Abstract

In this study experimental measurements are used to determine that the observed absorbance of opaque microstructures in optically diffuse media correlates with the total surface area rather than the attenuation as calculated in a nonscattering environment. The data suggest that it may be possible to use remote measurements of optical diffuse transmission to quantify surface areas of microcapillaries that are highly absorbing or larger blood vessels that can have high intrinsic attenuation because of hematocrit alone. Results obtained in a transmission geometry are insensitive to the position of the microstructure along the line between source and detector, whereas those collected in a remission geometry are highly sensitive to the depth at which the structure is located. These types of measurement involving microscopic structures embedded in diffuse media have potential application in quantifying blood vessel surface areas that contain contrast agents or other microparticles within tissue.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2001

2000

B. W. Pogue, C. Willscher, T. O. McBride, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Contrast-detail analysis for detection and characterization with near-infrared diffuse tomography,” Med. Phys. 27, 2693–2700 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

V. Quaresima, S. J. Matcher, M. Ferrari, “Identification and quantification of intrinsic optical contrast for near-infrared mammography,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 4–14 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468–6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, “Image reconstruction in optical tomography,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 717–726 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, E. Okada, D. T. Delpy, “Investigation of the effect of discrete absorbers upon the measurement of blood volume with near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 465–477 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, C. L. Hutchinson, “Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55–64 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, Q. Luo, S. Nioka, D. C. Alsop, J. A. Detre, “Optical investigations of physiology: a study of intrinsic and extrinsic biomedical contrast,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 707–716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, “Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 649–659 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

H. Liu, B. Chance, A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 22, 1209–1217 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

1989

1988

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, E. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

M. Suzuki, K. Hori, I. Abe, S. Saito, H. Sato, “Functional characterization of the microcirculation in tumors,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 3, 115–126 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

F. F. Jobsis, “Non-invasive, infra-red monitoring of cerebral and myochardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1267 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1973

1919

A. Krogh, “The number and distribution of capillaries in muscles with calculations of the oxygen pressurehead necessary for supplying the tissue,” J. Physiol. 52, 409–415 (1919).
[PubMed]

Abe, I.

M. Suzuki, K. Hori, I. Abe, S. Saito, H. Sato, “Functional characterization of the microcirculation in tumors,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 3, 115–126 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alsop, D. C.

B. Chance, Q. Luo, S. Nioka, D. C. Alsop, J. A. Detre, “Optical investigations of physiology: a study of intrinsic and extrinsic biomedical contrast,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 707–716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. R.

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, “Image reconstruction in optical tomography,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 717–726 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boretsky, R.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

A. Talsma, B. Chance, G. Reindert, “Corrections for inhomogeneities in biological tissue caused by blood vessels,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 932–939 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance, Q. Luo, S. Nioka, D. C. Alsop, J. A. Detre, “Optical investigations of physiology: a study of intrinsic and extrinsic biomedical contrast,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 707–716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, B. Chance, A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 22, 1209–1217 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2331–2336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, P.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, “Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 649–659 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, E. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, “Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 649–659 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, E. Okada, D. T. Delpy, “Investigation of the effect of discrete absorbers upon the measurement of blood volume with near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 465–477 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, E. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Detre, J. A.

B. Chance, Q. Luo, S. Nioka, D. C. Alsop, J. A. Detre, “Optical investigations of physiology: a study of intrinsic and extrinsic biomedical contrast,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 707–716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fantini, S.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468–6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, M.

V. Quaresima, S. J. Matcher, M. Ferrari, “Identification and quantification of intrinsic optical contrast for near-infrared mammography,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 4–14 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finander, M.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firbank, M.

M. Firbank, E. Okada, D. T. Delpy, “Investigation of the effect of discrete absorbers upon the measurement of blood volume with near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 465–477 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468–6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaida, G.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468–6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerety, E.

Gratton, E.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468–6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenfeld, R.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hale, G. M.

Hielscher, A. H.

H. Liu, B. Chance, A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 22, 1209–1217 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hori, K.

M. Suzuki, K. Hori, I. Abe, S. Saito, H. Sato, “Functional characterization of the microcirculation in tumors,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 3, 115–126 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchinson, C. L.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, C. L. Hutchinson, “Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55–64 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

H. Liu, B. Chance, A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 22, 1209–1217 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jess, H.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468–6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.

Jobsis, F. F.

F. F. Jobsis, “Non-invasive, infra-red monitoring of cerebral and myochardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1267 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kaschke, M.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468–6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufmann, K.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krogh, A.

A. Krogh, “The number and distribution of capillaries in muscles with calculations of the oxygen pressurehead necessary for supplying the tissue,” J. Physiol. 52, 409–415 (1919).
[PubMed]

Leigh, J. S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, W.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, B. Chance, A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 22, 1209–1217 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez, G.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, C. L. Hutchinson, “Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55–64 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

B. Chance, Q. Luo, S. Nioka, D. C. Alsop, J. A. Detre, “Optical investigations of physiology: a study of intrinsic and extrinsic biomedical contrast,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 707–716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mantulin, W. W.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468–6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matcher, S. J.

V. Quaresima, S. J. Matcher, M. Ferrari, “Identification and quantification of intrinsic optical contrast for near-infrared mammography,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 4–14 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McBride, T. O.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, S. P. Poplack, “Initial studies of in vivo absorbing and scattering heterogeneity in near-infrared tomographic breast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 26, 822–824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, C. Willscher, T. O. McBride, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Contrast-detail analysis for detection and characterization with near-infrared diffuse tomography,” Med. Phys. 27, 2693–2700 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, E. Gerety, S. Poplack, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Spectroscopic diffuse optical tomography for quantitatively assessing hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in tissue,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5480–5490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, H.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moes, C. J. M.

Moesta, K. T.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468–6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nioka, S.

B. Chance, Q. Luo, S. Nioka, D. C. Alsop, J. A. Detre, “Optical investigations of physiology: a study of intrinsic and extrinsic biomedical contrast,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 707–716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okada, E.

M. Firbank, E. Okada, D. T. Delpy, “Investigation of the effect of discrete absorbers upon the measurement of blood volume with near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 465–477 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osterberg, U. L.

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, S. P. Poplack, “Initial studies of in vivo absorbing and scattering heterogeneity in near-infrared tomographic breast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 26, 822–824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, C. Willscher, T. O. McBride, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Contrast-detail analysis for detection and characterization with near-infrared diffuse tomography,” Med. Phys. 27, 2693–2700 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, E. Gerety, S. Poplack, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Spectroscopic diffuse optical tomography for quantitatively assessing hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in tissue,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5480–5490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Osterman, K. S.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

Paulsen, K. D.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, S. P. Poplack, “Initial studies of in vivo absorbing and scattering heterogeneity in near-infrared tomographic breast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 26, 822–824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, C. Willscher, T. O. McBride, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Contrast-detail analysis for detection and characterization with near-infrared diffuse tomography,” Med. Phys. 27, 2693–2700 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, E. Gerety, S. Poplack, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Spectroscopic diffuse optical tomography for quantitatively assessing hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in tissue,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5480–5490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B. W.

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, S. P. Poplack, “Initial studies of in vivo absorbing and scattering heterogeneity in near-infrared tomographic breast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 26, 822–824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, C. Willscher, T. O. McBride, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Contrast-detail analysis for detection and characterization with near-infrared diffuse tomography,” Med. Phys. 27, 2693–2700 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, E. Gerety, S. Poplack, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Spectroscopic diffuse optical tomography for quantitatively assessing hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in tissue,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5480–5490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Poplack, S.

Poplack, S. P.

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, S. P. Poplack, “Initial studies of in vivo absorbing and scattering heterogeneity in near-infrared tomographic breast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 26, 822–824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

Quaresima, V.

V. Quaresima, S. J. Matcher, M. Ferrari, “Identification and quantification of intrinsic optical contrast for near-infrared mammography,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 4–14 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Querry, M. R.

Reindert, G.

Reynolds, E.

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, E. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynolds, J. S.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, C. L. Hutchinson, “Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55–64 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, S.

M. Suzuki, K. Hori, I. Abe, S. Saito, H. Sato, “Functional characterization of the microcirculation in tumors,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 3, 115–126 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, H.

M. Suzuki, K. Hori, I. Abe, S. Saito, H. Sato, “Functional characterization of the microcirculation in tumors,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 3, 115–126 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlag, P. M.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468–6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweiger, M.

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, “Image reconstruction in optical tomography,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 717–726 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seeber, M.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468–6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, C. L. Hutchinson, “Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55–64 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. S.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, M.

M. Suzuki, K. Hori, I. Abe, S. Saito, H. Sato, “Functional characterization of the microcirculation in tumors,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 3, 115–126 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talsma, A.

Tittel, F. K.

H. Liu, B. Chance, A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 22, 1209–1217 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Troy, T. L.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, C. L. Hutchinson, “Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55–64 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

van Marle, J.

van Staveren, H. J.

Wells, W. A.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willscher, C.

B. W. Pogue, C. Willscher, T. O. McBride, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Contrast-detail analysis for detection and characterization with near-infrared diffuse tomography,” Med. Phys. 27, 2693–2700 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

Wray, S.

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, E. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J. S.

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, E. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshioka, H.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, M.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biochim. Biophys. Acta

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, E. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Metastasis Rev.

M. Suzuki, K. Hori, I. Abe, S. Saito, H. Sato, “Functional characterization of the microcirculation in tumors,” Cancer Metastasis Rev. 3, 115–126 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inverse Probl.

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Physiol.

A. Krogh, “The number and distribution of capillaries in muscles with calculations of the oxygen pressurehead necessary for supplying the tissue,” J. Physiol. 52, 409–415 (1919).
[PubMed]

Med. Phys.

B. W. Pogue, C. Willscher, T. O. McBride, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Contrast-detail analysis for detection and characterization with near-infrared diffuse tomography,” Med. Phys. 27, 2693–2700 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, B. Chance, A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 22, 1209–1217 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, “Image reconstruction in optical tomography,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 717–726 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, “Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 649–659 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance, Q. Luo, S. Nioka, D. C. Alsop, J. A. Detre, “Optical investigations of physiology: a study of intrinsic and extrinsic biomedical contrast,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 707–716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, C. L. Hutchinson, “Fluorescence and absorption contrast mechanisms for biomedical optical imaging using frequency-domain techniques,” Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55–64 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Quaresima, S. J. Matcher, M. Ferrari, “Identification and quantification of intrinsic optical contrast for near-infrared mammography,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 4–14 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol.

M. Firbank, E. Okada, D. T. Delpy, “Investigation of the effect of discrete absorbers upon the measurement of blood volume with near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 465–477 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468–6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

F. F. Jobsis, “Non-invasive, infra-red monitoring of cerebral and myochardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1267 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. Lentner, ed., Geigy Scientific Tables: Physical Chemistry; Composition of Blood; Hematology; Somatometric Data (Ciba-Geigy Corporation, Education Division, West Caldwell, N.J., 1984), Vol. 3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the metal mesh used in the attenuation measurement, showing the wire diameter d and the spatial period, denoted as the inverse of the spatial frequency f. The wire is woven into a mesh pattern with diameters varying between d = 20 and 228 µm and spatial frequencies within f = 0.31–24 wires/mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated values of the relative attenuation as measured from wire mesh with diameters as given in the x axis. Equations (1)–(3) were used for 2-D attenuation (filled circles), surface-weighted attenuation (filled squares), and volume-weighted attenuation (filled triangles). The calculations were performed for a frequency spacing of f = 5 mm-1 (filled data points) and for f = 0.3 mm-1 (open data points). The first frequency spacing would correspond to the approximate distance of 200 µm, such as in between capillaries in muscle tissue.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured absorbance normalized by the calculated surface area of the mesh is plotted as a function of the scattering coefficient of the medium. Three meshes were used with frequency f and diameter d, as noted in the legend. Regions where light transmission are translucent and diffuse (i.e., highly scattered) are denoted for reference.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Screens with different mesh size and frequency spacing were used to measure the absorbance as detected in air (nonscattered) and 1% Intralipid (diffuse). (a) The results are plotted as a function of the calculated attenuation as described in Eq. (1). (b) The same results are also plotted as a function of the mesh surface area as calculated by Eq. (2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured absorbance is shown as a function of distance between the screen and the source, where the detector was placed in the transmission and remission geometries, respectively. For transmission the source–detector separation was fixed at z = 50 mm, whereas for the remission geometry the distance between the source and the detector was 20 mm.

Equations (3)

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2-D attenuation=1- open areatotal area=1-1f-d21f2.
relative unit surface area=2π d1f-π d222/f2+4d/f.
relative unit volume=πdf2 - πd2f26.

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