Abstract

The potential of three-wavelength Raman-lidar observations for a detailed optical and physical characterization of atmospheric particles is exemplified through a case study of measurements from 9 August 1998 of the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment. Backscatter coefficients at 355, 532, and 1064 nm and extinction coefficients at 355 and 532 nm allow one to estimate the vertical profiles of the volume concentration distribution and the complex refractive index with an inversion scheme. Subsequently the single-scattering albedo is calculated.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  27. U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, V. Matthias, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, D. Althausen, “Characterization of optical and microphysical particle properties from multiwavelength lidar and airborne in situ measurements in biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).
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2001 (1)

2000 (3)

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of an Indian aerosol plume derived from 6-wavelength lidar observations on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

1998 (1)

1992 (2)

1990 (1)

1979 (2)

G. H. Golub, M. Heath, G. Wahba, “Generalized cross-validation as a method for choosing a good ridge parameter,” Technometrics 21, 215–223 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. Craven, G. Wahba, “Smoothing noisy data with spline functions: estimating the correct degree of smoothing by the method of generalized cross-validation,” Numer. Math. 31, 377–403 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1969 (2)

J. A. Cooney, J. Orr, C. Tomasetti, “Measurements separating the gaseous and aerosol components of laser atmospheric backscatter,” Nature (London) 224, 1098–1099 (1969).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Melfi, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295–297 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Abo, M.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Alpers, M.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Althausen, D.

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of an Indian aerosol plume derived from 6-wavelength lidar observations on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, K. Franke, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Comprehensive particle characterization with advanced aerosol lidar for climate impact studies,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, “Routine dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations at Leipzig as part of an aerosol lidar network in Germany,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, Annapolis, Md., U. N. Singh, S. Ismael, G. K. Schwemmer, eds. [NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI), Hanover, Md., 1998], pp. 29–32.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotava, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, V. Matthias, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, D. Althausen, “Characterization of optical and microphysical particle properties from multiwavelength lidar and airborne in situ measurements in biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Ansmann, A.

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of an Indian aerosol plume derived from 6-wavelength lidar observations on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2358–2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, “Routine dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations at Leipzig as part of an aerosol lidar network in Germany,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, Annapolis, Md., U. N. Singh, S. Ismael, G. K. Schwemmer, eds. [NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI), Hanover, Md., 1998], pp. 29–32.

D. Müller, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, K. Franke, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Comprehensive particle characterization with advanced aerosol lidar for climate impact studies,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, U. Leiterer, “Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment LACE 98: overview,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Aoki, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Arao, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Arshinov, Y.

Baldasano, J. M.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

Balis, D.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

Bisson, S. E.

Blair, F. H.

Bobrovnikov, S.

Böckmann, C.

C. Böckmann, “Hybrid regularization method for the ill-posed inversion of multiwavelength lidar data in the retrieval of aerosol size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1329–1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, V. Matthias, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, D. Althausen, “Characterization of optical and microphysical particle properties from multiwavelength lidar and airborne in situ measurements in biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Bösenberg, J.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Brasseur, L. A.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, T. P. Tooman, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (to be published).

Calpini, B.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

Cess, R. D.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaikovsky, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

Charlson, R. J.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clauder, E.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Coakley, J. A.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooney, J. A.

J. A. Cooney, J. Orr, C. Tomasetti, “Measurements separating the gaseous and aerosol components of laser atmospheric backscatter,” Nature (London) 224, 1098–1099 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Craven, P.

P. Craven, G. Wahba, “Smoothing noisy data with spline functions: estimating the correct degree of smoothing by the method of generalized cross-validation,” Numer. Math. 31, 377–403 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Dubovik, O.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, L. A. Heilman, W. F. Feltz, O. Dubovik, T. P. Tooman, “Raman lidar measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Ebert, M.

M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, S. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties, applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Eixmann, R.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Feltz, W. F.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, T. P. Tooman, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (to be published).

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, L. A. Heilman, W. F. Feltz, O. Dubovik, T. P. Tooman, “Raman lidar measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Ferrare, R. A.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, L. A. Heilman, W. F. Feltz, O. Dubovik, T. P. Tooman, “Raman lidar measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, T. P. Tooman, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (to be published).

Fiebig, M.

M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, S. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties, applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, V. Matthias, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, D. Althausen, “Characterization of optical and microphysical particle properties from multiwavelength lidar and airborne in situ measurements in biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Flamant, P.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

Forster, C.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotava, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Franke, A.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Franke, K.

D. Müller, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, K. Franke, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Comprehensive particle characterization with advanced aerosol lidar for climate impact studies,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

Freudenthaler, V.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Giehl, H.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Gleason, J. F.

N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, J. F. Gleason, O. Torres, C. J. Seftor, “Satellite detection of smoke aerosols over a snow/ice surface by TOMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1165–1168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

Golub, G. H.

G. H. Golub, M. Heath, G. Wahba, “Generalized cross-validation as a method for choosing a good ridge parameter,” Technometrics 21, 215–223 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hågård, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

Hagiwara, N.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Hales, J. M.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, J. E.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heath, M.

G. H. Golub, M. Heath, G. Wahba, “Generalized cross-validation as a method for choosing a good ridge parameter,” Technometrics 21, 215–223 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Heilman, L. A.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, L. A. Heilman, W. F. Feltz, O. Dubovik, T. P. Tooman, “Raman lidar measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Herman, J. R.

N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, J. F. Gleason, O. Torres, C. J. Seftor, “Satellite detection of smoke aerosols over a snow/ice surface by TOMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1165–1168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, N. C.

N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, J. F. Gleason, O. Torres, C. J. Seftor, “Satellite detection of smoke aerosols over a snow/ice surface by TOMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1165–1168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Hube, H.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Iokibe, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Iwasaka, Y.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Jäger, H.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotava, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

James, P.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotava, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Jennings, S. G.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotava, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Kiemle, C.

M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, S. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties, applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Kinoshita, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Kleefeld, C.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotava, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Koga, R.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Kreipl, S.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotava, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Leiterer, U.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, U. Leiterer, “Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment LACE 98: overview,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, S. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties, applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Li, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Linné, H.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Liu, Z.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Matsui, I.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Matthias, V.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, V. Matthias, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, D. Althausen, “Characterization of optical and microphysical particle properties from multiwavelength lidar and airborne in situ measurements in biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Mattis, I.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotava, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, “Routine dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations at Leipzig as part of an aerosol lidar network in Germany,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, Annapolis, Md., U. N. Singh, S. Ismael, G. K. Schwemmer, eds. [NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI), Hanover, Md., 1998], pp. 29–32.

Melfi, S. H.

S. H. Melfi, “Remote measurements of the atmosphere using Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1605–1610 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Melfi, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295–297 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Michaelis, W.

Mitev, V.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

Müller, D.

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of an Indian aerosol plume derived from 6-wavelength lidar observations on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2358–2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, K. Franke, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Comprehensive particle characterization with advanced aerosol lidar for climate impact studies,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, “Routine dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations at Leipzig as part of an aerosol lidar network in Germany,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, Annapolis, Md., U. N. Singh, S. Ismael, G. K. Schwemmer, eds. [NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI), Hanover, Md., 1998], pp. 29–32.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, V. Matthias, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, D. Althausen, “Characterization of optical and microphysical particle properties from multiwavelength lidar and airborne in situ measurements in biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Murayama, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

O’Doherty, S.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotava, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Orr, J.

J. A. Cooney, J. Orr, C. Tomasetti, “Measurements separating the gaseous and aerosol components of laser atmospheric backscatter,” Nature (London) 224, 1098–1099 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Papayannis, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

Pelon, J.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

Petzold, A.

M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, S. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties, applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Resendes, D.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

Riebesell, M.

Rother, T.

M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, S. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties, applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Sakai, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Sarközi, J.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Schneidenbach, L.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Schneider, J.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotava, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

Schwartz, S. E.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seftor, C. J.

N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, J. F. Gleason, O. Torres, C. J. Seftor, “Satellite detection of smoke aerosols over a snow/ice surface by TOMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1165–1168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Shon, B.-J.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Simmonds, P.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotava, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Spinelli, N.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

Stifter, S.

M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, S. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties, applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Stohl, A.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, V. Matthias, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, D. Althausen, “Characterization of optical and microphysical particle properties from multiwavelength lidar and airborne in situ measurements in biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotava, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Sugimoto, N.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Tomasetti, C.

J. A. Cooney, J. Orr, C. Tomasetti, “Measurements separating the gaseous and aerosol components of laser atmospheric backscatter,” Nature (London) 224, 1098–1099 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Tooman, T. P.

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, L. A. Heilman, W. F. Feltz, O. Dubovik, T. P. Tooman, “Raman lidar measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, T. P. Tooman, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (to be published).

Torres, O.

N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, J. F. Gleason, O. Torres, C. J. Seftor, “Satellite detection of smoke aerosols over a snow/ice surface by TOMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1165–1168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trickl, T.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotava, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Turner, D. D.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, F. H. Blair, S. E. Bisson, D. D. Turner, “Turnkey Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4979–4990 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, L. A. Heilman, W. F. Feltz, O. Dubovik, T. P. Tooman, “Raman lidar measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, T. P. Tooman, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (to be published).

Uno, I.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Vaughan, G.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

Visconti, G.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

von Hoyningen-Huene, W.

Vorobieva, E.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Wagner, F.

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of an Indian aerosol plume derived from 6-wavelength lidar observations on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, K. Franke, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Comprehensive particle characterization with advanced aerosol lidar for climate impact studies,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

Wahba, G.

G. H. Golub, M. Heath, G. Wahba, “Generalized cross-validation as a method for choosing a good ridge parameter,” Technometrics 21, 215–223 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. Craven, G. Wahba, “Smoothing noisy data with spline functions: estimating the correct degree of smoothing by the method of generalized cross-validation,” Numer. Math. 31, 377–403 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of an Indian aerosol plume derived from 6-wavelength lidar observations on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2358–2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotava, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, “Routine dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations at Leipzig as part of an aerosol lidar network in Germany,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, Annapolis, Md., U. N. Singh, S. Ismael, G. K. Schwemmer, eds. [NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI), Hanover, Md., 1998], pp. 29–32.

D. Müller, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, K. Franke, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Comprehensive particle characterization with advanced aerosol lidar for climate impact studies,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, U. Leiterer, “Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment LACE 98: overview,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, S. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties, applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, V. Matthias, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, D. Althausen, “Characterization of optical and microphysical particle properties from multiwavelength lidar and airborne in situ measurements in biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Weiss, V.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, V. Matthias, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, D. Althausen, “Characterization of optical and microphysical particle properties from multiwavelength lidar and airborne in situ measurements in biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Weitkamp, C.

Wendisch, M.

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, V. Matthias, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, D. Althausen, “Characterization of optical and microphysical particle properties from multiwavelength lidar and airborne in situ measurements in biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, S. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties, applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Wiedensohler, A.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, U. Leiterer, “Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment LACE 98: overview,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Wiegner, M.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

Won, J.-G.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Wotava, G.

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotava, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Yoon, S.-C.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Zhou, J.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Zörner, S.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

S. H. Melfi, “Remote measurements of the atmosphere using Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1605–1610 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, F. H. Blair, S. E. Bisson, D. D. Turner, “Turnkey Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4979–4990 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2358–2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, “Use of a Fabry–Perot interferometer to isolate pure rotational Raman spectra of diatomic molecules,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4635–4638 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, “Hybrid regularization method for the ill-posed inversion of multiwavelength lidar data in the retrieval of aerosol size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1329–1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. H. Melfi, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295–297 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of an Indian aerosol plume derived from 6-wavelength lidar observations on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Hsu, J. R. Herman, J. F. Gleason, O. Torres, C. J. Seftor, “Satellite detection of smoke aerosols over a snow/ice surface by TOMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1165–1168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

J. A. Cooney, J. Orr, C. Tomasetti, “Measurements separating the gaseous and aerosol components of laser atmospheric backscatter,” Nature (London) 224, 1098–1099 (1969).
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Science (1)

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, D. J. Hofmann, “Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols,” Science 255, 423–430 (1992).
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Other (16)

C. Forster, U. Wandinger, G. Wotava, P. James, I. Mattis, D. Althausen, P. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, S. G. Jennings, C. Kleefeld, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, S. Kreipl, H. Jäger, A. Stohl, “Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

D. Müller, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, K. Franke, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Comprehensive particle characterization with advanced aerosol lidar for climate impact studies,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

A. N. Tikhonov, V. Y. Arsenin, eds., Solution of Ill-Posed Problems (Wiley, New York, 1977).

S. Twomey, ed., Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion in Remote Sensing and Indirect Measurements (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977).

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, U. Leiterer, “Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment LACE 98: overview,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, V. Matthias, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, D. Althausen, “Characterization of optical and microphysical particle properties from multiwavelength lidar and airborne in situ measurements in biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” (Max Planck Institute for Meterology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere. Selected Papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, A. Dabas, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, 2001).

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in East Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, T. P. Tooman, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (to be published).

R. A. Ferrare, D. D. Turner, L. A. Heilman, W. F. Feltz, O. Dubovik, T. P. Tooman, “Raman lidar measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio over the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, “Routine dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations at Leipzig as part of an aerosol lidar network in Germany,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, Annapolis, Md., U. N. Singh, S. Ismael, G. K. Schwemmer, eds. [NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI), Hanover, Md., 1998], pp. 29–32.

R. J. Charlson, J. Heintzenberg, eds., Aerosol Forcing of Climate (Wiley, Chichester, 1995).

P. V. Hobbs, B. J. Huebert, eds., Atmospheric Aerosols. A New Focus of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) (IGAC Core Project Office, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1996).

M. Fiebig, A. Petzold, U. Wandinger, M. Wendisch, C. Kiemle, S. Stifter, M. Ebert, T. Rother, U. Leiterer, “Optical closure for an aerosol column: method, accuracy, and inferable properties, applied to a biomass-burning aerosol and its radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Particle backscatter coefficient at 532 nm determined with the Raman method. The height resolution is 180 m. The error bars denote the sum of statistical and systematic errors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral backscatter and extinction coefficients: ●, backscatter coefficients at the Raman-lidar wavelengths; ○, additional information from the six-wavelength aerosol lidar; ◆, extinction coefficients. The error bars represent the sum of statistical and systematic uncertainty.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Solution space for the complex refractive index from the inversion of (a) six backscatter and two extinction coefficients and (b) three backscatter and two extinction coefficients. The gray scale bar denotes the relative percentage of solutions for the respective complex refractive index.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Particle Parameters from the Inversion of Three Backscatter and Two Extinction Coefficients and Six Backscatter and Two Extinction Coefficientsa

Equations (5)

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βλ=0 Kβr, m, λ, s34r vrdr,
αλ=0 Kαr, m, λ, s34r vrdr,
gp=j Apjmwj+p, p=1  n, j=1  o,
Apjm=rminrmax Kpr, mBjrdr.
g=Aw+.

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