Abstract

We measured spectral extinction in situ for aerosolized Bacillus subtilis var. niger endospores using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy from 3.0 to 13.0 µm. Corresponding aerosol size distributions were measured with a commercially available elastic light-scattering probe and verified by direct particle capture and subsequent counting by video microscopy. Aerosol mass density was monitored simultaneously with conventional dosimetry and was used to mass normalize the measured spectral extinction. Mie theory calculations based on measured distributions and available complex indices of refraction agreed well. We also present resultant Mie calculations for the absorption, total scattering, and backscatter. For comparison, measured spectral extinction for three common environmental aerosols is also presented, i.e., for water fog, diesel soot, and Arizona road dust.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. C. van De Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1989).
  2. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  3. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).
  4. H. E. Gerber, E. E. Hindman, Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982).
  5. A. Deepak, Atmospheric Aerosols (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982).
  6. D. Helm, D. Naumann, “Identification of some bacterial cell components by FT-IR spectroscopy,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 126, 75–80 (1995).
  7. D. B. Hedrick, D. E. Nivens, C. Stafford, “Rapid differentiation of archaebacteria from eubacteria by diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform IR spectroscopic analysis,” J. Microbiol. Methods 13, 67–73 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. H. Mantsch, D. Chapman, Infrared Spectroscopy of Biomolecules (Wiley-Liss, New York, 1996).
  9. B. Lighthart, G. Mohr, Atmospheric Microbial Aerosols (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Madelin, “Fungal aerosols—a review,” J. Aerosol Sci. 25, 1405–1412 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. M. Racine, J. C. Vary, “Isolation and properties of membranes from Bacillus megaterium spores,” J. Bacteriol. 143, 1208–1214 (1980).
    [PubMed]
  12. S. Matthias-Maser, R. Jaenick, “Examination of atmospheric bioaerosol particles with radii greater than 0.2 micrometer,” J. Aerosol Sci. 25, 1605–1613 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. S. Tuminello, E. T. Arakawa, B. N. Khare, J. Wrobel, M. R. Querry, M. E. Milham, “Optical properties of Bacillus subtilis spores from 0.2 to 2.5 µm,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2818–2824 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Tong, B. Lighthart, “Diurnal distribution of total and culturable atmospheric bacteria at a rural site,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30, 246–254 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Tong, B. Lighthart, “The annual bacterial particle concentration and size distribution in the ambient atmosphere in a rural area of the Willamette Valley, Oregon,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 32, 393–403 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. R. Bryson, M. J. Flanagan, “The infrared characterization of smoke and obscurants utilizing the Honeywell background measurement spectroradiometer,” in Proceedings of the Smoke/Obscurants Symposium V, (Office of the Project Manager, Smoke/Obscurants, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Md., 1981), Vol. 1, pp. 241–274.
  17. D. F. Flanigan, “Hazardous cloud imaging: a new way of using passive infrared,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7027–7036 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. B. Grant, “LIDAR for atmospheric and hydrospheric studies,” in Tunable Laser Applications, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995).
  19. R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984).
  20. J. P. Carrico, “The DOD chemical-biological stand-off detection program: a revisit nearly ten year later,” presented at the Third Workshop on Stand-off Detection for Chemical and Biological Defense, Williamsburg, Va., 17–21 October 1994.
  21. D. F. Flanigan, “Hazardous cloud imaging: an in-depth study,” (Edgewood Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Md., 1997), App. B.
  22. The refractive-index measurements of Milham and Querry were never formally published, although they appear as tertiary information in App. B of Flanigan; see Ref. 21.
  23. P. M. Pellegrino, N. F. Fell, “Bacterial endospore detection using terbium dipicolinate photoluminescence in the presence of chemical and biological materials,” Anal. Chem. 70, 1755–1760 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. Deepak, M. Box, “Forwardscattering correction for optical extinction measurements in aerosol media. 2: Polydispersions,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3169–3176 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. G. W. Faris, R. Copeland, K. Mortelmans, B. Bronk, “Spectrally resolved absolute fluorescence cross sections for bacillus spores,” Appl. Opt. 36, 958–967 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. E. Shettle, R. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).
  27. D. Helm, D. Naumann, “Identification of some bacterial cell components by FT-IR spectroscopy,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 126, 75–80 (1995).
  28. H. Weichel, Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere, Vol. TT03 of the Tutorial Text (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1989).
  29. D. Naumann, D. Helm, “Microbiological characterization by FTIR spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 351, 81–82 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Yabushita, K. Wada, “A spectroscopic study of the microorganism model of interstellar grains,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 124, 377–388 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

2000

Y. Tong, B. Lighthart, “The annual bacterial particle concentration and size distribution in the ambient atmosphere in a rural area of the Willamette Valley, Oregon,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 32, 393–403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

Y. Tong, B. Lighthart, “Diurnal distribution of total and culturable atmospheric bacteria at a rural site,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30, 246–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

P. M. Pellegrino, N. F. Fell, “Bacterial endospore detection using terbium dipicolinate photoluminescence in the presence of chemical and biological materials,” Anal. Chem. 70, 1755–1760 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1995

D. Helm, D. Naumann, “Identification of some bacterial cell components by FT-IR spectroscopy,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 126, 75–80 (1995).

D. Helm, D. Naumann, “Identification of some bacterial cell components by FT-IR spectroscopy,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 126, 75–80 (1995).

1994

T. Madelin, “Fungal aerosols—a review,” J. Aerosol Sci. 25, 1405–1412 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Matthias-Maser, R. Jaenick, “Examination of atmospheric bioaerosol particles with radii greater than 0.2 micrometer,” J. Aerosol Sci. 25, 1605–1613 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. B. Hedrick, D. E. Nivens, C. Stafford, “Rapid differentiation of archaebacteria from eubacteria by diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform IR spectroscopic analysis,” J. Microbiol. Methods 13, 67–73 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Naumann, D. Helm, “Microbiological characterization by FTIR spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 351, 81–82 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986

S. Yabushita, K. Wada, “A spectroscopic study of the microorganism model of interstellar grains,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 124, 377–388 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980

F. M. Racine, J. C. Vary, “Isolation and properties of membranes from Bacillus megaterium spores,” J. Bacteriol. 143, 1208–1214 (1980).
[PubMed]

1978

Arakawa, E. T.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Box, M.

Bronk, B.

Bryson, J. R.

J. R. Bryson, M. J. Flanagan, “The infrared characterization of smoke and obscurants utilizing the Honeywell background measurement spectroradiometer,” in Proceedings of the Smoke/Obscurants Symposium V, (Office of the Project Manager, Smoke/Obscurants, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Md., 1981), Vol. 1, pp. 241–274.

Carrico, J. P.

J. P. Carrico, “The DOD chemical-biological stand-off detection program: a revisit nearly ten year later,” presented at the Third Workshop on Stand-off Detection for Chemical and Biological Defense, Williamsburg, Va., 17–21 October 1994.

Chapman, D.

H. H. Mantsch, D. Chapman, Infrared Spectroscopy of Biomolecules (Wiley-Liss, New York, 1996).

Copeland, R.

Deepak, A.

Faris, G. W.

Fell, N. F.

P. M. Pellegrino, N. F. Fell, “Bacterial endospore detection using terbium dipicolinate photoluminescence in the presence of chemical and biological materials,” Anal. Chem. 70, 1755–1760 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fenn, R.

E. Shettle, R. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Flanagan, M. J.

J. R. Bryson, M. J. Flanagan, “The infrared characterization of smoke and obscurants utilizing the Honeywell background measurement spectroradiometer,” in Proceedings of the Smoke/Obscurants Symposium V, (Office of the Project Manager, Smoke/Obscurants, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Md., 1981), Vol. 1, pp. 241–274.

Flanigan, D. F.

D. F. Flanigan, “Hazardous cloud imaging: a new way of using passive infrared,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7027–7036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Flanigan, “Hazardous cloud imaging: an in-depth study,” (Edgewood Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Md., 1997), App. B.

Gerber, H. E.

H. E. Gerber, E. E. Hindman, Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982).

Grant, W. B.

W. B. Grant, “LIDAR for atmospheric and hydrospheric studies,” in Tunable Laser Applications, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995).

Hedrick, D. B.

D. B. Hedrick, D. E. Nivens, C. Stafford, “Rapid differentiation of archaebacteria from eubacteria by diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform IR spectroscopic analysis,” J. Microbiol. Methods 13, 67–73 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Helm, D.

D. Helm, D. Naumann, “Identification of some bacterial cell components by FT-IR spectroscopy,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 126, 75–80 (1995).

D. Helm, D. Naumann, “Identification of some bacterial cell components by FT-IR spectroscopy,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 126, 75–80 (1995).

D. Naumann, D. Helm, “Microbiological characterization by FTIR spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 351, 81–82 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hindman, E. E.

H. E. Gerber, E. E. Hindman, Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982).

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Jaenick, R.

S. Matthias-Maser, R. Jaenick, “Examination of atmospheric bioaerosol particles with radii greater than 0.2 micrometer,” J. Aerosol Sci. 25, 1605–1613 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kerker, M.

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).

Khare, B. N.

Lighthart, B.

Y. Tong, B. Lighthart, “The annual bacterial particle concentration and size distribution in the ambient atmosphere in a rural area of the Willamette Valley, Oregon,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 32, 393–403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tong, B. Lighthart, “Diurnal distribution of total and culturable atmospheric bacteria at a rural site,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30, 246–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Lighthart, G. Mohr, Atmospheric Microbial Aerosols (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Madelin, T.

T. Madelin, “Fungal aerosols—a review,” J. Aerosol Sci. 25, 1405–1412 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mantsch, H. H.

H. H. Mantsch, D. Chapman, Infrared Spectroscopy of Biomolecules (Wiley-Liss, New York, 1996).

Matthias-Maser, S.

S. Matthias-Maser, R. Jaenick, “Examination of atmospheric bioaerosol particles with radii greater than 0.2 micrometer,” J. Aerosol Sci. 25, 1605–1613 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Milham, M. E.

Mohr, G.

B. Lighthart, G. Mohr, Atmospheric Microbial Aerosols (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Mortelmans, K.

Naumann, D.

D. Helm, D. Naumann, “Identification of some bacterial cell components by FT-IR spectroscopy,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 126, 75–80 (1995).

D. Helm, D. Naumann, “Identification of some bacterial cell components by FT-IR spectroscopy,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 126, 75–80 (1995).

D. Naumann, D. Helm, “Microbiological characterization by FTIR spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 351, 81–82 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nivens, D. E.

D. B. Hedrick, D. E. Nivens, C. Stafford, “Rapid differentiation of archaebacteria from eubacteria by diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform IR spectroscopic analysis,” J. Microbiol. Methods 13, 67–73 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrino, P. M.

P. M. Pellegrino, N. F. Fell, “Bacterial endospore detection using terbium dipicolinate photoluminescence in the presence of chemical and biological materials,” Anal. Chem. 70, 1755–1760 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Querry, M. R.

Racine, F. M.

F. M. Racine, J. C. Vary, “Isolation and properties of membranes from Bacillus megaterium spores,” J. Bacteriol. 143, 1208–1214 (1980).
[PubMed]

Shettle, E.

E. Shettle, R. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Stafford, C.

D. B. Hedrick, D. E. Nivens, C. Stafford, “Rapid differentiation of archaebacteria from eubacteria by diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform IR spectroscopic analysis,” J. Microbiol. Methods 13, 67–73 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tong, Y.

Y. Tong, B. Lighthart, “The annual bacterial particle concentration and size distribution in the ambient atmosphere in a rural area of the Willamette Valley, Oregon,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 32, 393–403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tong, B. Lighthart, “Diurnal distribution of total and culturable atmospheric bacteria at a rural site,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30, 246–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tuminello, P. S.

van De Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van De Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1989).

Vary, J. C.

F. M. Racine, J. C. Vary, “Isolation and properties of membranes from Bacillus megaterium spores,” J. Bacteriol. 143, 1208–1214 (1980).
[PubMed]

Wada, K.

S. Yabushita, K. Wada, “A spectroscopic study of the microorganism model of interstellar grains,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 124, 377–388 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Weichel, H.

H. Weichel, Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere, Vol. TT03 of the Tutorial Text (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1989).

Wrobel, J.

Yabushita, S.

S. Yabushita, K. Wada, “A spectroscopic study of the microorganism model of interstellar grains,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 124, 377–388 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Aerosol Sci. Technol.

Y. Tong, B. Lighthart, “Diurnal distribution of total and culturable atmospheric bacteria at a rural site,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30, 246–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tong, B. Lighthart, “The annual bacterial particle concentration and size distribution in the ambient atmosphere in a rural area of the Willamette Valley, Oregon,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 32, 393–403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

P. M. Pellegrino, N. F. Fell, “Bacterial endospore detection using terbium dipicolinate photoluminescence in the presence of chemical and biological materials,” Anal. Chem. 70, 1755–1760 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. Space Sci.

S. Yabushita, K. Wada, “A spectroscopic study of the microorganism model of interstellar grains,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 124, 377–388 (1986).
[CrossRef]

FEMS Microbiol. Lett.

D. Helm, D. Naumann, “Identification of some bacterial cell components by FT-IR spectroscopy,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 126, 75–80 (1995).

D. Helm, D. Naumann, “Identification of some bacterial cell components by FT-IR spectroscopy,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 126, 75–80 (1995).

J. Aerosol Sci.

S. Matthias-Maser, R. Jaenick, “Examination of atmospheric bioaerosol particles with radii greater than 0.2 micrometer,” J. Aerosol Sci. 25, 1605–1613 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Madelin, “Fungal aerosols—a review,” J. Aerosol Sci. 25, 1405–1412 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Bacteriol.

F. M. Racine, J. C. Vary, “Isolation and properties of membranes from Bacillus megaterium spores,” J. Bacteriol. 143, 1208–1214 (1980).
[PubMed]

J. Microbiol. Methods

D. B. Hedrick, D. E. Nivens, C. Stafford, “Rapid differentiation of archaebacteria from eubacteria by diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform IR spectroscopic analysis,” J. Microbiol. Methods 13, 67–73 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

D. Naumann, D. Helm, “Microbiological characterization by FTIR spectroscopy,” Nature (London) 351, 81–82 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Weichel, Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere, Vol. TT03 of the Tutorial Text (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1989).

J. R. Bryson, M. J. Flanagan, “The infrared characterization of smoke and obscurants utilizing the Honeywell background measurement spectroradiometer,” in Proceedings of the Smoke/Obscurants Symposium V, (Office of the Project Manager, Smoke/Obscurants, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Md., 1981), Vol. 1, pp. 241–274.

E. Shettle, R. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

H. H. Mantsch, D. Chapman, Infrared Spectroscopy of Biomolecules (Wiley-Liss, New York, 1996).

B. Lighthart, G. Mohr, Atmospheric Microbial Aerosols (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef]

H. C. van De Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1989).

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).

H. E. Gerber, E. E. Hindman, Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982).

A. Deepak, Atmospheric Aerosols (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982).

W. B. Grant, “LIDAR for atmospheric and hydrospheric studies,” in Tunable Laser Applications, F. J. Duarte, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995).

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984).

J. P. Carrico, “The DOD chemical-biological stand-off detection program: a revisit nearly ten year later,” presented at the Third Workshop on Stand-off Detection for Chemical and Biological Defense, Williamsburg, Va., 17–21 October 1994.

D. F. Flanigan, “Hazardous cloud imaging: an in-depth study,” (Edgewood Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Md., 1997), App. B.

The refractive-index measurements of Milham and Querry were never formally published, although they appear as tertiary information in App. B of Flanigan; see Ref. 21.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured BG size distribution with corresponding log-normal curve fit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph showing that single BG endospores are reasonably spherical.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FTIR transmittance for various aerosol concentrations of BG.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured and calculated mass-normalized (m2/g) extinction, absorption, total scatter, and backscatter cross sections for aerosolized BG endospores.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Real and imaginary indices of refraction for BG.22

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of measured mass-normalized extinction (m2/g) for BG with three common background aerosols, i.e., water fog, Arizona road dust, and diesel soot.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of FTIR measurements conducted on various forms of BG, i.e., aerosolized BG (top), thin-film slurry (middle), and bulk powdered BG (bottom). ATR, attenuated total reflection.

Metrics