Abstract

We have conducted measurements of scattered light from bare polycarbonate and glass substrates and from complete optical disks using a He–Ne laser beam in different polarization states and at different angles of incidence. The results are compared with the measured media noise obtained from the same disks on a dynamic tester. Both the scattered light and the media noise originate from the jaggedness and other imperfections of the groove structure, the roughness of the substrate’s surface, and the inhomogeneities of the bulk of the substrate. Although some sources of media noise manifest themselves in the scattered light distribution, others cannot be easily detected by this type of measurement.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Treves, D. S. Bloomberg, “Signal, noise, and codes in optical memories,” Opt. Eng. 25, 881–891 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Peng, M. Mansuripur, “Sources of noise in erasable optical disk data storage,” Appl. Opt. 37, 921–928 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Honguh, “Analysis of retrieval signal deterioration caused by disk surface roughness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 28-3, 115–119 (1989).
  4. K. A. Rubin, M. Chen, “Progress and issues of phase-change erasable optical recording media,” Thin Solid Films 181, 129–139 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Saito, N. Miyagawa, M. Mansuripur, “Optical disk noise analysis using rigorous vector diffraction calculations,” in 2000 Optical Data Storage Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. 56–58.
  6. M. Nakada, M. Okada, “Disk noise of quadrilayer MnBi magneto-optical disks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 33, 6577–6581 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989).
  8. J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).
  9. E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125–136 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Zerrouki, F. Miserey, P. Pinot, “Light scattering angular distribution of a mirror-polished CoCr20WNi (alacrite XSH); application to the determination of statistical parameters characterizing the surface roughness,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phy. 1, 253–259 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Bernt, J. C. Stover, “Roughness measurement of dielectrics with light scatter,” in Optical Scattering in the Optics, Semiconductor, and Computer Disk Industries, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE2541, 36–44 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, J. C. Stover, “Wavelength and angular dependence of light scattering from beryllium: comparison of theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3362–3376 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. V. Twersky, “Reflection coefficients for certain rough surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 24, 659–660 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Li, “New formulation of the Fourier modal method for crossed surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2758–2767 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Peng, M. Mansuripur, M. Ikenishi, M. Miura, “Substrate noise in optical data-storage systems,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3379–3386 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1998 (2)

C. Peng, M. Mansuripur, “Sources of noise in erasable optical disk data storage,” Appl. Opt. 37, 921–928 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Zerrouki, F. Miserey, P. Pinot, “Light scattering angular distribution of a mirror-polished CoCr20WNi (alacrite XSH); application to the determination of statistical parameters characterizing the surface roughness,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phy. 1, 253–259 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

M. Nakada, M. Okada, “Disk noise of quadrilayer MnBi magneto-optical disks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 33, 6577–6581 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1989 (2)

Y. Honguh, “Analysis of retrieval signal deterioration caused by disk surface roughness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 28-3, 115–119 (1989).

K. A. Rubin, M. Chen, “Progress and issues of phase-change erasable optical recording media,” Thin Solid Films 181, 129–139 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. Treves, D. S. Bloomberg, “Signal, noise, and codes in optical memories,” Opt. Eng. 25, 881–891 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125–136 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

V. Twersky, “Reflection coefficients for certain rough surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 24, 659–660 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

Bernt, M.

M. Bernt, J. C. Stover, “Roughness measurement of dielectrics with light scatter,” in Optical Scattering in the Optics, Semiconductor, and Computer Disk Industries, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE2541, 36–44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bloomberg, D. S.

D. Treves, D. S. Bloomberg, “Signal, noise, and codes in optical memories,” Opt. Eng. 25, 881–891 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

K. A. Rubin, M. Chen, “Progress and issues of phase-change erasable optical recording media,” Thin Solid Films 181, 129–139 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Church, E. L.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125–136 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Elson, J. M.

Honguh, Y.

Y. Honguh, “Analysis of retrieval signal deterioration caused by disk surface roughness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 28-3, 115–119 (1989).

Ikenishi, M.

Jenkinson, H. A.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125–136 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Mansuripur, M.

C. Peng, M. Mansuripur, M. Ikenishi, M. Miura, “Substrate noise in optical data-storage systems,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3379–3386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Peng, M. Mansuripur, “Sources of noise in erasable optical disk data storage,” Appl. Opt. 37, 921–928 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Saito, N. Miyagawa, M. Mansuripur, “Optical disk noise analysis using rigorous vector diffraction calculations,” in 2000 Optical Data Storage Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. 56–58.

Mattsson, L.

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989).

Miserey, F.

C. Zerrouki, F. Miserey, P. Pinot, “Light scattering angular distribution of a mirror-polished CoCr20WNi (alacrite XSH); application to the determination of statistical parameters characterizing the surface roughness,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phy. 1, 253–259 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miura, M.

Miyagawa, N.

K. Saito, N. Miyagawa, M. Mansuripur, “Optical disk noise analysis using rigorous vector diffraction calculations,” in 2000 Optical Data Storage Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. 56–58.

Nakada, M.

M. Nakada, M. Okada, “Disk noise of quadrilayer MnBi magneto-optical disks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 33, 6577–6581 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Okada, M.

M. Nakada, M. Okada, “Disk noise of quadrilayer MnBi magneto-optical disks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 33, 6577–6581 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C.

Pinot, P.

C. Zerrouki, F. Miserey, P. Pinot, “Light scattering angular distribution of a mirror-polished CoCr20WNi (alacrite XSH); application to the determination of statistical parameters characterizing the surface roughness,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phy. 1, 253–259 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, K. A.

K. A. Rubin, M. Chen, “Progress and issues of phase-change erasable optical recording media,” Thin Solid Films 181, 129–139 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Saito, K.

K. Saito, N. Miyagawa, M. Mansuripur, “Optical disk noise analysis using rigorous vector diffraction calculations,” in 2000 Optical Data Storage Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. 56–58.

Stover, J. C.

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, J. C. Stover, “Wavelength and angular dependence of light scattering from beryllium: comparison of theory and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3362–3376 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bernt, J. C. Stover, “Roughness measurement of dielectrics with light scatter,” in Optical Scattering in the Optics, Semiconductor, and Computer Disk Industries, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE2541, 36–44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).

Treves, D.

D. Treves, D. S. Bloomberg, “Signal, noise, and codes in optical memories,” Opt. Eng. 25, 881–891 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Twersky, V.

V. Twersky, “Reflection coefficients for certain rough surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 24, 659–660 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Zavada, J. M.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125–136 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Zerrouki, C.

C. Zerrouki, F. Miserey, P. Pinot, “Light scattering angular distribution of a mirror-polished CoCr20WNi (alacrite XSH); application to the determination of statistical parameters characterizing the surface roughness,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phy. 1, 253–259 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phy. (1)

C. Zerrouki, F. Miserey, P. Pinot, “Light scattering angular distribution of a mirror-polished CoCr20WNi (alacrite XSH); application to the determination of statistical parameters characterizing the surface roughness,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phy. 1, 253–259 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

V. Twersky, “Reflection coefficients for certain rough surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 24, 659–660 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

M. Nakada, M. Okada, “Disk noise of quadrilayer MnBi magneto-optical disks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 33, 6577–6581 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. (1)

Y. Honguh, “Analysis of retrieval signal deterioration caused by disk surface roughness,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 28-3, 115–119 (1989).

Opt. Eng. (2)

D. Treves, D. S. Bloomberg, “Signal, noise, and codes in optical memories,” Opt. Eng. 25, 881–891 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship between surface scattering and microtopographic features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125–136 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

K. A. Rubin, M. Chen, “Progress and issues of phase-change erasable optical recording media,” Thin Solid Films 181, 129–139 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

K. Saito, N. Miyagawa, M. Mansuripur, “Optical disk noise analysis using rigorous vector diffraction calculations,” in 2000 Optical Data Storage Topical Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), pp. 56–58.

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989).

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).

M. Bernt, J. C. Stover, “Roughness measurement of dielectrics with light scatter,” in Optical Scattering in the Optics, Semiconductor, and Computer Disk Industries, J. C. Stover, ed., Proc. SPIE2541, 36–44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (22)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the scatterometer system. The liquid-crystal cell and the PBS together control the amount of light that reaches the sample. The PMT picks up the scattered light at angles θ from the sample’s surface normal. The sample mount is made adjustable to allow various regions on the sample to be exposed to the light and also to allow different angles of incidence θ0. The detector attached to the PBS monitors the power of the incident light at the sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Voltage signal from the PMT versus the optical power entering the PMT. The specified current limit for the PMT is 0.01 mA, corresponding to an output voltage of 2.0 V.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calibration curves for the incident optical power at the sample versus the signal from the reference detector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Background light levels picked up by the PMT when the sample is removed and either a light trap or a superblack material is used to absorb the unobstructed laser beam. Also shown for comparison is the background noise level when the laser is turned off.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Coordinate system used in the scattering measurements. The sample is in the X,Y plane, and the incident beam is in the Y,Z plane, making an angle θ0 with the Z axis. The detector arm has polar angle θ with the Z axis and azimuthal angle φ with the Y axis. The angle between the direction of grooves and the X axis is denoted by ψ.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured scattering efficiencies of a smooth silicon sample versus θ for p- and s-polarized light. The incidence angle θ0 is 40°.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Surface autocovariance function of the silicon sample derived from the data in Fig. 6. Here δ is the rms. surface roughness, and σ is the autocorrelation length of the rough features.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured scattering efficiencies for a polycarbonate substrate for p- and s-polarized light (incidence angle θ0 = 27°). The three curves in each panel are measured on a flat area of the disk, on the grooved region at ψ = 0°, and on the grooved region at ψ = 90°.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Same as Fig. 8 but at a different incidence angle (θ0 = 40°).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Atomic force microscope pictures of the grooved surface of glass substrates S 1 and S 2. The lower picture (corresponding to S 2) shows a slight bending of the grooves.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Scattering efficiencies measured on the glass substrate S 1 with p- and s-polarized light (incidence angle θ0 = 40°). The three curves in each panel are measured on a flat area of the disk and on the grooved area at ψ = 0° and ψ = 90°.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Same as Fig. 11 but at a different incidence angle (θ0 = 25°).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Same as Fig. 11 but measured on the glass substrate S 2.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Scattering efficiencies measured on a commercial DVD RAM disk with p- and s-polarized light (incidence angle θ0 = 25°).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Disk surface models used in the numerical simulation of scattering from bare substrates. (a) Flat surface with roughness, (b) grooved surface with equal amounts of roughness on land and groove, (c) grooved surface with random wall displacements. In all cases the substrate material is assumed to be glass with a refractive index of n = 1.5.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Computed scattering efficiencies for the rough surface depicted in Fig. 15(a). The incidence angle is (a) θ0 = 24° and (b) θ0 = 38.5°.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Computed scattering efficiencies for the rough grooved surface depicted in Fig. 15(b). The grating is mounted at ψ = 0°. The incidence angle is (a) θ0 = 25° and (b) θ0 = 40°.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Computed scattering efficiencies for the grooved structure with random wall displacements depicted in Fig. 15(c) at ψ = 0°. The incidence angle is (a) θ0 = 25° and (b) θ0 = 40°.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Dynamic noise spectra measured on the bare polycarbonate substrate. The linearly polarized laser beam had an E field (a) perpendicular to the grooves and (b) parallel to the grooves. The focused laser beam was locked in one case to a land track and in another case to a groove track.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Same as Fig. 19 for the bare glass substrate S 1.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Same as Fig. 19 for the bare glass substrate S 2.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Same as Fig. 19 for the commercial DVD RAM disk.

Equations (2)

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G(r)=δ2exp(-r2/a2),
|S(Δk)|2=πa2δ2 exp(-Δk2a2/4).

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