Abstract

We report on determination of the surface effects of mercuric iodide (HgI2) uniaxial HgI2 optical parameters with a fixed-polarizer, rotating-polarizer, and fixed-analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometer (PRPSE) after chemical polishing. The characteristics of the chemical complex [KHgI3,H2O] that forms on the HgI2 surface during KI etching have been investigated over the spectral range from 400 to 800 nm. Surface roughness and effects of the ellipsometric parameters of HgI2 were treated, and the thickness of the layer formed on the surface was determined and analyzed by PRPSE. The surface roughness was modeled with the Bruggeman effective medium approximation.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. K. Solanki, A. Kashyab, T. Nautiyal, S. Auluck, M. A. Khan, “Band structure and optical properties of HgI2,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9215–9218 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Anedda, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, F. Raga, A. Serpi, “Low temperature reflectivity and and optical properties of red mercury iodide,” Solid State Commun. 39, 1121–1123 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. En Naciri, L. Johann, R. Kleim, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of anisotropic materials: application to the optical constants of HgI2,” Appl. Opt. 38, 647–654 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. En Naciri, L. Johann, R. Kleim, “Spectroscopic generalized ellipsometry based on Fourier analysis,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4802–4811 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, A. Benz, C. Corbu, “Characterization of the HgI2 surface layer after KI etching,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 112–116 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Scheiber, M. Roth, H. Yao, M. DeVries, R. B. James, M. Goorsky, “Bulk and surface stoichiometry of vapor grown mercuric iodide crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 146, 15–22 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Sieskind, M. Amann, J. P. Ponpon, “Infrared properties of etched mercuric iodide surfaces” Appl. Phys. A 66, 655–658 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. P. Ponpon, M. Amann, M. Sieskind, “Influence of water and water vapour on the characteristics of KI treated HgI2 detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 412, 104–108 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Sieskind, A. Nabaoui, B. Carimentrand, M. Amann, J. P. Ponpon, P. Siffert, “Infrared characterization of mercuric iodide surfaces,” in Gamma Ray Detector Physics and Applications, E. Aprile, ed., Proc. SPIE2305, 162–166 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Pascal, “Mercure,” in Compléments au Nouveau traité de chimie minérale (Masson, Paris, 1962), Vol. V, Chap. 3, p. 684.
  11. H. Yao, B. Johs, R. B. James, “Optical anisotropic dielectric response of mercuric iodide,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9414–9421 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Yao, J. C. Erickson, L. A. Lim, R. B. James, “Anisotropic dielectric response and surface aging of mercuric iodide crystal studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 351–355 (1998).
  13. J. P. Ponpon, P. C. Montgomery, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, “Photoetching effects in mercuric iodide,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 165, 233–240 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, “Theory and analysis of measurements in ellipsometer systems,” in Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), Chap. 3, p. 153.
  15. M. Schubert, “Polarisation-dependent optical parameters of arbitrarily anisotropic homogeneous layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4265–4274 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Petrik, L. P. Biro, M. Fried, T. Lohner, R. Berger, C. Schneider, J. Gyulai, H. Ryssel, “Comparative study of surface roughness measured on polysilicon using spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 315, 186–191 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys. 5 24, 638 (1935).
  18. D. E. Aspnes, “Analysis of cermet films with large metal packing fractions,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 677–682 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Lee, J. Hong, S. G. Oh, “In situ ellipsometry studies of temperature-dependent Au thin-film growth,” Thin Solid Films 341, 37–41 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Fujiwara, J. Koh, P. I. Rovira, R. W. Collins, “Assessment of effective-medium theories in the analysis of nucleation and microscopic surface roughness evolution for semiconductor thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10832–10844 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. E. Jellison, J. O. Ramey, L. A. Boatner, “Optical functions of BiI3 as measured by generalized ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 9718–9721 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. En Naciri, L. Broch, L. Johann, R. Kleim, “Fixed polarizer, rotating-polarizer, and fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometer: accurate calibration method, effect of errors and testing,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).
  23. See, Burger, A. Levi, J. Nissenbaum, M. Roth, M. Schieber, “Yield and quality of HgI2 vapor grown platelets,” J. Cryst. Grow. 72, 643–648 (1985), and references therein.
  24. S. Bertucci, A. Pawlowski, N. Nicolas, L. Johann, A. El Ghemmaz, N. Stein, R. Kleim, “Systematic errors in fixed polarizer, rotating polarizer, sample, fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 73–78 (1998).
  25. M. Born, E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic potentials and polarization” Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1975), Chap. 2, p. 95.
  26. A. Nabaoui, “Contribution à l’étude de quelques propriètés de photodiodes à base d’iodure mercurique α-HgI2,” Ph.D. dissertation (Louis Pasteur University, Strasbourg, France, 1996).
  27. P. Pascal, “L’eau,” in Compléments au Nouveau traité de chimie minérale (Masson, Paris, 1962), Vol. I, Chap. 2, p. 427.

2000 (2)

J. P. Ponpon, P. C. Montgomery, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, “Photoetching effects in mercuric iodide,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 165, 233–240 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujiwara, J. Koh, P. I. Rovira, R. W. Collins, “Assessment of effective-medium theories in the analysis of nucleation and microscopic surface roughness evolution for semiconductor thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10832–10844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

G. E. Jellison, J. O. Ramey, L. A. Boatner, “Optical functions of BiI3 as measured by generalized ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 9718–9721 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, J. Hong, S. G. Oh, “In situ ellipsometry studies of temperature-dependent Au thin-film growth,” Thin Solid Films 341, 37–41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. En Naciri, L. Johann, R. Kleim, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of anisotropic materials: application to the optical constants of HgI2,” Appl. Opt. 38, 647–654 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. En Naciri, L. Johann, R. Kleim, “Spectroscopic generalized ellipsometry based on Fourier analysis,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4802–4811 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

J. P. Ponpon, M. Amann, M. Sieskind, “Influence of water and water vapour on the characteristics of KI treated HgI2 detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 412, 104–108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Petrik, L. P. Biro, M. Fried, T. Lohner, R. Berger, C. Schneider, J. Gyulai, H. Ryssel, “Comparative study of surface roughness measured on polysilicon using spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 315, 186–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Yao, J. C. Erickson, L. A. Lim, R. B. James, “Anisotropic dielectric response and surface aging of mercuric iodide crystal studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 351–355 (1998).

S. Bertucci, A. Pawlowski, N. Nicolas, L. Johann, A. El Ghemmaz, N. Stein, R. Kleim, “Systematic errors in fixed polarizer, rotating polarizer, sample, fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 73–78 (1998).

1997 (2)

H. Yao, B. Johs, R. B. James, “Optical anisotropic dielectric response of mercuric iodide,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9414–9421 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Solanki, A. Kashyab, T. Nautiyal, S. Auluck, M. A. Khan, “Band structure and optical properties of HgI2,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9215–9218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, A. Benz, C. Corbu, “Characterization of the HgI2 surface layer after KI etching,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 112–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Sieskind, M. Amann, J. P. Ponpon, “Infrared properties of etched mercuric iodide surfaces” Appl. Phys. A 66, 655–658 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert, “Polarisation-dependent optical parameters of arbitrarily anisotropic homogeneous layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4265–4274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Scheiber, M. Roth, H. Yao, M. DeVries, R. B. James, M. Goorsky, “Bulk and surface stoichiometry of vapor grown mercuric iodide crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 146, 15–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, “Analysis of cermet films with large metal packing fractions,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 677–682 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

See, Burger, A. Levi, J. Nissenbaum, M. Roth, M. Schieber, “Yield and quality of HgI2 vapor grown platelets,” J. Cryst. Grow. 72, 643–648 (1985), and references therein.

1981 (1)

A. Anedda, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, F. Raga, A. Serpi, “Low temperature reflectivity and and optical properties of red mercury iodide,” Solid State Commun. 39, 1121–1123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys. 5 24, 638 (1935).

Amann, M.

J. P. Ponpon, P. C. Montgomery, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, “Photoetching effects in mercuric iodide,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 165, 233–240 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. En Naciri, L. Johann, R. Kleim, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of anisotropic materials: application to the optical constants of HgI2,” Appl. Opt. 38, 647–654 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ponpon, M. Amann, M. Sieskind, “Influence of water and water vapour on the characteristics of KI treated HgI2 detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 412, 104–108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Sieskind, M. Amann, J. P. Ponpon, “Infrared properties of etched mercuric iodide surfaces” Appl. Phys. A 66, 655–658 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, A. Benz, C. Corbu, “Characterization of the HgI2 surface layer after KI etching,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 112–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Sieskind, A. Nabaoui, B. Carimentrand, M. Amann, J. P. Ponpon, P. Siffert, “Infrared characterization of mercuric iodide surfaces,” in Gamma Ray Detector Physics and Applications, E. Aprile, ed., Proc. SPIE2305, 162–166 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Anedda, A.

A. Anedda, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, F. Raga, A. Serpi, “Low temperature reflectivity and and optical properties of red mercury iodide,” Solid State Commun. 39, 1121–1123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, “Analysis of cermet films with large metal packing fractions,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 677–682 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Auluck, S.

A. K. Solanki, A. Kashyab, T. Nautiyal, S. Auluck, M. A. Khan, “Band structure and optical properties of HgI2,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9215–9218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, “Theory and analysis of measurements in ellipsometer systems,” in Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), Chap. 3, p. 153.

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, “Theory and analysis of measurements in ellipsometer systems,” in Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), Chap. 3, p. 153.

Benz, A.

J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, A. Benz, C. Corbu, “Characterization of the HgI2 surface layer after KI etching,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 112–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berger, R.

P. Petrik, L. P. Biro, M. Fried, T. Lohner, R. Berger, C. Schneider, J. Gyulai, H. Ryssel, “Comparative study of surface roughness measured on polysilicon using spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 315, 186–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bertucci, S.

S. Bertucci, A. Pawlowski, N. Nicolas, L. Johann, A. El Ghemmaz, N. Stein, R. Kleim, “Systematic errors in fixed polarizer, rotating polarizer, sample, fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 73–78 (1998).

Biro, L. P.

P. Petrik, L. P. Biro, M. Fried, T. Lohner, R. Berger, C. Schneider, J. Gyulai, H. Ryssel, “Comparative study of surface roughness measured on polysilicon using spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 315, 186–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boatner, L. A.

G. E. Jellison, J. O. Ramey, L. A. Boatner, “Optical functions of BiI3 as measured by generalized ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 9718–9721 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic potentials and polarization” Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1975), Chap. 2, p. 95.

Broch, L.

A. En Naciri, L. Broch, L. Johann, R. Kleim, “Fixed polarizer, rotating-polarizer, and fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometer: accurate calibration method, effect of errors and testing,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

Bruggeman, D. A. G.

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys. 5 24, 638 (1935).

Burger,

See, Burger, A. Levi, J. Nissenbaum, M. Roth, M. Schieber, “Yield and quality of HgI2 vapor grown platelets,” J. Cryst. Grow. 72, 643–648 (1985), and references therein.

Carimentrand, B.

M. Sieskind, A. Nabaoui, B. Carimentrand, M. Amann, J. P. Ponpon, P. Siffert, “Infrared characterization of mercuric iodide surfaces,” in Gamma Ray Detector Physics and Applications, E. Aprile, ed., Proc. SPIE2305, 162–166 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Collins, R. W.

H. Fujiwara, J. Koh, P. I. Rovira, R. W. Collins, “Assessment of effective-medium theories in the analysis of nucleation and microscopic surface roughness evolution for semiconductor thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10832–10844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Corbu, C.

J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, A. Benz, C. Corbu, “Characterization of the HgI2 surface layer after KI etching,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 112–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DeVries, M.

M. Scheiber, M. Roth, H. Yao, M. DeVries, R. B. James, M. Goorsky, “Bulk and surface stoichiometry of vapor grown mercuric iodide crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 146, 15–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

El Ghemmaz, A.

S. Bertucci, A. Pawlowski, N. Nicolas, L. Johann, A. El Ghemmaz, N. Stein, R. Kleim, “Systematic errors in fixed polarizer, rotating polarizer, sample, fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 73–78 (1998).

En Naciri, A.

Erickson, J. C.

H. Yao, J. C. Erickson, L. A. Lim, R. B. James, “Anisotropic dielectric response and surface aging of mercuric iodide crystal studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 351–355 (1998).

Fried, M.

P. Petrik, L. P. Biro, M. Fried, T. Lohner, R. Berger, C. Schneider, J. Gyulai, H. Ryssel, “Comparative study of surface roughness measured on polysilicon using spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 315, 186–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

H. Fujiwara, J. Koh, P. I. Rovira, R. W. Collins, “Assessment of effective-medium theories in the analysis of nucleation and microscopic surface roughness evolution for semiconductor thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10832–10844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goorsky, M.

M. Scheiber, M. Roth, H. Yao, M. DeVries, R. B. James, M. Goorsky, “Bulk and surface stoichiometry of vapor grown mercuric iodide crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 146, 15–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grilli, E.

A. Anedda, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, F. Raga, A. Serpi, “Low temperature reflectivity and and optical properties of red mercury iodide,” Solid State Commun. 39, 1121–1123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Guzzi, M.

A. Anedda, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, F. Raga, A. Serpi, “Low temperature reflectivity and and optical properties of red mercury iodide,” Solid State Commun. 39, 1121–1123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gyulai, J.

P. Petrik, L. P. Biro, M. Fried, T. Lohner, R. Berger, C. Schneider, J. Gyulai, H. Ryssel, “Comparative study of surface roughness measured on polysilicon using spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 315, 186–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J.

S. Lee, J. Hong, S. G. Oh, “In situ ellipsometry studies of temperature-dependent Au thin-film growth,” Thin Solid Films 341, 37–41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

James, R. B.

H. Yao, J. C. Erickson, L. A. Lim, R. B. James, “Anisotropic dielectric response and surface aging of mercuric iodide crystal studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 351–355 (1998).

H. Yao, B. Johs, R. B. James, “Optical anisotropic dielectric response of mercuric iodide,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9414–9421 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheiber, M. Roth, H. Yao, M. DeVries, R. B. James, M. Goorsky, “Bulk and surface stoichiometry of vapor grown mercuric iodide crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 146, 15–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jellison, G. E.

G. E. Jellison, J. O. Ramey, L. A. Boatner, “Optical functions of BiI3 as measured by generalized ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 9718–9721 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johann, L.

A. En Naciri, L. Johann, R. Kleim, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of anisotropic materials: application to the optical constants of HgI2,” Appl. Opt. 38, 647–654 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. En Naciri, L. Johann, R. Kleim, “Spectroscopic generalized ellipsometry based on Fourier analysis,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4802–4811 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Bertucci, A. Pawlowski, N. Nicolas, L. Johann, A. El Ghemmaz, N. Stein, R. Kleim, “Systematic errors in fixed polarizer, rotating polarizer, sample, fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 73–78 (1998).

A. En Naciri, L. Broch, L. Johann, R. Kleim, “Fixed polarizer, rotating-polarizer, and fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometer: accurate calibration method, effect of errors and testing,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

Johs, B.

H. Yao, B. Johs, R. B. James, “Optical anisotropic dielectric response of mercuric iodide,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9414–9421 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kashyab, A.

A. K. Solanki, A. Kashyab, T. Nautiyal, S. Auluck, M. A. Khan, “Band structure and optical properties of HgI2,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9215–9218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. A.

A. K. Solanki, A. Kashyab, T. Nautiyal, S. Auluck, M. A. Khan, “Band structure and optical properties of HgI2,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9215–9218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kleim, R.

A. En Naciri, L. Johann, R. Kleim, “Spectroscopic generalized ellipsometry based on Fourier analysis,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4802–4811 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. En Naciri, L. Johann, R. Kleim, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of anisotropic materials: application to the optical constants of HgI2,” Appl. Opt. 38, 647–654 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Bertucci, A. Pawlowski, N. Nicolas, L. Johann, A. El Ghemmaz, N. Stein, R. Kleim, “Systematic errors in fixed polarizer, rotating polarizer, sample, fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 73–78 (1998).

A. En Naciri, L. Broch, L. Johann, R. Kleim, “Fixed polarizer, rotating-polarizer, and fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometer: accurate calibration method, effect of errors and testing,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

Koh, J.

H. Fujiwara, J. Koh, P. I. Rovira, R. W. Collins, “Assessment of effective-medium theories in the analysis of nucleation and microscopic surface roughness evolution for semiconductor thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10832–10844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

S. Lee, J. Hong, S. G. Oh, “In situ ellipsometry studies of temperature-dependent Au thin-film growth,” Thin Solid Films 341, 37–41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A.

See, Burger, A. Levi, J. Nissenbaum, M. Roth, M. Schieber, “Yield and quality of HgI2 vapor grown platelets,” J. Cryst. Grow. 72, 643–648 (1985), and references therein.

Lim, L. A.

H. Yao, J. C. Erickson, L. A. Lim, R. B. James, “Anisotropic dielectric response and surface aging of mercuric iodide crystal studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 351–355 (1998).

Lohner, T.

P. Petrik, L. P. Biro, M. Fried, T. Lohner, R. Berger, C. Schneider, J. Gyulai, H. Ryssel, “Comparative study of surface roughness measured on polysilicon using spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 315, 186–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, P. C.

J. P. Ponpon, P. C. Montgomery, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, “Photoetching effects in mercuric iodide,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 165, 233–240 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nabaoui, A.

M. Sieskind, A. Nabaoui, B. Carimentrand, M. Amann, J. P. Ponpon, P. Siffert, “Infrared characterization of mercuric iodide surfaces,” in Gamma Ray Detector Physics and Applications, E. Aprile, ed., Proc. SPIE2305, 162–166 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Nabaoui, “Contribution à l’étude de quelques propriètés de photodiodes à base d’iodure mercurique α-HgI2,” Ph.D. dissertation (Louis Pasteur University, Strasbourg, France, 1996).

Nautiyal, T.

A. K. Solanki, A. Kashyab, T. Nautiyal, S. Auluck, M. A. Khan, “Band structure and optical properties of HgI2,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9215–9218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nicolas, N.

S. Bertucci, A. Pawlowski, N. Nicolas, L. Johann, A. El Ghemmaz, N. Stein, R. Kleim, “Systematic errors in fixed polarizer, rotating polarizer, sample, fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 73–78 (1998).

Nissenbaum, J.

See, Burger, A. Levi, J. Nissenbaum, M. Roth, M. Schieber, “Yield and quality of HgI2 vapor grown platelets,” J. Cryst. Grow. 72, 643–648 (1985), and references therein.

Oh, S. G.

S. Lee, J. Hong, S. G. Oh, “In situ ellipsometry studies of temperature-dependent Au thin-film growth,” Thin Solid Films 341, 37–41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pascal, P.

P. Pascal, “Mercure,” in Compléments au Nouveau traité de chimie minérale (Masson, Paris, 1962), Vol. V, Chap. 3, p. 684.

P. Pascal, “L’eau,” in Compléments au Nouveau traité de chimie minérale (Masson, Paris, 1962), Vol. I, Chap. 2, p. 427.

Pawlowski, A.

S. Bertucci, A. Pawlowski, N. Nicolas, L. Johann, A. El Ghemmaz, N. Stein, R. Kleim, “Systematic errors in fixed polarizer, rotating polarizer, sample, fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 73–78 (1998).

Petrik, P.

P. Petrik, L. P. Biro, M. Fried, T. Lohner, R. Berger, C. Schneider, J. Gyulai, H. Ryssel, “Comparative study of surface roughness measured on polysilicon using spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 315, 186–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ponpon, J. P.

J. P. Ponpon, P. C. Montgomery, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, “Photoetching effects in mercuric iodide,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 165, 233–240 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ponpon, M. Amann, M. Sieskind, “Influence of water and water vapour on the characteristics of KI treated HgI2 detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 412, 104–108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Sieskind, M. Amann, J. P. Ponpon, “Infrared properties of etched mercuric iodide surfaces” Appl. Phys. A 66, 655–658 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, A. Benz, C. Corbu, “Characterization of the HgI2 surface layer after KI etching,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 112–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Sieskind, A. Nabaoui, B. Carimentrand, M. Amann, J. P. Ponpon, P. Siffert, “Infrared characterization of mercuric iodide surfaces,” in Gamma Ray Detector Physics and Applications, E. Aprile, ed., Proc. SPIE2305, 162–166 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Raga, F.

A. Anedda, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, F. Raga, A. Serpi, “Low temperature reflectivity and and optical properties of red mercury iodide,” Solid State Commun. 39, 1121–1123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ramey, J. O.

G. E. Jellison, J. O. Ramey, L. A. Boatner, “Optical functions of BiI3 as measured by generalized ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 9718–9721 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roth, M.

M. Scheiber, M. Roth, H. Yao, M. DeVries, R. B. James, M. Goorsky, “Bulk and surface stoichiometry of vapor grown mercuric iodide crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 146, 15–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

See, Burger, A. Levi, J. Nissenbaum, M. Roth, M. Schieber, “Yield and quality of HgI2 vapor grown platelets,” J. Cryst. Grow. 72, 643–648 (1985), and references therein.

Rovira, P. I.

H. Fujiwara, J. Koh, P. I. Rovira, R. W. Collins, “Assessment of effective-medium theories in the analysis of nucleation and microscopic surface roughness evolution for semiconductor thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10832–10844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ryssel, H.

P. Petrik, L. P. Biro, M. Fried, T. Lohner, R. Berger, C. Schneider, J. Gyulai, H. Ryssel, “Comparative study of surface roughness measured on polysilicon using spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 315, 186–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scheiber, M.

M. Scheiber, M. Roth, H. Yao, M. DeVries, R. B. James, M. Goorsky, “Bulk and surface stoichiometry of vapor grown mercuric iodide crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 146, 15–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schieber, M.

See, Burger, A. Levi, J. Nissenbaum, M. Roth, M. Schieber, “Yield and quality of HgI2 vapor grown platelets,” J. Cryst. Grow. 72, 643–648 (1985), and references therein.

Schneider, C.

P. Petrik, L. P. Biro, M. Fried, T. Lohner, R. Berger, C. Schneider, J. Gyulai, H. Ryssel, “Comparative study of surface roughness measured on polysilicon using spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 315, 186–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M.

M. Schubert, “Polarisation-dependent optical parameters of arbitrarily anisotropic homogeneous layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4265–4274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Serpi, A.

A. Anedda, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, F. Raga, A. Serpi, “Low temperature reflectivity and and optical properties of red mercury iodide,” Solid State Commun. 39, 1121–1123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sieskind, M.

J. P. Ponpon, P. C. Montgomery, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, “Photoetching effects in mercuric iodide,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 165, 233–240 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. En Naciri, L. Johann, R. Kleim, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of anisotropic materials: application to the optical constants of HgI2,” Appl. Opt. 38, 647–654 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ponpon, M. Amann, M. Sieskind, “Influence of water and water vapour on the characteristics of KI treated HgI2 detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 412, 104–108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Sieskind, M. Amann, J. P. Ponpon, “Infrared properties of etched mercuric iodide surfaces” Appl. Phys. A 66, 655–658 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, A. Benz, C. Corbu, “Characterization of the HgI2 surface layer after KI etching,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 112–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Sieskind, A. Nabaoui, B. Carimentrand, M. Amann, J. P. Ponpon, P. Siffert, “Infrared characterization of mercuric iodide surfaces,” in Gamma Ray Detector Physics and Applications, E. Aprile, ed., Proc. SPIE2305, 162–166 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Siffert, P.

M. Sieskind, A. Nabaoui, B. Carimentrand, M. Amann, J. P. Ponpon, P. Siffert, “Infrared characterization of mercuric iodide surfaces,” in Gamma Ray Detector Physics and Applications, E. Aprile, ed., Proc. SPIE2305, 162–166 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Solanki, A. K.

A. K. Solanki, A. Kashyab, T. Nautiyal, S. Auluck, M. A. Khan, “Band structure and optical properties of HgI2,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9215–9218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stein, N.

S. Bertucci, A. Pawlowski, N. Nicolas, L. Johann, A. El Ghemmaz, N. Stein, R. Kleim, “Systematic errors in fixed polarizer, rotating polarizer, sample, fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 73–78 (1998).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic potentials and polarization” Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1975), Chap. 2, p. 95.

Yao, H.

H. Yao, J. C. Erickson, L. A. Lim, R. B. James, “Anisotropic dielectric response and surface aging of mercuric iodide crystal studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 351–355 (1998).

H. Yao, B. Johs, R. B. James, “Optical anisotropic dielectric response of mercuric iodide,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9414–9421 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheiber, M. Roth, H. Yao, M. DeVries, R. B. James, M. Goorsky, “Bulk and surface stoichiometry of vapor grown mercuric iodide crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 146, 15–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. 5 (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys. 5 24, 638 (1935).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

M. Sieskind, M. Amann, J. P. Ponpon, “Infrared properties of etched mercuric iodide surfaces” Appl. Phys. A 66, 655–658 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. P. Ponpon, P. C. Montgomery, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, “Photoetching effects in mercuric iodide,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 165, 233–240 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Grow. (1)

See, Burger, A. Levi, J. Nissenbaum, M. Roth, M. Schieber, “Yield and quality of HgI2 vapor grown platelets,” J. Cryst. Grow. 72, 643–648 (1985), and references therein.

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

M. Scheiber, M. Roth, H. Yao, M. DeVries, R. B. James, M. Goorsky, “Bulk and surface stoichiometry of vapor grown mercuric iodide crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 146, 15–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (2)

J. P. Ponpon, M. Amann, M. Sieskind, “Influence of water and water vapour on the characteristics of KI treated HgI2 detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 412, 104–108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ponpon, M. Sieskind, M. Amann, A. Benz, C. Corbu, “Characterization of the HgI2 surface layer after KI etching,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 380, 112–116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (6)

A. K. Solanki, A. Kashyab, T. Nautiyal, S. Auluck, M. A. Khan, “Band structure and optical properties of HgI2,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9215–9218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yao, B. Johs, R. B. James, “Optical anisotropic dielectric response of mercuric iodide,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9414–9421 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, “Analysis of cermet films with large metal packing fractions,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 677–682 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert, “Polarisation-dependent optical parameters of arbitrarily anisotropic homogeneous layered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4265–4274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujiwara, J. Koh, P. I. Rovira, R. W. Collins, “Assessment of effective-medium theories in the analysis of nucleation and microscopic surface roughness evolution for semiconductor thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10832–10844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Jellison, J. O. Ramey, L. A. Boatner, “Optical functions of BiI3 as measured by generalized ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 9718–9721 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

A. Anedda, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, F. Raga, A. Serpi, “Low temperature reflectivity and and optical properties of red mercury iodide,” Solid State Commun. 39, 1121–1123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (4)

P. Petrik, L. P. Biro, M. Fried, T. Lohner, R. Berger, C. Schneider, J. Gyulai, H. Ryssel, “Comparative study of surface roughness measured on polysilicon using spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 315, 186–191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, J. Hong, S. G. Oh, “In situ ellipsometry studies of temperature-dependent Au thin-film growth,” Thin Solid Films 341, 37–41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Yao, J. C. Erickson, L. A. Lim, R. B. James, “Anisotropic dielectric response and surface aging of mercuric iodide crystal studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 351–355 (1998).

S. Bertucci, A. Pawlowski, N. Nicolas, L. Johann, A. El Ghemmaz, N. Stein, R. Kleim, “Systematic errors in fixed polarizer, rotating polarizer, sample, fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 73–78 (1998).

Other (7)

M. Born, E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic potentials and polarization” Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1975), Chap. 2, p. 95.

A. Nabaoui, “Contribution à l’étude de quelques propriètés de photodiodes à base d’iodure mercurique α-HgI2,” Ph.D. dissertation (Louis Pasteur University, Strasbourg, France, 1996).

P. Pascal, “L’eau,” in Compléments au Nouveau traité de chimie minérale (Masson, Paris, 1962), Vol. I, Chap. 2, p. 427.

A. En Naciri, L. Broch, L. Johann, R. Kleim, “Fixed polarizer, rotating-polarizer, and fixed analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometer: accurate calibration method, effect of errors and testing,” Thin Solid Films (to be published).

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, “Theory and analysis of measurements in ellipsometer systems,” in Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), Chap. 3, p. 153.

M. Sieskind, A. Nabaoui, B. Carimentrand, M. Amann, J. P. Ponpon, P. Siffert, “Infrared characterization of mercuric iodide surfaces,” in Gamma Ray Detector Physics and Applications, E. Aprile, ed., Proc. SPIE2305, 162–166 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Pascal, “Mercure,” in Compléments au Nouveau traité de chimie minérale (Masson, Paris, 1962), Vol. V, Chap. 3, p. 684.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices from HgI2 at room temperature obtained by standard and generalized ellipsometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectroscopic ellipsometric measurements as a function of wavelength during 60, 120, 150, and 180 s of KI etching treatment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison between the parameters tan Ψ and cos Δ measured from HgI2 without and with KI etching for 60 s.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fitting optical models used in the spectral PRPSE analysis: (a) Top graded BEMA layer including the complex [KHgI3,H2O] with void and the bottom [KHgI3,H2O] layer, (b) complex layer without roughness on HgI2 substrate, (c) two top graded BEMA layers without the complex [KHgI3,H2O].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of χ2 standard error calculated with the spectral range of 400–800 nm for different etching time with models (a), (b), and (c).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of surface roughness values obtained with models, (a) and (c) and subsurface layer as a function of etching time. The top roughness and subsurface values obtained by model (c) are close the those found by Yao et al. 11,12

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Evolution of the [KHgI3,H2O] thickness with KI etching time. Squares, thickness values obtained from the residuel mass measurements.5

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Refractive index of [KHgI3,H2O] complex formed on the surface of HgI2 compared with results obtained with the Beckman spectrophotometer.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the Values of BEMA Best-Fit Parameters and Surface Roughness

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of the Complex and Water Refractive Indices

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ=rp/rs=tan Ψ expiΔ.
χ2=12N-M-1itan Ψiexp-tan Ψicalδ tan Ψ2+cos Δiexp-cos Δicalδ cos Δ2,
fAA-A+K+fBB-B+K=0,
q=11+K.
KI+H2O+HgI2  KHgI3, H2O.
me=7tμg/cm2.
n1=a+b/λ2,

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