Abstract

For remote sensing of the ocean and atmosphere optical properties, the measurement of radiances affected by sun glint has to be avoided and/or masked out. There are usually no meaningful retrievals in regions significantly contaminated by sun glint. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is capable of operationally tilting the sensor 20° away from nadir to minimize sun glint contamination. The sun glint mask is computed from the Cox and Munk model [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954)] and applied to the SeaWiFS data. However, sun glint is still a factor near the subsolar point. We present results that demonstrate the effect of sun glint contamination on retrievals of ocean bio-optical and atmospheric products. We show that, although sun glint contamination has a minor effect on retrieved ocean color products, the effect on retrieved atmospheric products, e.g., aerosol optical thickness, is significant. We describe a sun glint correction scheme implemented in the SeaWiFS data-processing system and compare the results with and without sun glint correction. With sun glint correction the derived ocean and atmospheric products are improved. Also, the sun glint masked area can be reduced and therefore can increase significantly the coverage area near the subsolar point.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of the ocean-color sensor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7754–7763 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote-sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493–6499 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Wang, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: computing atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 38, 451–455 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Cox, W. Munk, “Measurements of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. R. McClain, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, M. Darzi, “SeaWiFS quality control masks and flags: initial algorithms and implementation strategy,” Vol. 28 of , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995), pp. 3–7.
  10. R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E. N. Yeh, C. R. McClain, “Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17107–17118 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Surface roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. 1: The Rayleigh scattering component,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4247–4260 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. K. Firestone, R. H. Woodward, C. R. McClain, “An evaluation of surface wind products for use in SeaWiFS,” Vol. 19 of , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), pp. 50–64.
  13. M. Wang, S. Bailey, “Correction of the sun glint contamination on the SeaWiFS aerosol optical thickness retrievals,” Vol. 9 of the , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 64–68.
  14. M. Wang, “The SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm updates,” Vol. 9 of , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 57–63.
  15. D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.
  18. D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (2)

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E. N. Yeh, C. R. McClain, “Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17107–17118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote-sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1992 (1)

1988 (2)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

Aiken, J.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Arrigo, K. R.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Bailey, S.

M. Wang, S. Bailey, “Correction of the sun glint contamination on the SeaWiFS aerosol optical thickness retrievals,” Vol. 9 of the , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 64–68.

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Broenkow, W.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, M. Darzi, “SeaWiFS quality control masks and flags: initial algorithms and implementation strategy,” Vol. 28 of , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995), pp. 3–7.

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Chavez, F. P.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Clark, D. K.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cota, G. F.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Cox, C.

Culver, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Darzi, M.

C. R. McClain, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, M. Darzi, “SeaWiFS quality control masks and flags: initial algorithms and implementation strategy,” Vol. 28 of , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995), pp. 3–7.

Deschamps, P. Y.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote-sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, M. Darzi, “SeaWiFS quality control masks and flags: initial algorithms and implementation strategy,” Vol. 28 of , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995), pp. 3–7.

Firestone, J. K.

J. K. Firestone, R. H. Woodward, C. R. McClain, “An evaluation of surface wind products for use in SeaWiFS,” Vol. 19 of , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), pp. 50–64.

Fraser, R. S.

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E. N. Yeh, C. R. McClain, “Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17107–17118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote-sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of the ocean-color sensor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7754–7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Surface roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. 1: The Rayleigh scattering component,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4247–4260 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Harding, L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Hooker, S. B.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Letelier, R.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Magnuson, A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Maritorena, S.

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Mattoo, S.

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E. N. Yeh, C. R. McClain, “Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17107–17118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E. N. Yeh, C. R. McClain, “Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17107–17118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

C. R. McClain, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, M. Darzi, “SeaWiFS quality control masks and flags: initial algorithms and implementation strategy,” Vol. 28 of , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995), pp. 3–7.

J. K. Firestone, R. H. Woodward, C. R. McClain, “An evaluation of surface wind products for use in SeaWiFS,” Vol. 19 of , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), pp. 50–64.

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Moore, G. F.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Moore, K. D.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Muller-Karger, F.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Munk, W.

O’Brien, M. C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Phinney, D.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Robinson, W.

Schwindling, M.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote-sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Strutton, P.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Toole, D.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

Trees, C.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Woodward, R. H.

J. K. Firestone, R. H. Woodward, C. R. McClain, “An evaluation of surface wind products for use in SeaWiFS,” Vol. 19 of , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), pp. 50–64.

Yang, H.

Yeh, E. N.

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E. N. Yeh, C. R. McClain, “Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17107–17118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (7)

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E. N. Yeh, C. R. McClain, “Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17107–17118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote-sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Other (5)

J. K. Firestone, R. H. Woodward, C. R. McClain, “An evaluation of surface wind products for use in SeaWiFS,” Vol. 19 of , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1994), pp. 50–64.

M. Wang, S. Bailey, “Correction of the sun glint contamination on the SeaWiFS aerosol optical thickness retrievals,” Vol. 9 of the , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 64–68.

M. Wang, “The SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm updates,” Vol. 9 of , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 57–63.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, M. Culver, “Ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 9–23.

C. R. McClain, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, M. Darzi, “SeaWiFS quality control masks and flags: initial algorithms and implementation strategy,” Vol. 28 of , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995), pp. 3–7.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized sun glint radiance L GN as a function of the sensor-viewing angle (solar zenith angle, 40°) and for (a) various relative azimuthal angles with surface wind speed of 5 m/s and (b) various surface wind speeds with a relative azimuthal angle of 20°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SeaWiFS-derived (a) [L w (λ)] N (mW cm-2 μm-1 sr-1) and (b) the ratio of [L w (λ)] N /[L w (555)] N , compared with MOBY in situ measurements. The SeaWiFS measured radiances were contaminated by sun glint, and the glint correction was applied. The dotted lines in the plots are the linear fit to all data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SeaWiFS-derived aerosol optical thickness τ a (865) for sun glint correction. Three contour lines correspond left to right to the L GN values of 0.0001, 0.005, and 0.01.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Quantitative comparison of the SeaWiFS-derived aerosol optical thickness, chlorophyll-a concentration, and normalized water-leaving radiances for cases with and without sun glint correction from results in Fig. 3: (a) histograms of τ a (865) for regions with 0.0001 < L GN < 0.01; (b) τ a (865) for pixels 70–500 at a scan line of 200; (c) histograms of chlorophyll-a concentration for regions with 0.0001 < L GN < 0.01; (d) [L w (λ)] N (with correction) at 443, 490, and 555 nm for pixels 70–500 at a scan line of 200 (dashed line in Fig. 3).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histograms of the SeaWiFS-derived mean values of the aerosol optical thickness and the chlorophyll-a concentration from global eight-day data in the austral summer (17–24 January 1998) and the boreal summer (12–19 July 1998) for cases with and without sun glint correction: (a), (c) τ a (865) for the austral and the boreal summer, respectively; (b), (d) chlorophyll-a for the austral and the boreal summer, respectively.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 SeaWiFS-Derived [Lw (λ)] N Compared with MOBY In Situ Measurements for sun glint-Free Cases (L GN < 0.0001) a

Tables Icon

Table 2 SeaWiFS-Derived [Lw (λ)] N for Cases with and without sun glint Correction Compared with MOBY In Situ Measurements for 0.0001 < L GN ≤ 0.0069 a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Derived Parameters in a Linear Fita

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ltλ=Lrλ+Laλ+Lraλ+TλLgλ+tλLwcλ+tλLwλ,
Lgλ=F0λT0λLGN,
Ltλ=Lrλ+Laλ+Lraλ+tλLwcλ+tλLwλ,
Ltλ=Ltλ-F0λT0λTλLGN,
T0λTλ=exp-τrλ+τaλ1cos θ0+1cos θ.
Ltλ, τaλ, W  Lt1λ  τa1λ Lt2λ  τa2λ,
LA=Lt-Lr-tLwc-TLg,
LwλN=Lwλ/cos θ0t0λ,

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