Abstract

Experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of a point-diffraction interferometry (PDI) system to measure gas-phase temperatures in flames. PDI is an interferometric technique that creates the reference beam after the laser beam passes through the test section and directly provides the index of refraction in two dimensions. PDI-based temperature measurements were compared with thermocouple measurements of two-dimensional and axisymmetric thermal boundary layers, as well as two-dimensional and axisymmetric diffusion flames. The PDI system provided excellent agreement in the measurement of thermal profiles in the boundary layers and was within the uncertainties that are due to the radiation corrections for the thermocouple-based flame temperature measurements.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. N. Smartt, “Special applications of the point diffraction interferometer,” in Interferometry, G. W. Hopkins, ed., Proc. SPIE192, 35–40 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Smartt, W. Steel, “Theory and applications of the point-diffraction interferometer,” in Proceedings of the ICO Conference on Optical Methods in Science and Industrial Measurements, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl.14-1, 351–356 (1975).
  3. W. Bachalo, M. Houser, “Optical interferometry in fluid dynamics research,” Opt. Eng. 24, 455–461 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Giglio, U. Perini, E. Paginini, “Speckle-tracking point diffraction interferometer for fluid studies,” Opt. Eng. 27, 197–199 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Sankar, D. H. Buermann, K. M. Ibrahim, W. D. Bachalo, “Application of an integrated phase Doppler interferometer/rainbow thermometer/point-diffraction interferometer for characterizing burning droplets,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 413–421.
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Weinberg, Optics of Flames (Butterworth, London, 1963), pp. 23–28, 205–235.
  7. W. Hauf, U. Grigull, “Optical methods in heat transfer,” in Advances in Heat Transfer (Academic, New York, 1970), Vol. 6, pp. 134–366.
  8. C. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979), pp. 311–315.
  9. R. Goldstein, “Optical systems for flow measurement,” in Fluid Mechanics Measurements, R. Goldstein, ed. (Hemisphere, New York, 1983), pp. 377–417.
  10. Z. G. Yuan, “The filtered Abel transform and its applications in combustion diagnostics,” in Proceedings of the Fall Technical Meeting, Western States Section of the Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1995), paper 199.
  11. C. J. Dasch, “One-dimensional tomography: a comparison of Abel, onion-peeling, and filtered backprojection methods,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1146–1152 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. A. Ang, P. J. Pagni, T. G. Mataga, J. M. Margle, V. J. Lyons, “Temperature and velocity profiles in sooting free convection diffusion flames,” AIAA J. 26, 323–329 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Shaddix, “Correcting thermocouple measurements for radiation loss: a critical review,” in Proceedings of the Thirty-Third National Heat Transfer Conference (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1999), paper NHTC99–282.
  14. S. Ostrach, “An analysis of laminar free-convection flow and heat transfer about a flat plate parallel to the direction of the generating body force,” (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, 1953), http://naca.larc.nasa.gov/reports/1953/naca-report-1111/ .
  15. F. M. White, Heat and Mass Transfer (Addison-Wesley, New York, 1988), pp. 391–395.
  16. S. Ostrach, “Laminar flows with body forces,” in High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion, F. K. Moore, ed. (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J., 1964), Vol. 4, pp. 528–558.
  17. H. Kramers, “Heat transfer from spheres to flowing media,” Physica 12, 61–80 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Seshadri, C. Trevino, M. Smooke, “Analysis of the structure and mechanisms of extinction of a counterflow methanol-air diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 76, 111–132 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Held, F. Dryer, “An experimental and computational study of methanol oxidation in the intermediate and high-temperature regimes,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 901–908.
    [CrossRef]

1992

1989

K. Seshadri, C. Trevino, M. Smooke, “Analysis of the structure and mechanisms of extinction of a counterflow methanol-air diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 76, 111–132 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. A. Ang, P. J. Pagni, T. G. Mataga, J. M. Margle, V. J. Lyons, “Temperature and velocity profiles in sooting free convection diffusion flames,” AIAA J. 26, 323–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Giglio, U. Perini, E. Paginini, “Speckle-tracking point diffraction interferometer for fluid studies,” Opt. Eng. 27, 197–199 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985

W. Bachalo, M. Houser, “Optical interferometry in fluid dynamics research,” Opt. Eng. 24, 455–461 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1946

H. Kramers, “Heat transfer from spheres to flowing media,” Physica 12, 61–80 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Ang, J. A.

J. A. Ang, P. J. Pagni, T. G. Mataga, J. M. Margle, V. J. Lyons, “Temperature and velocity profiles in sooting free convection diffusion flames,” AIAA J. 26, 323–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bachalo, W.

W. Bachalo, M. Houser, “Optical interferometry in fluid dynamics research,” Opt. Eng. 24, 455–461 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bachalo, W. D.

S. Sankar, D. H. Buermann, K. M. Ibrahim, W. D. Bachalo, “Application of an integrated phase Doppler interferometer/rainbow thermometer/point-diffraction interferometer for characterizing burning droplets,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 413–421.
[CrossRef]

Buermann, D. H.

S. Sankar, D. H. Buermann, K. M. Ibrahim, W. D. Bachalo, “Application of an integrated phase Doppler interferometer/rainbow thermometer/point-diffraction interferometer for characterizing burning droplets,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 413–421.
[CrossRef]

Dasch, C. J.

Dryer, F.

J. Held, F. Dryer, “An experimental and computational study of methanol oxidation in the intermediate and high-temperature regimes,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 901–908.
[CrossRef]

Giglio, M.

M. Giglio, U. Perini, E. Paginini, “Speckle-tracking point diffraction interferometer for fluid studies,” Opt. Eng. 27, 197–199 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, R.

R. Goldstein, “Optical systems for flow measurement,” in Fluid Mechanics Measurements, R. Goldstein, ed. (Hemisphere, New York, 1983), pp. 377–417.

Grigull, U.

W. Hauf, U. Grigull, “Optical methods in heat transfer,” in Advances in Heat Transfer (Academic, New York, 1970), Vol. 6, pp. 134–366.

Hauf, W.

W. Hauf, U. Grigull, “Optical methods in heat transfer,” in Advances in Heat Transfer (Academic, New York, 1970), Vol. 6, pp. 134–366.

Held, J.

J. Held, F. Dryer, “An experimental and computational study of methanol oxidation in the intermediate and high-temperature regimes,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 901–908.
[CrossRef]

Houser, M.

W. Bachalo, M. Houser, “Optical interferometry in fluid dynamics research,” Opt. Eng. 24, 455–461 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, K. M.

S. Sankar, D. H. Buermann, K. M. Ibrahim, W. D. Bachalo, “Application of an integrated phase Doppler interferometer/rainbow thermometer/point-diffraction interferometer for characterizing burning droplets,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 413–421.
[CrossRef]

Kramers, H.

H. Kramers, “Heat transfer from spheres to flowing media,” Physica 12, 61–80 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, V. J.

J. A. Ang, P. J. Pagni, T. G. Mataga, J. M. Margle, V. J. Lyons, “Temperature and velocity profiles in sooting free convection diffusion flames,” AIAA J. 26, 323–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Margle, J. M.

J. A. Ang, P. J. Pagni, T. G. Mataga, J. M. Margle, V. J. Lyons, “Temperature and velocity profiles in sooting free convection diffusion flames,” AIAA J. 26, 323–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mataga, T. G.

J. A. Ang, P. J. Pagni, T. G. Mataga, J. M. Margle, V. J. Lyons, “Temperature and velocity profiles in sooting free convection diffusion flames,” AIAA J. 26, 323–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ostrach, S.

S. Ostrach, “Laminar flows with body forces,” in High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion, F. K. Moore, ed. (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J., 1964), Vol. 4, pp. 528–558.

S. Ostrach, “An analysis of laminar free-convection flow and heat transfer about a flat plate parallel to the direction of the generating body force,” (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, 1953), http://naca.larc.nasa.gov/reports/1953/naca-report-1111/ .

Paginini, E.

M. Giglio, U. Perini, E. Paginini, “Speckle-tracking point diffraction interferometer for fluid studies,” Opt. Eng. 27, 197–199 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pagni, P. J.

J. A. Ang, P. J. Pagni, T. G. Mataga, J. M. Margle, V. J. Lyons, “Temperature and velocity profiles in sooting free convection diffusion flames,” AIAA J. 26, 323–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Perini, U.

M. Giglio, U. Perini, E. Paginini, “Speckle-tracking point diffraction interferometer for fluid studies,” Opt. Eng. 27, 197–199 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sankar, S.

S. Sankar, D. H. Buermann, K. M. Ibrahim, W. D. Bachalo, “Application of an integrated phase Doppler interferometer/rainbow thermometer/point-diffraction interferometer for characterizing burning droplets,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 413–421.
[CrossRef]

Seshadri, K.

K. Seshadri, C. Trevino, M. Smooke, “Analysis of the structure and mechanisms of extinction of a counterflow methanol-air diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 76, 111–132 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shaddix, C.

C. Shaddix, “Correcting thermocouple measurements for radiation loss: a critical review,” in Proceedings of the Thirty-Third National Heat Transfer Conference (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1999), paper NHTC99–282.

Smartt, R.

R. Smartt, W. Steel, “Theory and applications of the point-diffraction interferometer,” in Proceedings of the ICO Conference on Optical Methods in Science and Industrial Measurements, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl.14-1, 351–356 (1975).

Smartt, R. N.

R. N. Smartt, “Special applications of the point diffraction interferometer,” in Interferometry, G. W. Hopkins, ed., Proc. SPIE192, 35–40 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Smooke, M.

K. Seshadri, C. Trevino, M. Smooke, “Analysis of the structure and mechanisms of extinction of a counterflow methanol-air diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 76, 111–132 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Steel, W.

R. Smartt, W. Steel, “Theory and applications of the point-diffraction interferometer,” in Proceedings of the ICO Conference on Optical Methods in Science and Industrial Measurements, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl.14-1, 351–356 (1975).

Trevino, C.

K. Seshadri, C. Trevino, M. Smooke, “Analysis of the structure and mechanisms of extinction of a counterflow methanol-air diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 76, 111–132 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vest, C.

C. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979), pp. 311–315.

Weinberg, F.

F. Weinberg, Optics of Flames (Butterworth, London, 1963), pp. 23–28, 205–235.

White, F. M.

F. M. White, Heat and Mass Transfer (Addison-Wesley, New York, 1988), pp. 391–395.

Yuan, Z. G.

Z. G. Yuan, “The filtered Abel transform and its applications in combustion diagnostics,” in Proceedings of the Fall Technical Meeting, Western States Section of the Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1995), paper 199.

AIAA J.

J. A. Ang, P. J. Pagni, T. G. Mataga, J. M. Margle, V. J. Lyons, “Temperature and velocity profiles in sooting free convection diffusion flames,” AIAA J. 26, 323–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Combust. Flame

K. Seshadri, C. Trevino, M. Smooke, “Analysis of the structure and mechanisms of extinction of a counterflow methanol-air diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 76, 111–132 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

W. Bachalo, M. Houser, “Optical interferometry in fluid dynamics research,” Opt. Eng. 24, 455–461 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Giglio, U. Perini, E. Paginini, “Speckle-tracking point diffraction interferometer for fluid studies,” Opt. Eng. 27, 197–199 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Physica

H. Kramers, “Heat transfer from spheres to flowing media,” Physica 12, 61–80 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. N. Smartt, “Special applications of the point diffraction interferometer,” in Interferometry, G. W. Hopkins, ed., Proc. SPIE192, 35–40 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Smartt, W. Steel, “Theory and applications of the point-diffraction interferometer,” in Proceedings of the ICO Conference on Optical Methods in Science and Industrial Measurements, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl.14-1, 351–356 (1975).

C. Shaddix, “Correcting thermocouple measurements for radiation loss: a critical review,” in Proceedings of the Thirty-Third National Heat Transfer Conference (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1999), paper NHTC99–282.

S. Ostrach, “An analysis of laminar free-convection flow and heat transfer about a flat plate parallel to the direction of the generating body force,” (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, 1953), http://naca.larc.nasa.gov/reports/1953/naca-report-1111/ .

F. M. White, Heat and Mass Transfer (Addison-Wesley, New York, 1988), pp. 391–395.

S. Ostrach, “Laminar flows with body forces,” in High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion, F. K. Moore, ed. (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J., 1964), Vol. 4, pp. 528–558.

S. Sankar, D. H. Buermann, K. M. Ibrahim, W. D. Bachalo, “Application of an integrated phase Doppler interferometer/rainbow thermometer/point-diffraction interferometer for characterizing burning droplets,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 413–421.
[CrossRef]

F. Weinberg, Optics of Flames (Butterworth, London, 1963), pp. 23–28, 205–235.

W. Hauf, U. Grigull, “Optical methods in heat transfer,” in Advances in Heat Transfer (Academic, New York, 1970), Vol. 6, pp. 134–366.

C. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979), pp. 311–315.

R. Goldstein, “Optical systems for flow measurement,” in Fluid Mechanics Measurements, R. Goldstein, ed. (Hemisphere, New York, 1983), pp. 377–417.

Z. G. Yuan, “The filtered Abel transform and its applications in combustion diagnostics,” in Proceedings of the Fall Technical Meeting, Western States Section of the Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1995), paper 199.

J. Held, F. Dryer, “An experimental and computational study of methanol oxidation in the intermediate and high-temperature regimes,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 901–908.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

PDI coordinate systems (P is the intensity in the projection plane).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the PDI system showing the interferogram of a candle placed in the test section.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of the PDI disk on the incident wave front.1 (The outer beam on the imaging side of the PDI disk is the diffracted wave front.) The interaction of the transmitted (test) wave front and the diffracted (reference) wave front creates the fringe pattern (see Fig. 4).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of (a) finite fringe and (b) infinite fringe modes. The experiments reported in this paper were performed in the infinite fringe mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fringes generated by a heated vertical flat plate with dark (destructive) fringe-order numbers. The heated plate surface temperature is 600 K.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of experimental and theoretical temperature profiles generated by the heated vertical flat plate in Fig. 5. The error bars on the interferometry data represent the width of each fringe (from Fig. 5); the fringe temperature is assumed to be at the location of minimum fringe intensity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fringes generated by a heated vertical circular cylinder (with dark fringe-order numbers). The cylinder surface temperature is 650 K.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Line intensity profiles of the fringes generated by a heated vertical circular cylinder by use of the fringes from Fig. 7.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Change in the optical path length versus distance from the center of the cylinder by use of the fringe locations from Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of the experimental and theoretical temperature profiles for the heated vertical cylinder in Fig. 7.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Fringe image, (b) visible flame image, and (c) combined visible flame and fringe images for a two-dimensional methanol flame. The bright white region in image (c) is the visible (blue) flame.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparison of PDI and thermocouple temperature profiles for the two-dimensional methanol flame in Fig. 11. The error bars on the interferometry data represent the width of each fringe (from Fig. 11); the fringe temperature is assumed to be at the center of each fringe.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparison of PDI and visible flame images for an axisymmetric methane gas jet diffusion flame (nozzle diameter, 2.6 mm; flow rate, 100 SCCM; Re D = 52).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Comparison of PDI and thermocouple temperature profiles for the axisymmetric methane flame in Fig. 13. The error bars on the thermocouple data represent the uncertainty in the position of the thermocouple.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔΦ=Nλ= n0-ndz,
n-1ρ=Kλ.
Tx, y=1T0-Nx, yR˜λKλMPL-1,
dz=rdrr2-l21/2.
Δnr=n0-nr=-1πrΔΦl2-r21/2dl,
Tr=1T0-ΔnrR˜KλMP-1.

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