Abstract

The line jitter of CCD images can considerably influence the precision and resolution of a high-accuracy vision-based automated inspection system. We report the experimental studies on the line jitter of CCD images. By use of a method of Harr wavelet transform, correlation, and statistics analysis to detect the line jitter of subpixels, the experiment reveals that the line jitter exhibits inherent nonuniformity and that different CCD cameras have different jitter characteristics. It was commonly thought that the jitter could be eliminated by detection of the jitter level and performing compensation. However, the nonuniformity revealed in the experiment makes jitter compensation much harder.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Rodda, E. Campbell, D. Sauer, W. Mayweather, F. Dell’ova, “Full CMOS video line locked phase locked loop system,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 39, 496–503 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C.-C. Wang, C.-C. Chen, “Low-cost subpixel detection method for line jitter of camera/grabber signal conversion,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3385–3391 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. K. Lenz, R. T. Tsai, “Techniques for calibration of the scale factor and image center for high accuracy 3D machine vision metrology,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 713–720 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Kokaram, P. Rayner, P. Roosmalen, J. Biemond, “Line registration of jittered video,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 2553–2556.
  5. A. Houghton, P. Ivey, J. Mawer, “A method for line jitter reduction in videotape images,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 41, 343–349 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Li, T. Young, J. Magerl, “Subpixel edge detection and estimation with a microprocessor-controlled line scan camera.” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 35, 105–112 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Seitz, “Optical super-resolution using solid-state cameras and digital signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 27, 535–540 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Luo, H. Fang, Z. Fang, G. Mu, “Method for the deviation inspection of integrated circuit chip pin based on Harr wavelet transform,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1712–1716 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. Chung, M. Brooke, N. Jokerst, D. Wills, “Smart CMOS focal plane arrays: a Si CMOS detector array and sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter imaging system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296–305 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Zhou, B. Pain, E. Fossum, “Frame transfer CMOS active pixel sensor with pixel binning,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1764–1768 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. Luo, H. Fang, Z. Fang, G. Mu, “Method for the deviation inspection of integrated circuit chip pin based on Harr wavelet transform,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1712–1716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. Chung, M. Brooke, N. Jokerst, D. Wills, “Smart CMOS focal plane arrays: a Si CMOS detector array and sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter imaging system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296–305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Z. Zhou, B. Pain, E. Fossum, “Frame transfer CMOS active pixel sensor with pixel binning,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1764–1768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C.-C. Wang, C.-C. Chen, “Low-cost subpixel detection method for line jitter of camera/grabber signal conversion,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3385–3391 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Houghton, P. Ivey, J. Mawer, “A method for line jitter reduction in videotape images,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 41, 343–349 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

W. Rodda, E. Campbell, D. Sauer, W. Mayweather, F. Dell’ova, “Full CMOS video line locked phase locked loop system,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 39, 496–503 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

Y. Li, T. Young, J. Magerl, “Subpixel edge detection and estimation with a microprocessor-controlled line scan camera.” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 35, 105–112 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Seitz, “Optical super-resolution using solid-state cameras and digital signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 27, 535–540 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Lenz, R. T. Tsai, “Techniques for calibration of the scale factor and image center for high accuracy 3D machine vision metrology,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 713–720 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Biemond, J.

A. Kokaram, P. Rayner, P. Roosmalen, J. Biemond, “Line registration of jittered video,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 2553–2556.

Brooke, M.

Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. Chung, M. Brooke, N. Jokerst, D. Wills, “Smart CMOS focal plane arrays: a Si CMOS detector array and sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter imaging system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296–305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, E.

W. Rodda, E. Campbell, D. Sauer, W. Mayweather, F. Dell’ova, “Full CMOS video line locked phase locked loop system,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 39, 496–503 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

C.-C. Wang, C.-C. Chen, “Low-cost subpixel detection method for line jitter of camera/grabber signal conversion,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3385–3391 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chung, K.

Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. Chung, M. Brooke, N. Jokerst, D. Wills, “Smart CMOS focal plane arrays: a Si CMOS detector array and sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter imaging system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296–305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dell’ova, F.

W. Rodda, E. Campbell, D. Sauer, W. Mayweather, F. Dell’ova, “Full CMOS video line locked phase locked loop system,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 39, 496–503 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fang, H.

G. Luo, H. Fang, Z. Fang, G. Mu, “Method for the deviation inspection of integrated circuit chip pin based on Harr wavelet transform,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1712–1716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Z.

G. Luo, H. Fang, Z. Fang, G. Mu, “Method for the deviation inspection of integrated circuit chip pin based on Harr wavelet transform,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1712–1716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fossum, E.

Z. Zhou, B. Pain, E. Fossum, “Frame transfer CMOS active pixel sensor with pixel binning,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1764–1768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Houghton, A.

A. Houghton, P. Ivey, J. Mawer, “A method for line jitter reduction in videotape images,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 41, 343–349 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ivey, P.

A. Houghton, P. Ivey, J. Mawer, “A method for line jitter reduction in videotape images,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 41, 343–349 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N.

Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. Chung, M. Brooke, N. Jokerst, D. Wills, “Smart CMOS focal plane arrays: a Si CMOS detector array and sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter imaging system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296–305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Joo, Y.

Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. Chung, M. Brooke, N. Jokerst, D. Wills, “Smart CMOS focal plane arrays: a Si CMOS detector array and sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter imaging system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296–305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kokaram, A.

A. Kokaram, P. Rayner, P. Roosmalen, J. Biemond, “Line registration of jittered video,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 2553–2556.

Lenz, R. K.

R. K. Lenz, R. T. Tsai, “Techniques for calibration of the scale factor and image center for high accuracy 3D machine vision metrology,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 713–720 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, T. Young, J. Magerl, “Subpixel edge detection and estimation with a microprocessor-controlled line scan camera.” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 35, 105–112 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Luo, G.

G. Luo, H. Fang, Z. Fang, G. Mu, “Method for the deviation inspection of integrated circuit chip pin based on Harr wavelet transform,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1712–1716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Magerl, J.

Y. Li, T. Young, J. Magerl, “Subpixel edge detection and estimation with a microprocessor-controlled line scan camera.” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 35, 105–112 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mawer, J.

A. Houghton, P. Ivey, J. Mawer, “A method for line jitter reduction in videotape images,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 41, 343–349 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mayweather, W.

W. Rodda, E. Campbell, D. Sauer, W. Mayweather, F. Dell’ova, “Full CMOS video line locked phase locked loop system,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 39, 496–503 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mu, G.

G. Luo, H. Fang, Z. Fang, G. Mu, “Method for the deviation inspection of integrated circuit chip pin based on Harr wavelet transform,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1712–1716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pain, B.

Z. Zhou, B. Pain, E. Fossum, “Frame transfer CMOS active pixel sensor with pixel binning,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1764–1768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. Chung, M. Brooke, N. Jokerst, D. Wills, “Smart CMOS focal plane arrays: a Si CMOS detector array and sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter imaging system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296–305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, P.

A. Kokaram, P. Rayner, P. Roosmalen, J. Biemond, “Line registration of jittered video,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 2553–2556.

Rodda, W.

W. Rodda, E. Campbell, D. Sauer, W. Mayweather, F. Dell’ova, “Full CMOS video line locked phase locked loop system,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 39, 496–503 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roosmalen, P.

A. Kokaram, P. Rayner, P. Roosmalen, J. Biemond, “Line registration of jittered video,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 2553–2556.

Sauer, D.

W. Rodda, E. Campbell, D. Sauer, W. Mayweather, F. Dell’ova, “Full CMOS video line locked phase locked loop system,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 39, 496–503 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Seitz, P.

P. Seitz, “Optical super-resolution using solid-state cameras and digital signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 27, 535–540 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M.

Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. Chung, M. Brooke, N. Jokerst, D. Wills, “Smart CMOS focal plane arrays: a Si CMOS detector array and sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter imaging system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296–305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, R. T.

R. K. Lenz, R. T. Tsai, “Techniques for calibration of the scale factor and image center for high accuracy 3D machine vision metrology,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 713–720 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-C.

C.-C. Wang, C.-C. Chen, “Low-cost subpixel detection method for line jitter of camera/grabber signal conversion,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3385–3391 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wills, D.

Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. Chung, M. Brooke, N. Jokerst, D. Wills, “Smart CMOS focal plane arrays: a Si CMOS detector array and sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter imaging system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296–305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Young, T.

Y. Li, T. Young, J. Magerl, “Subpixel edge detection and estimation with a microprocessor-controlled line scan camera.” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 35, 105–112 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

Z. Zhou, B. Pain, E. Fossum, “Frame transfer CMOS active pixel sensor with pixel binning,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1764–1768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. Chung, M. Brooke, N. Jokerst, D. Wills, “Smart CMOS focal plane arrays: a Si CMOS detector array and sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter imaging system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296–305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. (2)

W. Rodda, E. Campbell, D. Sauer, W. Mayweather, F. Dell’ova, “Full CMOS video line locked phase locked loop system,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 39, 496–503 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Houghton, P. Ivey, J. Mawer, “A method for line jitter reduction in videotape images,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 41, 343–349 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

Z. Zhou, B. Pain, E. Fossum, “Frame transfer CMOS active pixel sensor with pixel binning,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1764–1768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (1)

Y. Li, T. Young, J. Magerl, “Subpixel edge detection and estimation with a microprocessor-controlled line scan camera.” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 35, 105–112 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

R. K. Lenz, R. T. Tsai, “Techniques for calibration of the scale factor and image center for high accuracy 3D machine vision metrology,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10, 713–720 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

C.-C. Wang, C.-C. Chen, “Low-cost subpixel detection method for line jitter of camera/grabber signal conversion,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3385–3391 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Seitz, “Optical super-resolution using solid-state cameras and digital signal processing,” Opt. Eng. 27, 535–540 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Luo, H. Fang, Z. Fang, G. Mu, “Method for the deviation inspection of integrated circuit chip pin based on Harr wavelet transform,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1712–1716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Kokaram, P. Rayner, P. Roosmalen, J. Biemond, “Line registration of jittered video,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), pp. 2553–2556.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fringe pattern for line jitter detection (partial).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Locating the center point of a stripe image by use of the Harr wavelet transform.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Position measurements of a fixed stripe.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross correlation of two measurement sets of two stripes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Standard deviation of uncompensated and compensated measurements of stripe positions with three CCD cameras.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Equalized correlation peak values between the position measurement of the first left stripe and that of the other stripes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Two-plumb-line method for line jitter compensation.

Equations (2)

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C=i+-ti-ti+ti+1,
σc=a σn2(gc-gb),

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