Abstract

A high-pressure dynamic light-scattering (DLS) technique has been utilized to study the behavior in solution of poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctylacrylate) and poly(vinyl acetate) (PFOA-b-PVAC) in supercritical carbon dioxide. The hydrodynamic-radius distribution for each species, such as unimers, micelles, and large aggregates, were determined under both isobaric and isothermal conditions over a pressure range of 9–55.2 MPa, and a temperature range of 25–75 °C, respectively. The DLS results clearly showed both pressure-induced and temperature-induced dissolution and association behavior for the copolymer in supercritical carbon dioxide. Also presented are some preliminary experimental results for the micellar self-assembly of a fluorinated block copolymer, poly(2-tetrahydropyranyl methacrylate)-b-poly(1h,1h-perfluorooctyl methacrylate) (THPMA-b-F7MA), in supercritical carbon dioxide by use of a new high-pressure cell that allows us to conduct simultaneous small-angle x-ray scattering and DLS measurements.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  36. S. Zhou, B. Chu, “Self-assembly behavior of a diblock copolymer of poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctylacrylate) and poly(vinyl acetate) in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 31, 7746–7755 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  37. A. Dardin, J. B. Cain, J. M. DeSimone, C. S. Johnson, E. T. Samulski, “High-pressure NMR of polymers dissolved in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 30, 3593–3599 (1997).
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2000 (2)

F. Triolo, A. Triolo, R. Triolo, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, S. Wells, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Critical micelle density for the self-assembly of block copolymer surfactants in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Langmuir 16, 416–421 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Yang, J. Wang, K. Ogino, S. Valiyaveettil, C. K. Ober, “Low-surface-energy fluoromethacrylate block copolymers with patternable elements,” Chem. Mater. 1, 33–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. Ji, X. Chen, C. M. Wai, J. L. Fulton, “Synthesizing and dispersing silver nanoparticles in a water-in-supercritical carbon dioxide microemulsion,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 2631–2632 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, Z. Cheng, K. Inomata, S. Zhou, B. Chu, “Synchrotron SAXS and laser light scattering studies of aggregation behavior of poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctyl acrylate-b-vinyl acetate) diblock copolymer in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 32, 5836–5845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

E. Buhler, A. V. Dobrynin, J. M. DeSimone, M. Rubinstein, “Light-scattering study of diblock copolymers in supercritical carbon dioxide: CO2 density-induced micellization transition,” Macromolecules 31, 7347–7355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, B. Chu, H. S. Dhadwal, “High pressure fiber optic light scattering spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1955–1960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, B. Chu, “Laser light scattering study of pressure-induced micellization of a diblock copolymer of poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctylacrylate) and poly(vinyl acetate) in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 31, 5300–5308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, B. Chu, “Self-assembly behavior of a diblock copolymer of poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctylacrylate) and poly(vinyl acetate) in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 31, 7746–7755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. Dardin, J. B. Cain, J. M. DeSimone, C. S. Johnson, E. T. Samulski, “High-pressure NMR of polymers dissolved in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 30, 3593–3599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Betts, T. Johnson, C. Anderson, J. M. DeSimone, “Controlled radical polymerization methods for the synthesis of non-ionic surfactants for CO2,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 38, 760–761 (1997).

1996 (5)

D. A. Canelas, D. E. Betts, J. M. DeSimone, “Dispersion polymerization of styrene in supercritical carbon dioxide: importance of effective surfactants,” Macromolecules 29, 2818–2821 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McClain, D. Londono, J. R. Combes, T. J. Romack, D. A. Canelas, D. E. Betts, G. D. Wignall, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Solution properties of a CO2-soluble fluoropolymer via small angle neutron scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 917–918 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Zielinski, M. E. Paulaitis, E. W. Kaler, “A sapphire cell for neutron scattering at elevated pressures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2612–2614 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, J. B. McClain, J. R. Combes, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, J. M. DeSimone, E. T. Samulski, H. D. Cochran, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, “Neutron scattering characterization of homopolymers and graft-copolymer micelles in supercritical carbon dioxide,” J. Mol. Struct. 383, 3–10 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, J. D. Londono, H. D. Cochran, G. D. Wignall, D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, “Design of nonionic surfactants for supercritical carbon dioxide,” Science 274, 2049–2052 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

J. L. Fulton, D. M. Pfund, J. B. McClain, T. J. Romack, E. E. Maury, J. R. Combes, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Aggregation of amphiphilic molecules in supercritical carbon dioxide: a small angle x-ray scattering study,” Langmuir 11, 4241–4249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Kojima, M. Takenaka, Y. Nakayama, T. Hashimoto, “Apparatus for measuring time-resolved light scattering profiles from supercritical polymer solutions undergoing phase separation under high pressure,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4066–4072 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Z. Guan, J. M. DeSimone, “Fluorocarbon-based heterophase polymeric materials. 1. Block copolymer surfactants for carbon dioxide applications,” Macromolecules 27, 5527–5532 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. L. Fulton, D. M. Pfund, R. D. Smith, N. F. Carnaham, L. Quintero, M. Capel, K. Leontaritis, “A small angle x-ray scattering study of the effect of pressure on the aggregation of asphaltene fractions in petroleum fluids under near-critical solvent conditions,” Langmuir 9, 2035–2044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

E. W. Kaler, J. F. Billman, J. L. Fulton, R. D. Smith, “A small-angle neutron scattering study of intermicellar interactions in microemulsions of AOT, water, and near-critical propane,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 458–462 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Halperin, M. Tirrel, T. P. Lodge, “Tethered chains in polymer microstructures,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 100, 33–71 (1991).

1990 (3)

R. D. Smith, J. L. Fulton, J. P. Blitz, J. M. Tingey, “Reverse micelles and microemulsions in near-critical and supercritical fluids,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 781–787 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Beckman, R. D. Smith, “Microemulsions formed from nonionic surfactants in near-critical and supercritical alkanes: quasi-elastic light scattering investigations,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 3729–3734 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ritter, A. M. F. Palavvra, C. P. C. Kao, M. E. Paulaitis, “Three-phase liquid–liquid–gas equilibrium in the ternary system of trans-decalin-n-decane carbon dioxide,” Fluid Phase Equilibria 55, 173–191 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. L. Fulton, J. P. Blitz, J. M. Tingey, R. D. Smith, “Reverse micelle and microemulsion phases in supercritical xenon and ethane: scattering and spectroscopy probe studies,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 4198–4204 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

V. P. Saraf, E. Kiran, “Solubility of polystyrene in supercritical fluids,” J. Supercrit. Fluids 1, 37–44 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

J. A. Hyatt, “Liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide as organic solvents,” J. Org. Chem. 49, 5097–5101 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Dhadwal, B. Chu, “A fiber-optic light scattering spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 845–853 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

S. W. Provencher, “A constrained regularization method for inverting data represented by linear algebraic or integral equations,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 27, 213–227 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

S. W. Provencher, “Inverse problems in polymer characterization: direct analysis of polydispersity with photon correlation spectroscopy,” Makromol. Chem. 180, 201–209 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

G. J. Besserer, D. B. Robinson, “Refractive indices of ethane, carbon dioxide, and isobutane,” J. Chem. Eng. Data 18, 137–140 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, C.

D. Betts, T. Johnson, C. Anderson, J. M. DeSimone, “Controlled radical polymerization methods for the synthesis of non-ionic surfactants for CO2,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 38, 760–761 (1997).

Angus, S.

S. Angus, B. Armstrong, K. M. de Reuck, International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State Carbon Dioxide (Pergamon, London, 1973).

Armstrong, B.

S. Angus, B. Armstrong, K. M. de Reuck, International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State Carbon Dioxide (Pergamon, London, 1973).

Beckman, E. J.

E. J. Beckman, R. D. Smith, “Microemulsions formed from nonionic surfactants in near-critical and supercritical alkanes: quasi-elastic light scattering investigations,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 3729–3734 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Berne, B. J.

B. J. Berne, R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Kreiger, Malabar, Fla., 1990).

Besserer, G. J.

G. J. Besserer, D. B. Robinson, “Refractive indices of ethane, carbon dioxide, and isobutane,” J. Chem. Eng. Data 18, 137–140 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Betts, D.

D. Betts, T. Johnson, C. Anderson, J. M. DeSimone, “Controlled radical polymerization methods for the synthesis of non-ionic surfactants for CO2,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 38, 760–761 (1997).

Betts, D. E.

F. Triolo, A. Triolo, R. Triolo, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, S. Wells, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Critical micelle density for the self-assembly of block copolymer surfactants in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Langmuir 16, 416–421 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, J. B. McClain, J. R. Combes, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, J. M. DeSimone, E. T. Samulski, H. D. Cochran, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, “Neutron scattering characterization of homopolymers and graft-copolymer micelles in supercritical carbon dioxide,” J. Mol. Struct. 383, 3–10 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McClain, D. Londono, J. R. Combes, T. J. Romack, D. A. Canelas, D. E. Betts, G. D. Wignall, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Solution properties of a CO2-soluble fluoropolymer via small angle neutron scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 917–918 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, J. D. Londono, H. D. Cochran, G. D. Wignall, D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, “Design of nonionic surfactants for supercritical carbon dioxide,” Science 274, 2049–2052 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Canelas, D. E. Betts, J. M. DeSimone, “Dispersion polymerization of styrene in supercritical carbon dioxide: importance of effective surfactants,” Macromolecules 29, 2818–2821 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Billman, J. F.

E. W. Kaler, J. F. Billman, J. L. Fulton, R. D. Smith, “A small-angle neutron scattering study of intermicellar interactions in microemulsions of AOT, water, and near-critical propane,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 458–462 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Blitz, J. P.

R. D. Smith, J. L. Fulton, J. P. Blitz, J. M. Tingey, “Reverse micelles and microemulsions in near-critical and supercritical fluids,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 781–787 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Fulton, J. P. Blitz, J. M. Tingey, R. D. Smith, “Reverse micelle and microemulsion phases in supercritical xenon and ethane: scattering and spectroscopy probe studies,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 4198–4204 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Buhler, E.

E. Buhler, A. V. Dobrynin, J. M. DeSimone, M. Rubinstein, “Light-scattering study of diblock copolymers in supercritical carbon dioxide: CO2 density-induced micellization transition,” Macromolecules 31, 7347–7355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cain, J. B.

A. Dardin, J. B. Cain, J. M. DeSimone, C. S. Johnson, E. T. Samulski, “High-pressure NMR of polymers dissolved in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 30, 3593–3599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Canelas, D. A.

D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, J. B. McClain, J. R. Combes, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, J. M. DeSimone, E. T. Samulski, H. D. Cochran, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, “Neutron scattering characterization of homopolymers and graft-copolymer micelles in supercritical carbon dioxide,” J. Mol. Struct. 383, 3–10 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Canelas, D. E. Betts, J. M. DeSimone, “Dispersion polymerization of styrene in supercritical carbon dioxide: importance of effective surfactants,” Macromolecules 29, 2818–2821 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, J. D. Londono, H. D. Cochran, G. D. Wignall, D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, “Design of nonionic surfactants for supercritical carbon dioxide,” Science 274, 2049–2052 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. McClain, D. Londono, J. R. Combes, T. J. Romack, D. A. Canelas, D. E. Betts, G. D. Wignall, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Solution properties of a CO2-soluble fluoropolymer via small angle neutron scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 917–918 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Capel, M.

J. L. Fulton, D. M. Pfund, R. D. Smith, N. F. Carnaham, L. Quintero, M. Capel, K. Leontaritis, “A small angle x-ray scattering study of the effect of pressure on the aggregation of asphaltene fractions in petroleum fluids under near-critical solvent conditions,” Langmuir 9, 2035–2044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carnaham, N. F.

J. L. Fulton, D. M. Pfund, R. D. Smith, N. F. Carnaham, L. Quintero, M. Capel, K. Leontaritis, “A small angle x-ray scattering study of the effect of pressure on the aggregation of asphaltene fractions in petroleum fluids under near-critical solvent conditions,” Langmuir 9, 2035–2044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

M. Ji, X. Chen, C. M. Wai, J. L. Fulton, “Synthesizing and dispersing silver nanoparticles in a water-in-supercritical carbon dioxide microemulsion,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 2631–2632 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z.

L. Liu, Z. Cheng, K. Inomata, S. Zhou, B. Chu, “Synchrotron SAXS and laser light scattering studies of aggregation behavior of poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctyl acrylate-b-vinyl acetate) diblock copolymer in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 32, 5836–5845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chillura-Martino, D.

J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, J. D. Londono, H. D. Cochran, G. D. Wignall, D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, “Design of nonionic surfactants for supercritical carbon dioxide,” Science 274, 2049–2052 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, J. B. McClain, J. R. Combes, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, J. M. DeSimone, E. T. Samulski, H. D. Cochran, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, “Neutron scattering characterization of homopolymers and graft-copolymer micelles in supercritical carbon dioxide,” J. Mol. Struct. 383, 3–10 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chu, B.

L. Liu, Z. Cheng, K. Inomata, S. Zhou, B. Chu, “Synchrotron SAXS and laser light scattering studies of aggregation behavior of poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctyl acrylate-b-vinyl acetate) diblock copolymer in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 32, 5836–5845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, B. Chu, H. S. Dhadwal, “High pressure fiber optic light scattering spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1955–1960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, B. Chu, “Laser light scattering study of pressure-induced micellization of a diblock copolymer of poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctylacrylate) and poly(vinyl acetate) in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 31, 5300–5308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, B. Chu, “Self-assembly behavior of a diblock copolymer of poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctylacrylate) and poly(vinyl acetate) in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 31, 7746–7755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Dhadwal, B. Chu, “A fiber-optic light scattering spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 845–853 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. Chu, Laser Light Scattering, 2nd ed. (Academic, New York, 1991).

T. Koga, S. Zhou, B. Chu, J. L. Fulton, S. Yang, C. K. Ober, B. Erman, “High-pressure cell for simultaneous small-angle x-ray scattering and laser light scattering measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

Cochran, H. D.

D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, J. B. McClain, J. R. Combes, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, J. M. DeSimone, E. T. Samulski, H. D. Cochran, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, “Neutron scattering characterization of homopolymers and graft-copolymer micelles in supercritical carbon dioxide,” J. Mol. Struct. 383, 3–10 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, J. D. Londono, H. D. Cochran, G. D. Wignall, D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, “Design of nonionic surfactants for supercritical carbon dioxide,” Science 274, 2049–2052 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. B. McClain, D. Londono, J. R. Combes, T. J. Romack, D. A. Canelas, D. E. Betts, G. D. Wignall, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Solution properties of a CO2-soluble fluoropolymer via small angle neutron scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 917–918 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, J. B. McClain, J. R. Combes, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, J. M. DeSimone, E. T. Samulski, H. D. Cochran, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, “Neutron scattering characterization of homopolymers and graft-copolymer micelles in supercritical carbon dioxide,” J. Mol. Struct. 383, 3–10 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Fulton, D. M. Pfund, J. B. McClain, T. J. Romack, E. E. Maury, J. R. Combes, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Aggregation of amphiphilic molecules in supercritical carbon dioxide: a small angle x-ray scattering study,” Langmuir 11, 4241–4249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dardin, A.

A. Dardin, J. B. Cain, J. M. DeSimone, C. S. Johnson, E. T. Samulski, “High-pressure NMR of polymers dissolved in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 30, 3593–3599 (1997).
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F. Triolo, A. Triolo, R. Triolo, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, S. Wells, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Critical micelle density for the self-assembly of block copolymer surfactants in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Langmuir 16, 416–421 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Buhler, A. V. Dobrynin, J. M. DeSimone, M. Rubinstein, “Light-scattering study of diblock copolymers in supercritical carbon dioxide: CO2 density-induced micellization transition,” Macromolecules 31, 7347–7355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Dardin, J. B. Cain, J. M. DeSimone, C. S. Johnson, E. T. Samulski, “High-pressure NMR of polymers dissolved in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 30, 3593–3599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Betts, T. Johnson, C. Anderson, J. M. DeSimone, “Controlled radical polymerization methods for the synthesis of non-ionic surfactants for CO2,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 38, 760–761 (1997).

D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, J. B. McClain, J. R. Combes, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, J. M. DeSimone, E. T. Samulski, H. D. Cochran, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, “Neutron scattering characterization of homopolymers and graft-copolymer micelles in supercritical carbon dioxide,” J. Mol. Struct. 383, 3–10 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McClain, D. Londono, J. R. Combes, T. J. Romack, D. A. Canelas, D. E. Betts, G. D. Wignall, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Solution properties of a CO2-soluble fluoropolymer via small angle neutron scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 917–918 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, J. D. Londono, H. D. Cochran, G. D. Wignall, D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, “Design of nonionic surfactants for supercritical carbon dioxide,” Science 274, 2049–2052 (1996).
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J. L. Fulton, D. M. Pfund, J. B. McClain, T. J. Romack, E. E. Maury, J. R. Combes, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Aggregation of amphiphilic molecules in supercritical carbon dioxide: a small angle x-ray scattering study,” Langmuir 11, 4241–4249 (1995).
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E. Buhler, A. V. Dobrynin, J. M. DeSimone, M. Rubinstein, “Light-scattering study of diblock copolymers in supercritical carbon dioxide: CO2 density-induced micellization transition,” Macromolecules 31, 7347–7355 (1998).
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T. Koga, S. Zhou, B. Chu, J. L. Fulton, S. Yang, C. K. Ober, B. Erman, “High-pressure cell for simultaneous small-angle x-ray scattering and laser light scattering measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

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M. Ji, X. Chen, C. M. Wai, J. L. Fulton, “Synthesizing and dispersing silver nanoparticles in a water-in-supercritical carbon dioxide microemulsion,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 2631–2632 (1999).
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J. L. Fulton, D. M. Pfund, J. B. McClain, T. J. Romack, E. E. Maury, J. R. Combes, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Aggregation of amphiphilic molecules in supercritical carbon dioxide: a small angle x-ray scattering study,” Langmuir 11, 4241–4249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Fulton, D. M. Pfund, R. D. Smith, N. F. Carnaham, L. Quintero, M. Capel, K. Leontaritis, “A small angle x-ray scattering study of the effect of pressure on the aggregation of asphaltene fractions in petroleum fluids under near-critical solvent conditions,” Langmuir 9, 2035–2044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Kaler, J. F. Billman, J. L. Fulton, R. D. Smith, “A small-angle neutron scattering study of intermicellar interactions in microemulsions of AOT, water, and near-critical propane,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 458–462 (1991).
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R. D. Smith, J. L. Fulton, J. P. Blitz, J. M. Tingey, “Reverse micelles and microemulsions in near-critical and supercritical fluids,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 781–787 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Fulton, J. P. Blitz, J. M. Tingey, R. D. Smith, “Reverse micelle and microemulsion phases in supercritical xenon and ethane: scattering and spectroscopy probe studies,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 4198–4204 (1989).
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T. Koga, S. Zhou, B. Chu, J. L. Fulton, S. Yang, C. K. Ober, B. Erman, “High-pressure cell for simultaneous small-angle x-ray scattering and laser light scattering measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

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Z. Guan, J. M. DeSimone, “Fluorocarbon-based heterophase polymeric materials. 1. Block copolymer surfactants for carbon dioxide applications,” Macromolecules 27, 5527–5532 (1994).
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J. Kojima, M. Takenaka, Y. Nakayama, T. Hashimoto, “Apparatus for measuring time-resolved light scattering profiles from supercritical polymer solutions undergoing phase separation under high pressure,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4066–4072 (1995).
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L. Liu, Z. Cheng, K. Inomata, S. Zhou, B. Chu, “Synchrotron SAXS and laser light scattering studies of aggregation behavior of poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctyl acrylate-b-vinyl acetate) diblock copolymer in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 32, 5836–5845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ji, M.

M. Ji, X. Chen, C. M. Wai, J. L. Fulton, “Synthesizing and dispersing silver nanoparticles in a water-in-supercritical carbon dioxide microemulsion,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 2631–2632 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, C. S.

A. Dardin, J. B. Cain, J. M. DeSimone, C. S. Johnson, E. T. Samulski, “High-pressure NMR of polymers dissolved in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 30, 3593–3599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T.

D. Betts, T. Johnson, C. Anderson, J. M. DeSimone, “Controlled radical polymerization methods for the synthesis of non-ionic surfactants for CO2,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 38, 760–761 (1997).

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R. G. Zielinski, M. E. Paulaitis, E. W. Kaler, “A sapphire cell for neutron scattering at elevated pressures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2612–2614 (1996).
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E. W. Kaler, J. F. Billman, J. L. Fulton, R. D. Smith, “A small-angle neutron scattering study of intermicellar interactions in microemulsions of AOT, water, and near-critical propane,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 458–462 (1991).
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J. M. Ritter, A. M. F. Palavvra, C. P. C. Kao, M. E. Paulaitis, “Three-phase liquid–liquid–gas equilibrium in the ternary system of trans-decalin-n-decane carbon dioxide,” Fluid Phase Equilibria 55, 173–191 (1990).
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V. P. Saraf, E. Kiran, “Solubility of polystyrene in supercritical fluids,” J. Supercrit. Fluids 1, 37–44 (1988).
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T. Koga, S. Zhou, B. Chu, J. L. Fulton, S. Yang, C. K. Ober, B. Erman, “High-pressure cell for simultaneous small-angle x-ray scattering and laser light scattering measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

Kojima, J.

J. Kojima, M. Takenaka, Y. Nakayama, T. Hashimoto, “Apparatus for measuring time-resolved light scattering profiles from supercritical polymer solutions undergoing phase separation under high pressure,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4066–4072 (1995).
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M. A. McHugh, V. J. Krukonis, Supercritical Fluid Extraction: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. (Butterworth, Stoneham, Mass., 1994).

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J. L. Fulton, D. M. Pfund, R. D. Smith, N. F. Carnaham, L. Quintero, M. Capel, K. Leontaritis, “A small angle x-ray scattering study of the effect of pressure on the aggregation of asphaltene fractions in petroleum fluids under near-critical solvent conditions,” Langmuir 9, 2035–2044 (1993).
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Liu, L.

L. Liu, Z. Cheng, K. Inomata, S. Zhou, B. Chu, “Synchrotron SAXS and laser light scattering studies of aggregation behavior of poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctyl acrylate-b-vinyl acetate) diblock copolymer in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 32, 5836–5845 (1999).
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Lodge, T. P.

A. Halperin, M. Tirrel, T. P. Lodge, “Tethered chains in polymer microstructures,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 100, 33–71 (1991).

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J. B. McClain, D. Londono, J. R. Combes, T. J. Romack, D. A. Canelas, D. E. Betts, G. D. Wignall, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Solution properties of a CO2-soluble fluoropolymer via small angle neutron scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 917–918 (1996).
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Londono, J. D.

F. Triolo, A. Triolo, R. Triolo, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, S. Wells, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Critical micelle density for the self-assembly of block copolymer surfactants in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Langmuir 16, 416–421 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, J. B. McClain, J. R. Combes, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, J. M. DeSimone, E. T. Samulski, H. D. Cochran, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, “Neutron scattering characterization of homopolymers and graft-copolymer micelles in supercritical carbon dioxide,” J. Mol. Struct. 383, 3–10 (1996).
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J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, J. D. Londono, H. D. Cochran, G. D. Wignall, D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, “Design of nonionic surfactants for supercritical carbon dioxide,” Science 274, 2049–2052 (1996).
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K. Stephan, K. Lucas, Viscosity of Dense Fluids (Plenum, New York, 1979).
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J. L. Fulton, D. M. Pfund, J. B. McClain, T. J. Romack, E. E. Maury, J. R. Combes, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Aggregation of amphiphilic molecules in supercritical carbon dioxide: a small angle x-ray scattering study,” Langmuir 11, 4241–4249 (1995).
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McClain, J. B.

F. Triolo, A. Triolo, R. Triolo, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, S. Wells, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Critical micelle density for the self-assembly of block copolymer surfactants in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Langmuir 16, 416–421 (2000).
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D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, J. B. McClain, J. R. Combes, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, J. M. DeSimone, E. T. Samulski, H. D. Cochran, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, “Neutron scattering characterization of homopolymers and graft-copolymer micelles in supercritical carbon dioxide,” J. Mol. Struct. 383, 3–10 (1996).
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J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, J. D. Londono, H. D. Cochran, G. D. Wignall, D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, “Design of nonionic surfactants for supercritical carbon dioxide,” Science 274, 2049–2052 (1996).
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J. B. McClain, D. Londono, J. R. Combes, T. J. Romack, D. A. Canelas, D. E. Betts, G. D. Wignall, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Solution properties of a CO2-soluble fluoropolymer via small angle neutron scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 917–918 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Fulton, D. M. Pfund, J. B. McClain, T. J. Romack, E. E. Maury, J. R. Combes, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Aggregation of amphiphilic molecules in supercritical carbon dioxide: a small angle x-ray scattering study,” Langmuir 11, 4241–4249 (1995).
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McHugh, M. A.

M. A. McHugh, V. J. Krukonis, Supercritical Fluid Extraction: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. (Butterworth, Stoneham, Mass., 1994).

Nakayama, Y.

J. Kojima, M. Takenaka, Y. Nakayama, T. Hashimoto, “Apparatus for measuring time-resolved light scattering profiles from supercritical polymer solutions undergoing phase separation under high pressure,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4066–4072 (1995).
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T. Koga, S. Zhou, B. Chu, J. L. Fulton, S. Yang, C. K. Ober, B. Erman, “High-pressure cell for simultaneous small-angle x-ray scattering and laser light scattering measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

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J. M. Ritter, A. M. F. Palavvra, C. P. C. Kao, M. E. Paulaitis, “Three-phase liquid–liquid–gas equilibrium in the ternary system of trans-decalin-n-decane carbon dioxide,” Fluid Phase Equilibria 55, 173–191 (1990).
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Paulaitis, M. E.

R. G. Zielinski, M. E. Paulaitis, E. W. Kaler, “A sapphire cell for neutron scattering at elevated pressures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2612–2614 (1996).
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J. M. Ritter, A. M. F. Palavvra, C. P. C. Kao, M. E. Paulaitis, “Three-phase liquid–liquid–gas equilibrium in the ternary system of trans-decalin-n-decane carbon dioxide,” Fluid Phase Equilibria 55, 173–191 (1990).
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Pfund, D. M.

J. L. Fulton, D. M. Pfund, J. B. McClain, T. J. Romack, E. E. Maury, J. R. Combes, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Aggregation of amphiphilic molecules in supercritical carbon dioxide: a small angle x-ray scattering study,” Langmuir 11, 4241–4249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Fulton, D. M. Pfund, R. D. Smith, N. F. Carnaham, L. Quintero, M. Capel, K. Leontaritis, “A small angle x-ray scattering study of the effect of pressure on the aggregation of asphaltene fractions in petroleum fluids under near-critical solvent conditions,” Langmuir 9, 2035–2044 (1993).
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J. L. Fulton, D. M. Pfund, R. D. Smith, N. F. Carnaham, L. Quintero, M. Capel, K. Leontaritis, “A small angle x-ray scattering study of the effect of pressure on the aggregation of asphaltene fractions in petroleum fluids under near-critical solvent conditions,” Langmuir 9, 2035–2044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, J. M.

J. M. Ritter, A. M. F. Palavvra, C. P. C. Kao, M. E. Paulaitis, “Three-phase liquid–liquid–gas equilibrium in the ternary system of trans-decalin-n-decane carbon dioxide,” Fluid Phase Equilibria 55, 173–191 (1990).
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J. B. McClain, D. Londono, J. R. Combes, T. J. Romack, D. A. Canelas, D. E. Betts, G. D. Wignall, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Solution properties of a CO2-soluble fluoropolymer via small angle neutron scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 917–918 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Fulton, D. M. Pfund, J. B. McClain, T. J. Romack, E. E. Maury, J. R. Combes, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Aggregation of amphiphilic molecules in supercritical carbon dioxide: a small angle x-ray scattering study,” Langmuir 11, 4241–4249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rubinstein, M.

E. Buhler, A. V. Dobrynin, J. M. DeSimone, M. Rubinstein, “Light-scattering study of diblock copolymers in supercritical carbon dioxide: CO2 density-induced micellization transition,” Macromolecules 31, 7347–7355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Samulski, E. T.

F. Triolo, A. Triolo, R. Triolo, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, S. Wells, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Critical micelle density for the self-assembly of block copolymer surfactants in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Langmuir 16, 416–421 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Dardin, J. B. Cain, J. M. DeSimone, C. S. Johnson, E. T. Samulski, “High-pressure NMR of polymers dissolved in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 30, 3593–3599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, J. B. McClain, J. R. Combes, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, J. M. DeSimone, E. T. Samulski, H. D. Cochran, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, “Neutron scattering characterization of homopolymers and graft-copolymer micelles in supercritical carbon dioxide,” J. Mol. Struct. 383, 3–10 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McClain, D. Londono, J. R. Combes, T. J. Romack, D. A. Canelas, D. E. Betts, G. D. Wignall, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Solution properties of a CO2-soluble fluoropolymer via small angle neutron scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 917–918 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, J. D. Londono, H. D. Cochran, G. D. Wignall, D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, “Design of nonionic surfactants for supercritical carbon dioxide,” Science 274, 2049–2052 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Fulton, D. M. Pfund, J. B. McClain, T. J. Romack, E. E. Maury, J. R. Combes, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Aggregation of amphiphilic molecules in supercritical carbon dioxide: a small angle x-ray scattering study,” Langmuir 11, 4241–4249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Saraf, V. P.

V. P. Saraf, E. Kiran, “Solubility of polystyrene in supercritical fluids,” J. Supercrit. Fluids 1, 37–44 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sherman, W. F.

W. F. Sherman, A. A. Stadtmuller, Experimental Techniques in High-Pressure Research (Wiley, New York, 1987).

Smith, R. D.

J. L. Fulton, D. M. Pfund, R. D. Smith, N. F. Carnaham, L. Quintero, M. Capel, K. Leontaritis, “A small angle x-ray scattering study of the effect of pressure on the aggregation of asphaltene fractions in petroleum fluids under near-critical solvent conditions,” Langmuir 9, 2035–2044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Kaler, J. F. Billman, J. L. Fulton, R. D. Smith, “A small-angle neutron scattering study of intermicellar interactions in microemulsions of AOT, water, and near-critical propane,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 458–462 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Smith, J. L. Fulton, J. P. Blitz, J. M. Tingey, “Reverse micelles and microemulsions in near-critical and supercritical fluids,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 781–787 (1990).
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E. J. Beckman, R. D. Smith, “Microemulsions formed from nonionic surfactants in near-critical and supercritical alkanes: quasi-elastic light scattering investigations,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 3729–3734 (1990).
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J. L. Fulton, J. P. Blitz, J. M. Tingey, R. D. Smith, “Reverse micelle and microemulsion phases in supercritical xenon and ethane: scattering and spectroscopy probe studies,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 4198–4204 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stadtmuller, A. A.

W. F. Sherman, A. A. Stadtmuller, Experimental Techniques in High-Pressure Research (Wiley, New York, 1987).

Stephan, K.

K. Stephan, K. Lucas, Viscosity of Dense Fluids (Plenum, New York, 1979).
[CrossRef]

Takenaka, M.

J. Kojima, M. Takenaka, Y. Nakayama, T. Hashimoto, “Apparatus for measuring time-resolved light scattering profiles from supercritical polymer solutions undergoing phase separation under high pressure,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4066–4072 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tingey, J. M.

R. D. Smith, J. L. Fulton, J. P. Blitz, J. M. Tingey, “Reverse micelles and microemulsions in near-critical and supercritical fluids,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 781–787 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Fulton, J. P. Blitz, J. M. Tingey, R. D. Smith, “Reverse micelle and microemulsion phases in supercritical xenon and ethane: scattering and spectroscopy probe studies,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 4198–4204 (1989).
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Tirrel, M.

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F. Triolo, A. Triolo, R. Triolo, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, S. Wells, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Critical micelle density for the self-assembly of block copolymer surfactants in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Langmuir 16, 416–421 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Triolo, F.

F. Triolo, A. Triolo, R. Triolo, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, S. Wells, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Critical micelle density for the self-assembly of block copolymer surfactants in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Langmuir 16, 416–421 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Triolo, R.

F. Triolo, A. Triolo, R. Triolo, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, S. Wells, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Critical micelle density for the self-assembly of block copolymer surfactants in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Langmuir 16, 416–421 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, J. B. McClain, J. R. Combes, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, J. M. DeSimone, E. T. Samulski, H. D. Cochran, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, “Neutron scattering characterization of homopolymers and graft-copolymer micelles in supercritical carbon dioxide,” J. Mol. Struct. 383, 3–10 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, J. D. Londono, H. D. Cochran, G. D. Wignall, D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, “Design of nonionic surfactants for supercritical carbon dioxide,” Science 274, 2049–2052 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valiyaveettil, S.

S. Yang, J. Wang, K. Ogino, S. Valiyaveettil, C. K. Ober, “Low-surface-energy fluoromethacrylate block copolymers with patternable elements,” Chem. Mater. 1, 33–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wai, C. M.

M. Ji, X. Chen, C. M. Wai, J. L. Fulton, “Synthesizing and dispersing silver nanoparticles in a water-in-supercritical carbon dioxide microemulsion,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 2631–2632 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

S. Yang, J. Wang, K. Ogino, S. Valiyaveettil, C. K. Ober, “Low-surface-energy fluoromethacrylate block copolymers with patternable elements,” Chem. Mater. 1, 33–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wells, S.

F. Triolo, A. Triolo, R. Triolo, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, S. Wells, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Critical micelle density for the self-assembly of block copolymer surfactants in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Langmuir 16, 416–421 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wignall, G. D.

F. Triolo, A. Triolo, R. Triolo, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, S. Wells, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Critical micelle density for the self-assembly of block copolymer surfactants in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Langmuir 16, 416–421 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, J. B. McClain, J. R. Combes, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, J. M. DeSimone, E. T. Samulski, H. D. Cochran, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, “Neutron scattering characterization of homopolymers and graft-copolymer micelles in supercritical carbon dioxide,” J. Mol. Struct. 383, 3–10 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, J. D. Londono, H. D. Cochran, G. D. Wignall, D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, “Design of nonionic surfactants for supercritical carbon dioxide,” Science 274, 2049–2052 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. McClain, D. Londono, J. R. Combes, T. J. Romack, D. A. Canelas, D. E. Betts, G. D. Wignall, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Solution properties of a CO2-soluble fluoropolymer via small angle neutron scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 917–918 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

S. Yang, J. Wang, K. Ogino, S. Valiyaveettil, C. K. Ober, “Low-surface-energy fluoromethacrylate block copolymers with patternable elements,” Chem. Mater. 1, 33–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Koga, S. Zhou, B. Chu, J. L. Fulton, S. Yang, C. K. Ober, B. Erman, “High-pressure cell for simultaneous small-angle x-ray scattering and laser light scattering measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

Zhou, S.

L. Liu, Z. Cheng, K. Inomata, S. Zhou, B. Chu, “Synchrotron SAXS and laser light scattering studies of aggregation behavior of poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctyl acrylate-b-vinyl acetate) diblock copolymer in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 32, 5836–5845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, B. Chu, H. S. Dhadwal, “High pressure fiber optic light scattering spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1955–1960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, B. Chu, “Laser light scattering study of pressure-induced micellization of a diblock copolymer of poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctylacrylate) and poly(vinyl acetate) in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 31, 5300–5308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, B. Chu, “Self-assembly behavior of a diblock copolymer of poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctylacrylate) and poly(vinyl acetate) in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 31, 7746–7755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Koga, S. Zhou, B. Chu, J. L. Fulton, S. Yang, C. K. Ober, B. Erman, “High-pressure cell for simultaneous small-angle x-ray scattering and laser light scattering measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

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R. G. Zielinski, M. E. Paulaitis, E. W. Kaler, “A sapphire cell for neutron scattering at elevated pressures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2612–2614 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Polym. Sci. (1)

A. Halperin, M. Tirrel, T. P. Lodge, “Tethered chains in polymer microstructures,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 100, 33–71 (1991).

Chem. Mater. (1)

S. Yang, J. Wang, K. Ogino, S. Valiyaveettil, C. K. Ober, “Low-surface-energy fluoromethacrylate block copolymers with patternable elements,” Chem. Mater. 1, 33–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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J. B. McClain, D. Londono, J. R. Combes, T. J. Romack, D. A. Canelas, D. E. Betts, G. D. Wignall, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Solution properties of a CO2-soluble fluoropolymer via small angle neutron scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 917–918 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Ji, X. Chen, C. M. Wai, J. L. Fulton, “Synthesizing and dispersing silver nanoparticles in a water-in-supercritical carbon dioxide microemulsion,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 2631–2632 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, J. B. McClain, J. R. Combes, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, J. M. DeSimone, E. T. Samulski, H. D. Cochran, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, “Neutron scattering characterization of homopolymers and graft-copolymer micelles in supercritical carbon dioxide,” J. Mol. Struct. 383, 3–10 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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J. A. Hyatt, “Liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide as organic solvents,” J. Org. Chem. 49, 5097–5101 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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E. W. Kaler, J. F. Billman, J. L. Fulton, R. D. Smith, “A small-angle neutron scattering study of intermicellar interactions in microemulsions of AOT, water, and near-critical propane,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 458–462 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Fulton, J. P. Blitz, J. M. Tingey, R. D. Smith, “Reverse micelle and microemulsion phases in supercritical xenon and ethane: scattering and spectroscopy probe studies,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 4198–4204 (1989).
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E. J. Beckman, R. D. Smith, “Microemulsions formed from nonionic surfactants in near-critical and supercritical alkanes: quasi-elastic light scattering investigations,” J. Phys. Chem. 94, 3729–3734 (1990).
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V. P. Saraf, E. Kiran, “Solubility of polystyrene in supercritical fluids,” J. Supercrit. Fluids 1, 37–44 (1988).
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Langmuir (3)

J. L. Fulton, D. M. Pfund, R. D. Smith, N. F. Carnaham, L. Quintero, M. Capel, K. Leontaritis, “A small angle x-ray scattering study of the effect of pressure on the aggregation of asphaltene fractions in petroleum fluids under near-critical solvent conditions,” Langmuir 9, 2035–2044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Fulton, D. M. Pfund, J. B. McClain, T. J. Romack, E. E. Maury, J. R. Combes, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Aggregation of amphiphilic molecules in supercritical carbon dioxide: a small angle x-ray scattering study,” Langmuir 11, 4241–4249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Triolo, A. Triolo, R. Triolo, J. D. Londono, G. D. Wignall, J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, S. Wells, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, “Critical micelle density for the self-assembly of block copolymer surfactants in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Langmuir 16, 416–421 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (7)

E. Buhler, A. V. Dobrynin, J. M. DeSimone, M. Rubinstein, “Light-scattering study of diblock copolymers in supercritical carbon dioxide: CO2 density-induced micellization transition,” Macromolecules 31, 7347–7355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

D. A. Canelas, D. E. Betts, J. M. DeSimone, “Dispersion polymerization of styrene in supercritical carbon dioxide: importance of effective surfactants,” Macromolecules 29, 2818–2821 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, Z. Cheng, K. Inomata, S. Zhou, B. Chu, “Synchrotron SAXS and laser light scattering studies of aggregation behavior of poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctyl acrylate-b-vinyl acetate) diblock copolymer in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 32, 5836–5845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, B. Chu, “Laser light scattering study of pressure-induced micellization of a diblock copolymer of poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctylacrylate) and poly(vinyl acetate) in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 31, 5300–5308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, B. Chu, “Self-assembly behavior of a diblock copolymer of poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctylacrylate) and poly(vinyl acetate) in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 31, 7746–7755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Dardin, J. B. Cain, J. M. DeSimone, C. S. Johnson, E. T. Samulski, “High-pressure NMR of polymers dissolved in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Macromolecules 30, 3593–3599 (1997).
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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (4)

S. Zhou, B. Chu, H. S. Dhadwal, “High pressure fiber optic light scattering spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1955–1960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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R. G. Zielinski, M. E. Paulaitis, E. W. Kaler, “A sapphire cell for neutron scattering at elevated pressures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2612–2614 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. B. McClain, D. E. Betts, D. A. Canelas, E. T. Samulski, J. M. DeSimone, J. D. Londono, H. D. Cochran, G. D. Wignall, D. Chillura-Martino, R. Triolo, “Design of nonionic surfactants for supercritical carbon dioxide,” Science 274, 2049–2052 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (8)

T. Koga, S. Zhou, B. Chu, J. L. Fulton, S. Yang, C. K. Ober, B. Erman, “High-pressure cell for simultaneous small-angle x-ray scattering and laser light scattering measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

M. A. McHugh, V. J. Krukonis, Supercritical Fluid Extraction: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. (Butterworth, Stoneham, Mass., 1994).

W. F. Sherman, A. A. Stadtmuller, Experimental Techniques in High-Pressure Research (Wiley, New York, 1987).

B. Chu, Laser Light Scattering, 2nd ed. (Academic, New York, 1991).

B. J. Berne, R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Kreiger, Malabar, Fla., 1990).

S. Angus, B. Armstrong, K. M. de Reuck, International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State Carbon Dioxide (Pergamon, London, 1973).

K. Stephan, K. Lucas, Viscosity of Dense Fluids (Plenum, New York, 1979).
[CrossRef]

A. Gunier, G. Fournet, Small-Angle Scattering of X-Rays (Wiley, London, 1955).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Intensity-contribution function plotted versus the (apparent) hydrodynamic radius R h for the PFOA-b-PVAC copolymer solution in scCO2 at C = 57 mg/ml, θ = 32°, T = 65 °C, and the indicated pressures. The data were taken partially from Fig. 2 in Ref. 35, with permission.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity-contribution function plotted versus the (apparent) hydrodynamic radius R h for the PFOA-b-PVAC copolymer solution in scCO2 at C = 24 mg/ml, θ = 32°, T = 65 °C, and the indicated pressures. The data were taken partially from Fig. 2 in Ref. 36, with permission.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Hydrodynamic-radius distributions for the PFOA-b-PVAC copolymer solution in CO2 at C = 24 mg/ml, θ = 32°, P = 22.5 MPa, and the indicated temperatures. The data were taken partially from Fig. 5 in Ref. 36, with permission.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pressure dependence of corrected SAXS profiles of C = 40 mg/ml THPMA-b-F7MA diblock copolymer solution in scCO2 at T = 52 °C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average R g of micelles–unimers plotted versus the scCO2 pressure at T = 52 °C and C = 40 mg/ml THPMA-b-F7MA diblock copolymer solution in scCO2. The data were taken partially from Fig. 8 in Ref. 23, with permission.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intensity-contribution function plotted versus the hydrodynamic radius R h with the new high-pressure cell for THPMA-b-F7MA diblock copolymer in scCO2 at C = 28 mg/ml, θ = 35°, T = 52 °C, and the indicated pressures. The data were taken partially from Fig. 9 in Ref. 23, with permission.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Intensity-contribution function plotted versus the (apparent) hydrodynamic radius R h with the high-pressure fiber-optic cell for THPMA-b-F7MA diblock copolymer in scCO2 at C = 40 mg/ml, θ = 32°, T = 52 °C, and P = 30.3 MPa.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G2t, q=A1+β|g1t, q|2,
g1t, q=0 GΓexp-ΓtdΓ,
Rh=kBT/6πηD,
Vn2-1/n2+2=6.600+1.25/V-264/V2,
Iq  exp-Rg2q2/3,

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