–1400 K.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

2f spectrum of two OH lines measured between methane–air premixed counterflow twin flames of equivalence ratio ϕ = 0.85: (a) line 1, Π3/2 (v′, v″) = (3, 1) P5.5f; (b) line 2, Π3/2(v′, v″) = (2, 0) P11.5e.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

2f spectrum of OH lines measured at the stagnation point between the methane–air premixed counterflow twin flames (solid curve) and multiline 2f fitting results (dashed curve).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Temperature and OH concentration profiles measured by diode-laser absorption spectroscopy with and without data correction (filled and open symbols), temperature measured by type-R thermocouple (triangles) and Rayleigh scattering thermometry (the ×), and results of numerical flame simulation (solid curves).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Geometry of numerical simulation of planar two-dimensional opposed-flow premixed flames.

Equations (7)

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ST=ST0QT0QTexp-hcEk1T-1T0×1-exphcE/kT1-exphcE/kT0,
RT=S1T/S2T,
νt=ν+Δν cosωmt,
τνt=k=0k=+ Hkν¯,Δν cos kωmt,
Hkν¯,Δν=1π-π+π τν¯+Δν cos u cos kudu k>0,
Y2ν¯=-C I0¯2 H2ν¯,Δν,
ΔνoptΔνHWHM=2.2.

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