Abstract

High-quality single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) tunable signal radiation is generated by a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a compact, inexpensive multimode laser. The OPO is based on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) in a ring cavity that is injection seeded at its resonated signal wavelength by a single-mode tunable diode laser. Accurate control of the OPO cavity length and crystal temperature ensures a continuously tunable SLM signal output frequency range of >7.5 THz (>250 cm-1); the corresponding idler output remains multimode. High-resolution molecular spectra are recorded to verify OPO performance at wavelengths of ∼1.55 µm. The observed signal optical bandwidth of ≤120 MHz (≤0.0040 cm-1) compares favorably with that of a more elaborate PPLN OPO system pumped by a pulsed single-mode laser.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. L. Byer, “Parametric oscillators,” in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1973), pp. 77–101.
  2. R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric oscillators,” in Quantum Electronics: a Treatise, Vol. 1, Nonlinear Optics, Part B, H. Rabin, C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), pp. 587–702.
  3. R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, “Parametric oscillation and mixing,” in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y.-R. Shen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 81–137.
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. J. Brosnan, R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415–431 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, “The optical parametric oscillators of beta-bariumborate and lithiumborate: new sources of powerful tunable laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared,” Laser Optoelectron. 23 (3), 106–110 (1991).
  6. C. L. Tang, W. R. Bosenberg, T. Ukachi, R. J. Lane, L. K. Cheng, “Optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 80, 365–374 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. J. Orr, M. J. Johnson, J. G. Haub, “Spectroscopic applications of pulsed tunable optical parametric oscillators,” in Tunable Laser Applications, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 2, pp. 11–82.
  8. N. P. Barnes, “Optical parametric oscillators,” in Tunable Lasers Handbook, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995), Chap. 7, pp. 293–348.
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzayan, D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. R. Bosenberg, D. R. Guyer, “Broadly tunable, single-frequency optical parametric frequency-conversion system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1716–1722 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled lithium niobate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2102–2116 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. G. Haub, R. M. Hentschel, M. J. Johnson, B. J. Orr, “Controlling the performance of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator: a survey of techniques and spectroscopic applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2128–2141 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. V. Smith, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, M. S. Bowers, “Comparison of a numerical model with measured performance of a seeded, nanosecond KTP optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2253–2267 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. M. Boon-Engering, W. E. van der Veer, J. W. Gerritsen, W. Hogervorst, “Bandwidth studies of an injection-seeded β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 20, 380–382 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. F. Plusquellic, O. Votava, D. J. Nesbitt, “Absolute frequency stabilization of an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1464–1472 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. O. Votava, J. R. Fair, D. F. Plusquellic, E. Riedle, D. J. Nesbitt, “High-resolution vibrational overtone studies of HOD and H2O with single-mode, injection-seeded ring optical parametric oscillators,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8854–8865 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Borsutzky, “Frequency control of pulsed optical parametric oscillators,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9, 191–207 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. W. Baxter, H.-D. Barth, B. J. Orr, “Laser spectroscopy with a pulsed, narrowband infrared optical parametric oscillator system: a practical, modular approach,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 653–657 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. W. Baxter, Y. He, B. J. Orr, “A pulsed optical parametric oscillator system, based on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 753–756 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. He, G. W. Baxter, B. J. Orr, “Locking the cavity of a pulsed periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator to the wavelength of a continuous-wave injection seeder by an ‘intensity-dip’ method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3203–3213 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. Ehret, A. Fix, V. Weiss, G. Poberaj, T. Baumert, “Diode-laser-seeded optical parametric oscillator for airborne water vapor DIAL application in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 427–431 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. F. Nibler, B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 651–663 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).
  26. A. Agnesi, E. Piccinini, G. C. Reali, C. Solcia, “Efficient all-solid-state tunable source based on a passively Q-switched high-power Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 303–305 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C.-S. Yu, A. H. Kung, “Grazing-incidence periodically poled LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2233–2238 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. T. Yang, S. P. Velsko, “Frequency-agile kilohertz repetition-rate optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 24, 133–135 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. Karlsson, M. Olson, G. Arvidsson, F. Laurell, U. Bäder, A. Borsutzky, R. Wallenstein, S. Wickström, M. Gustafsson, “Nanosecond optical parametric oscillator based on large-aperture periodically poled RbTiOAsO4,” Opt. Lett. 24, 330–332 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. S. Conroy, C. F. Rae, M. H. Dunn, B. D. Sinclair, J. M. Ley, “Compact, actively Q-switched optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1614–1616 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  31. G. W. Baxter, P. Schlup, I. T. McKinnie, “Efficient, single-frequency, high-repetition-rate, PPLN OPO pumped by a prelase Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 301–304 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  32. Y. He, B. J. Orr, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: new approaches and outcomes,” J. Chinese Chem. Soc. (to be published).
  33. S. E. Harris, “Tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 57, 2096–2113 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  34. G. W. Baxter, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillators for spectroscopy,” PhD dissertation (Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, 1998).
  35. J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97, 25–51 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. K. W. Busch, M. A. Busch, ed., Cavity-Ringdown Spectroscopy—An Ultratrace-Absorption Measurement Technique, ACS Symposium Series 720 (Oxford University, New York, 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  37. J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  38. J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS) in low pressure flames,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 699–705 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  39. D. Voelkel, Yu. L. Chuzavkov, J. Marquez, S. N. Orlov, Yu. N. Polivanov, V. V. Smirnov, F. Huisken, “Infrared degenerate four-wave mixing and resonance-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in molecular gases and free jets,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 93–99 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  40. L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  41. L. S. Rothman, R. L. Hawkins, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, “Energy levels, intensities, and linewidths of atmospheric carbon dioxide bands,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 537–566 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  42. Y. He, B. J. Orr, “Ringdown and cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous-wave tunable diode laser and a rapidly swept optical cavity,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 131–137 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  43. Y. He, B. J. Orr, “Optical heterodyne signal generation and detection in cavity ringdown spectroscopy based on a rapidly swept cavity,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 335, 215–217 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  44. Q. Kou, G. Guelachvili, M. Abboutti Temsamani, M. Herman, “The absorption spectrum of C2H2 around ν1 + ν3: energy standards in the 1.5-µm region and vibrational clustering,” Can. J. Phys. 72, 1241–1250 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. He, B. J. Orr, “Optical heterodyne signal generation and detection in cavity ringdown spectroscopy based on a rapidly swept cavity,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 335, 215–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

Y. He, B. J. Orr, “Ringdown and cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous-wave tunable diode laser and a rapidly swept optical cavity,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, P. Schlup, I. T. McKinnie, “Efficient, single-frequency, high-repetition-rate, PPLN OPO pumped by a prelase Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 301–304 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. F. Nibler, B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

1998 (5)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, H.-D. Barth, B. J. Orr, “Laser spectroscopy with a pulsed, narrowband infrared optical parametric oscillator system: a practical, modular approach,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 653–657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, Y. He, B. J. Orr, “A pulsed optical parametric oscillator system, based on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 753–756 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, G. W. Baxter, B. J. Orr, “Locking the cavity of a pulsed periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator to the wavelength of a continuous-wave injection seeder by an ‘intensity-dip’ method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3203–3213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Ehret, A. Fix, V. Weiss, G. Poberaj, T. Baumert, “Diode-laser-seeded optical parametric oscillator for airborne water vapor DIAL application in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 427–431 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (7)

A. Agnesi, E. Piccinini, G. C. Reali, C. Solcia, “Efficient all-solid-state tunable source based on a passively Q-switched high-power Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 303–305 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Votava, J. R. Fair, D. F. Plusquellic, E. Riedle, D. J. Nesbitt, “High-resolution vibrational overtone studies of HOD and H2O with single-mode, injection-seeded ring optical parametric oscillators,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8854–8865 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Borsutzky, “Frequency control of pulsed optical parametric oscillators,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9, 191–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS) in low pressure flames,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 699–705 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Voelkel, Yu. L. Chuzavkov, J. Marquez, S. N. Orlov, Yu. N. Polivanov, V. V. Smirnov, F. Huisken, “Infrared degenerate four-wave mixing and resonance-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in molecular gases and free jets,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 93–99 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97, 25–51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (5)

1994 (1)

Q. Kou, G. Guelachvili, M. Abboutti Temsamani, M. Herman, “The absorption spectrum of C2H2 around ν1 + ν3: energy standards in the 1.5-µm region and vibrational clustering,” Can. J. Phys. 72, 1241–1250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

C. L. Tang, W. R. Bosenberg, T. Ukachi, R. J. Lane, L. K. Cheng, “Optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 80, 365–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. L. Hawkins, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, “Energy levels, intensities, and linewidths of atmospheric carbon dioxide bands,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 537–566 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, “The optical parametric oscillators of beta-bariumborate and lithiumborate: new sources of powerful tunable laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared,” Laser Optoelectron. 23 (3), 106–110 (1991).

1979 (1)

S. J. Brosnan, R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415–431 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

S. E. Harris, “Tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 57, 2096–2113 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Abboutti Temsamani, M.

Q. Kou, G. Guelachvili, M. Abboutti Temsamani, M. Herman, “The absorption spectrum of C2H2 around ν1 + ν3: energy standards in the 1.5-µm region and vibrational clustering,” Can. J. Phys. 72, 1241–1250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Agnesi, A.

A. Agnesi, E. Piccinini, G. C. Reali, C. Solcia, “Efficient all-solid-state tunable source based on a passively Q-switched high-power Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 303–305 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alford, W. J.

Arvidsson, G.

Austin, B. D. W.

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. F. Nibler, B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bäder, U.

Barnes, N. P.

N. P. Barnes, “Optical parametric oscillators,” in Tunable Lasers Handbook, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995), Chap. 7, pp. 293–348.
[CrossRef]

Barth, H.-D.

G. W. Baxter, H.-D. Barth, B. J. Orr, “Laser spectroscopy with a pulsed, narrowband infrared optical parametric oscillator system: a practical, modular approach,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 653–657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baumert, T.

G. Ehret, A. Fix, V. Weiss, G. Poberaj, T. Baumert, “Diode-laser-seeded optical parametric oscillator for airborne water vapor DIAL application in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 427–431 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, G. W.

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. F. Nibler, B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, P. Schlup, I. T. McKinnie, “Efficient, single-frequency, high-repetition-rate, PPLN OPO pumped by a prelase Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 301–304 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, G. W. Baxter, B. J. Orr, “Locking the cavity of a pulsed periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator to the wavelength of a continuous-wave injection seeder by an ‘intensity-dip’ method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3203–3213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, Y. He, B. J. Orr, “A pulsed optical parametric oscillator system, based on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 753–756 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, H.-D. Barth, B. J. Orr, “Laser spectroscopy with a pulsed, narrowband infrared optical parametric oscillator system: a practical, modular approach,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 653–657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillators for spectroscopy,” PhD dissertation (Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, 1998).

Boon-Engering, J. M.

Borsutzky, A.

Bosenberg, W. R.

Bowers, M. S.

Brosnan, S. J.

S. J. Brosnan, R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415–431 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled lithium niobate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2102–2116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Brosnan, R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415–431 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, “Parametric oscillators,” in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1973), pp. 77–101.

R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric oscillators,” in Quantum Electronics: a Treatise, Vol. 1, Nonlinear Optics, Part B, H. Rabin, C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), pp. 587–702.

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, “Parametric oscillation and mixing,” in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y.-R. Shen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 81–137.
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L. K.

C. L. Tang, W. R. Bosenberg, T. Ukachi, R. J. Lane, L. K. Cheng, “Optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 80, 365–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chuzavkov, Yu. L.

D. Voelkel, Yu. L. Chuzavkov, J. Marquez, S. N. Orlov, Yu. N. Polivanov, V. V. Smirnov, F. Huisken, “Infrared degenerate four-wave mixing and resonance-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in molecular gases and free jets,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 93–99 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Collier, C. P.

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Conroy, R. S.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dmitriev, V. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzayan, D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, M. H.

Eckardt, R. C.

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ehret, G.

G. Ehret, A. Fix, V. Weiss, G. Poberaj, T. Baumert, “Diode-laser-seeded optical parametric oscillator for airborne water vapor DIAL application in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 427–431 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fair, J. R.

O. Votava, J. R. Fair, D. F. Plusquellic, E. Riedle, D. J. Nesbitt, “High-resolution vibrational overtone studies of HOD and H2O with single-mode, injection-seeded ring optical parametric oscillators,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8854–8865 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Fix, A.

G. Ehret, A. Fix, V. Weiss, G. Poberaj, T. Baumert, “Diode-laser-seeded optical parametric oscillator for airborne water vapor DIAL application in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 427–431 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, “The optical parametric oscillators of beta-bariumborate and lithiumborate: new sources of powerful tunable laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared,” Laser Optoelectron. 23 (3), 106–110 (1991).

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Galech, J.

M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. L. Hawkins, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, “Energy levels, intensities, and linewidths of atmospheric carbon dioxide bands,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 537–566 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, T. D.

M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gerritsen, J. W.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guelachvili, G.

Q. Kou, G. Guelachvili, M. Abboutti Temsamani, M. Herman, “The absorption spectrum of C2H2 around ν1 + ν3: energy standards in the 1.5-µm region and vibrational clustering,” Can. J. Phys. 72, 1241–1250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gurzayan, G. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzayan, D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, M.

Guyer, D. R.

Halloway, C. A.

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. F. Nibler, B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris, “Tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 57, 2096–2113 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Haub, J. G.

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. F. Nibler, B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Haub, R. M. Hentschel, M. J. Johnson, B. J. Orr, “Controlling the performance of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator: a survey of techniques and spectroscopic applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2128–2141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Orr, M. J. Johnson, J. G. Haub, “Spectroscopic applications of pulsed tunable optical parametric oscillators,” in Tunable Laser Applications, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 2, pp. 11–82.

Hawkins, R. L.

L. S. Rothman, R. L. Hawkins, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, “Energy levels, intensities, and linewidths of atmospheric carbon dioxide bands,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 537–566 (1992).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

Y. He, B. J. Orr, “Optical heterodyne signal generation and detection in cavity ringdown spectroscopy based on a rapidly swept cavity,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 335, 215–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, B. J. Orr, “Ringdown and cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous-wave tunable diode laser and a rapidly swept optical cavity,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. F. Nibler, B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, Y. He, B. J. Orr, “A pulsed optical parametric oscillator system, based on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 753–756 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, G. W. Baxter, B. J. Orr, “Locking the cavity of a pulsed periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator to the wavelength of a continuous-wave injection seeder by an ‘intensity-dip’ method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3203–3213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, B. J. Orr, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: new approaches and outcomes,” J. Chinese Chem. Soc. (to be published).

Hentschel, R. M.

Herbst, R. L.

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, “Parametric oscillation and mixing,” in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y.-R. Shen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 81–137.
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

Q. Kou, G. Guelachvili, M. Abboutti Temsamani, M. Herman, “The absorption spectrum of C2H2 around ν1 + ν3: energy standards in the 1.5-µm region and vibrational clustering,” Can. J. Phys. 72, 1241–1250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hogervorst, W.

Huisken, F.

D. Voelkel, Yu. L. Chuzavkov, J. Marquez, S. N. Orlov, Yu. N. Polivanov, V. V. Smirnov, F. Huisken, “Infrared degenerate four-wave mixing and resonance-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in molecular gases and free jets,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 93–99 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M. J.

J. G. Haub, R. M. Hentschel, M. J. Johnson, B. J. Orr, “Controlling the performance of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator: a survey of techniques and spectroscopic applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2128–2141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Orr, M. J. Johnson, J. G. Haub, “Spectroscopic applications of pulsed tunable optical parametric oscillators,” in Tunable Laser Applications, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 2, pp. 11–82.

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, H.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996).
[CrossRef]

Kou, Q.

Q. Kou, G. Guelachvili, M. Abboutti Temsamani, M. Herman, “The absorption spectrum of C2H2 around ν1 + ν3: energy standards in the 1.5-µm region and vibrational clustering,” Can. J. Phys. 72, 1241–1250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kung, A. H.

Lane, R. J.

C. L. Tang, W. R. Bosenberg, T. Ukachi, R. J. Lane, L. K. Cheng, “Optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 80, 365–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

Ley, J. M.

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marquez, J.

D. Voelkel, Yu. L. Chuzavkov, J. Marquez, S. N. Orlov, Yu. N. Polivanov, V. V. Smirnov, F. Huisken, “Infrared degenerate four-wave mixing and resonance-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in molecular gases and free jets,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 93–99 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McKinnie, I. T.

G. W. Baxter, P. Schlup, I. T. McKinnie, “Efficient, single-frequency, high-repetition-rate, PPLN OPO pumped by a prelase Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 301–304 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Milce, A. P.

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. F. Nibler, B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Milton, M. J. T.

M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Molero, F.

M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Myers, L. E.

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nesbitt, D. J.

O. Votava, J. R. Fair, D. F. Plusquellic, E. Riedle, D. J. Nesbitt, “High-resolution vibrational overtone studies of HOD and H2O with single-mode, injection-seeded ring optical parametric oscillators,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8854–8865 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Plusquellic, O. Votava, D. J. Nesbitt, “Absolute frequency stabilization of an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1464–1472 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nibler, J. F.

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. F. Nibler, B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzayan, D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1997).
[CrossRef]

O’Keefe, A.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97, 25–51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Olson, M.

Orlov, S. N.

D. Voelkel, Yu. L. Chuzavkov, J. Marquez, S. N. Orlov, Yu. N. Polivanov, V. V. Smirnov, F. Huisken, “Infrared degenerate four-wave mixing and resonance-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in molecular gases and free jets,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 93–99 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Orr, B. J.

Y. He, B. J. Orr, “Optical heterodyne signal generation and detection in cavity ringdown spectroscopy based on a rapidly swept cavity,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 335, 215–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, B. J. Orr, “Ringdown and cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous-wave tunable diode laser and a rapidly swept optical cavity,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. F. Nibler, B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, Y. He, B. J. Orr, “A pulsed optical parametric oscillator system, based on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 753–756 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, H.-D. Barth, B. J. Orr, “Laser spectroscopy with a pulsed, narrowband infrared optical parametric oscillator system: a practical, modular approach,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 653–657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, G. W. Baxter, B. J. Orr, “Locking the cavity of a pulsed periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator to the wavelength of a continuous-wave injection seeder by an ‘intensity-dip’ method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3203–3213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Haub, R. M. Hentschel, M. J. Johnson, B. J. Orr, “Controlling the performance of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator: a survey of techniques and spectroscopic applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2128–2141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Orr, M. J. Johnson, J. G. Haub, “Spectroscopic applications of pulsed tunable optical parametric oscillators,” in Tunable Laser Applications, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 2, pp. 11–82.

Y. He, B. J. Orr, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: new approaches and outcomes,” J. Chinese Chem. Soc. (to be published).

Paul, J. B.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97, 25–51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Payne, M. A.

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. F. Nibler, B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Piccinini, E.

A. Agnesi, E. Piccinini, G. C. Reali, C. Solcia, “Efficient all-solid-state tunable source based on a passively Q-switched high-power Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 303–305 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, J. W.

Plusquellic, D. F.

O. Votava, J. R. Fair, D. F. Plusquellic, E. Riedle, D. J. Nesbitt, “High-resolution vibrational overtone studies of HOD and H2O with single-mode, injection-seeded ring optical parametric oscillators,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8854–8865 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Plusquellic, O. Votava, D. J. Nesbitt, “Absolute frequency stabilization of an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1464–1472 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poberaj, G.

G. Ehret, A. Fix, V. Weiss, G. Poberaj, T. Baumert, “Diode-laser-seeded optical parametric oscillator for airborne water vapor DIAL application in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 427–431 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Polivanov, Yu. N.

D. Voelkel, Yu. L. Chuzavkov, J. Marquez, S. N. Orlov, Yu. N. Polivanov, V. V. Smirnov, F. Huisken, “Infrared degenerate four-wave mixing and resonance-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in molecular gases and free jets,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 93–99 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rae, C. F.

Rakestraw, D. J.

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS) in low pressure flames,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 699–705 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, T. D.

Reali, G. C.

A. Agnesi, E. Piccinini, G. C. Reali, C. Solcia, “Efficient all-solid-state tunable source based on a passively Q-switched high-power Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 303–305 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Riedle, E.

O. Votava, J. R. Fair, D. F. Plusquellic, E. Riedle, D. J. Nesbitt, “High-resolution vibrational overtone studies of HOD and H2O with single-mode, injection-seeded ring optical parametric oscillators,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8854–8865 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. L. Hawkins, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, “Energy levels, intensities, and linewidths of atmospheric carbon dioxide bands,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 537–566 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97, 25–51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, J. J.

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS) in low pressure flames,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 699–705 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97, 25–51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schlup, P.

G. W. Baxter, P. Schlup, I. T. McKinnie, “Efficient, single-frequency, high-repetition-rate, PPLN OPO pumped by a prelase Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 301–304 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, T.

A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, “The optical parametric oscillators of beta-bariumborate and lithiumborate: new sources of powerful tunable laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared,” Laser Optoelectron. 23 (3), 106–110 (1991).

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Sinclair, B. D.

Smirnov, V. V.

D. Voelkel, Yu. L. Chuzavkov, J. Marquez, S. N. Orlov, Yu. N. Polivanov, V. V. Smirnov, F. Huisken, “Infrared degenerate four-wave mixing and resonance-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in molecular gases and free jets,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 93–99 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. V.

Solcia, C.

A. Agnesi, E. Piccinini, G. C. Reali, C. Solcia, “Efficient all-solid-state tunable source based on a passively Q-switched high-power Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 303–305 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

C. L. Tang, W. R. Bosenberg, T. Ukachi, R. J. Lane, L. K. Cheng, “Optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 80, 365–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ukachi, T.

C. L. Tang, W. R. Bosenberg, T. Ukachi, R. J. Lane, L. K. Cheng, “Optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 80, 365–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

van der Veer, W. E.

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Velsko, S. P.

Voelkel, D.

D. Voelkel, Yu. L. Chuzavkov, J. Marquez, S. N. Orlov, Yu. N. Polivanov, V. V. Smirnov, F. Huisken, “Infrared degenerate four-wave mixing and resonance-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in molecular gases and free jets,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 93–99 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS) in low pressure flames,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 699–705 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Votava, O.

O. Votava, J. R. Fair, D. F. Plusquellic, E. Riedle, D. J. Nesbitt, “High-resolution vibrational overtone studies of HOD and H2O with single-mode, injection-seeded ring optical parametric oscillators,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8854–8865 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Plusquellic, O. Votava, D. J. Nesbitt, “Absolute frequency stabilization of an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1464–1472 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallenstein, R.

H. Karlsson, M. Olson, G. Arvidsson, F. Laurell, U. Bäder, A. Borsutzky, R. Wallenstein, S. Wickström, M. Gustafsson, “Nanosecond optical parametric oscillator based on large-aperture periodically poled RbTiOAsO4,” Opt. Lett. 24, 330–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, “The optical parametric oscillators of beta-bariumborate and lithiumborate: new sources of powerful tunable laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared,” Laser Optoelectron. 23 (3), 106–110 (1991).

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. L. Hawkins, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, “Energy levels, intensities, and linewidths of atmospheric carbon dioxide bands,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 537–566 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, V.

G. Ehret, A. Fix, V. Weiss, G. Poberaj, T. Baumert, “Diode-laser-seeded optical parametric oscillator for airborne water vapor DIAL application in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 427–431 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wickström, S.

Yang, S. T.

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.-S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (8)

G. W. Baxter, H.-D. Barth, B. J. Orr, “Laser spectroscopy with a pulsed, narrowband infrared optical parametric oscillator system: a practical, modular approach,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 653–657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, Y. He, B. J. Orr, “A pulsed optical parametric oscillator system, based on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 753–756 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Ehret, A. Fix, V. Weiss, G. Poberaj, T. Baumert, “Diode-laser-seeded optical parametric oscillator for airborne water vapor DIAL application in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 427–431 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. F. Nibler, B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Agnesi, E. Piccinini, G. C. Reali, C. Solcia, “Efficient all-solid-state tunable source based on a passively Q-switched high-power Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 303–305 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, P. Schlup, I. T. McKinnie, “Efficient, single-frequency, high-repetition-rate, PPLN OPO pumped by a prelase Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 301–304 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS) in low pressure flames,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 699–705 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Voelkel, Yu. L. Chuzavkov, J. Marquez, S. N. Orlov, Yu. N. Polivanov, V. V. Smirnov, F. Huisken, “Infrared degenerate four-wave mixing and resonance-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in molecular gases and free jets,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 93–99 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

Q. Kou, G. Guelachvili, M. Abboutti Temsamani, M. Herman, “The absorption spectrum of C2H2 around ν1 + ν3: energy standards in the 1.5-µm region and vibrational clustering,” Can. J. Phys. 72, 1241–1250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. He, B. J. Orr, “Ringdown and cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous-wave tunable diode laser and a rapidly swept optical cavity,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 319, 131–137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, B. J. Orr, “Optical heterodyne signal generation and detection in cavity ringdown spectroscopy based on a rapidly swept cavity,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 335, 215–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Scherer, D. Voelkel, D. J. Rakestraw, J. B. Paul, C. P. Collier, R. J. Saykally, A. O’Keefe, “Infrared cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy (IR-CRLAS),” Chem. Phys. Lett. 245, 273–280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

J. J. Scherer, J. B. Paul, A. O’Keefe, R. J. Saykally, “Cavity ringdown laser absorption spectroscopy: history, development, and application to pulsed molecular beams,” Chem. Rev. 97, 25–51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. J. Brosnan, R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415–431 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

O. Votava, J. R. Fair, D. F. Plusquellic, E. Riedle, D. J. Nesbitt, “High-resolution vibrational overtone studies of HOD and H2O with single-mode, injection-seeded ring optical parametric oscillators,” J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8854–8865 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (5)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. L. Hawkins, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, “Energy levels, intensities, and linewidths of atmospheric carbon dioxide bands,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 537–566 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laser Optoelectron. (1)

A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, “The optical parametric oscillators of beta-bariumborate and lithiumborate: new sources of powerful tunable laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared,” Laser Optoelectron. 23 (3), 106–110 (1991).

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. J. T. Milton, T. D. Gardiner, F. Molero, J. Galech, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator for range-resolved DIAL measurements of atmospheric methane,” Opt. Commun. 142, 153–160 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. IEEE (2)

C. L. Tang, W. R. Bosenberg, T. Ukachi, R. J. Lane, L. K. Cheng, “Optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 80, 365–374 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, “Tunable optical parametric oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 57, 2096–2113 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Semiclass. Opt. (1)

A. Borsutzky, “Frequency control of pulsed optical parametric oscillators,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9, 191–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

Y. He, G. W. Baxter, B. J. Orr, “Locking the cavity of a pulsed periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator to the wavelength of a continuous-wave injection seeder by an ‘intensity-dip’ method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3203–3213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

R. L. Byer, “Parametric oscillators,” in Laser Spectroscopy, R. G. Brewer, A. Mooradian, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1973), pp. 77–101.

R. L. Byer, “Optical parametric oscillators,” in Quantum Electronics: a Treatise, Vol. 1, Nonlinear Optics, Part B, H. Rabin, C. L. Tang, eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), pp. 587–702.

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, “Parametric oscillation and mixing,” in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y.-R. Shen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 81–137.
[CrossRef]

B. J. Orr, M. J. Johnson, J. G. Haub, “Spectroscopic applications of pulsed tunable optical parametric oscillators,” in Tunable Laser Applications, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), Chap. 2, pp. 11–82.

N. P. Barnes, “Optical parametric oscillators,” in Tunable Lasers Handbook, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995), Chap. 7, pp. 293–348.
[CrossRef]

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzayan, D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, “Injection-seeded optical parametric oscillators for spectroscopy,” PhD dissertation (Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, 1998).

Y. He, B. J. Orr, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopy: new approaches and outcomes,” J. Chinese Chem. Soc. (to be published).

K. W. Busch, M. A. Busch, ed., Cavity-Ringdown Spectroscopy—An Ultratrace-Absorption Measurement Technique, ACS Symposium Series 720 (Oxford University, New York, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Modular schematic of a narrow-band, tunable PPLN OPO spectroscopic system,24 pumped at 1.064 µm by a nanosecond-pulsed, MM Nd:YAG laser. Despite use of a MM-pump laser, active OPO cavity control21,22 and other measures (see text) ensure that the 1.55-µm OPO signal output is single mode while the corresponding 3.4-µm idler output is multimode. The actively controlled PPLN OPO ring cavity is injection seeded at its resonant signal wavelength of ∼1.55 µm by a 5-mW cw single-mode external-cavity TDL. The output of the multigrating PPLN crystal can be coarsely tuned by vertical positioning and/or temperature variation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Signal-wavelength tuning characteristics of the MM-pumped, free-running PPLN OPO for a range of PPLN-crystal temperatures (35–200 °C) and for two distinct QPM grating periods: (a) 29.5 µm and (b) 29.9 µm. The pulsed wavemeter is used to determine the OPO signal wavelength by SFG-based upconversion of the light to the 0.63-µm wavelength range, as plotted on the abscissa. The right-hand ordinate scale shows the PPLN-crystal temperature control voltage. A polynomial fit, superimposed on each of the two sets, (a), (b), of measured temperature/wavelength data points, +, is used to optimize the PPLN-crystal temperature as the wavelength of the TDL seed source is scanned.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral profiles of signal-output radiation from the free-running (unseeded), MM-pumped PPLN OPO, recorded by the combination of grating monochromator and CCD camera after SFG upconversion to ∼0.63 µm. Random cavity-mode competition causes single-shot spectral distributions (in the top four traces) to vary from pulse to pulse. The corresponding 25-shot average (lowest trace) is smooth and reproducible with a width of 150 GHz FWHM (compared with a spectrometer bandpass of ∼30 GHz).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral profiles of signal-output radiation from the MM-pumped PPLN OPO, recorded by the combination of grating monochromator and CCD camera after SFG upconversion to ∼0.63 µm: (a) free-running (unseeded) operation, showing the same 25-shot average as in Fig. 3; (b), (c) spectral narrowing that occurs when the MM-pumped PPLN OPO is injection seeded by a TDL, limited by the spectrometer bandpass of ∼30 GHz; (b) TDL seed wavelength centered on the peak of the gain profile of the free-running OPO; (c) distribution of spectral traces recorded when the MM-pumped PPLN OPO is TDL seeded at different wavelengths in successive frequency steps of 45 GHz while the PPLN-crystal temperature is held constant.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Interferograms, recorded with a bandpass of 1.5 GHz by the fine etalon of the pulsed wavemeter for 0.63-µm SFG-upconverted signal output radiation from the MM-pumped, TDL-seeded PPLN OPO. These indicate SLM operation of the TDL-seeded PPLN OPO when it is MM pumped at two different pulse energies of, upper trace, 0.6 mJ and, lower trace, 1.2 mJ.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission interferograms recorded with a bandpass of 19 MHz by the high-finesse airspaced Fabry–Perot etalon (FSR = 21 GHz). In each case the etalon is fixed and the input wavelength is scanned over ∼33 GHz: (a) 1.55-µm signal-output radiation from the MM-pumped, TDL-seeded PPLN OPO, for which an optical bandwidth of ∼150 MHz FWHM is indicated; (b) cw single-mode TDL radiation (from the TDL used to seed the OPO), demonstrating the mode structure of the etalon itself.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Rovibrational IR absorption spectra of combination and hot bands at ∼6500 cm-1 (1.54 µm) for CO2 gas (T = 296 K, P = 1 bar). The upper two figures are CRD spectra recorded with our two nanosecond-pulsed, TDL-seeded PPLN OPO systems. They are measured by continuous scans, spanning >100 cm-1, of the signal-output wavelength of the SM- and MM-pumped systems, respectively. The baseline noise level corresponds to an absorption detection sensitivity of 7 × 10-8 cm-1. The lowest figure shows a simulation derived from the HITRAN’96 database,40 with appropriate pressure-broadened line-shape parameters. See text for a discussion of CRD spectral line shapes that are superior to those previously obtained with a MM-pumped PPLN OPO.24

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Rovibrational CRD absorption spectrum of C2H2 gas (T = 296 K, P = 0.14 mbar) measured in the (ν 1 + ν 3)-band region at ∼1.53 µm by a continuous 1.0-cm-1 scan of the signal output of the MM-pumped, TDL-seeded PPLN OPO system. The sample pressure is sufficiently low to yield Doppler-broadened line widths (0.016 cm-1 FWHM). The noise-limited absorption detection sensitivity is again 7 × 10-8 cm-1. See text for discussion of the assignment of the four prominent hot-band spectral features, which are labeled conventionally.44

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Sub-Doppler rovibrational CRD absorption spectra of jet-cooled C2H2 molecules in a slit–nozzle expansion recorded by tuning the nanosecond-pulsed signal output from TDL-seeded PPLN OPO systems, either MM or SM pumped (as labeled). In either case the spectrum comprises the 6544.442-cm-1 P(5) feature of the 1010000–0000000 (ν 1 + ν 3) combination band of C2H2.44 The solid curves are Lorentzian profiles and fit the experimental data points, ○. The observed line widths (as labeled) contain a minor component of residual Doppler broadening, so that the tunable signal radiation from the MM- and SM-pumped OPOs is inferred to have FWHM optical bandwidths not exceeding 120 and 105 MHz, respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of SM- and MM-Pulsed Nd:YAG Lasers Used to Pump the TDL-Seeded PPLN OPO Systems Described

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of FWHM Optical Bandwidths for Lasers, Instrumentation, and OPO Performance Measurements

Metrics