Abstract

We present a technique to implement three-dimensional (3-D) object recognition based on phase-shift digital holography. We use a nonlinear composite correlation filter to achieve distortion tolerance. We take advantage of the properties of holograms to make the composite filter by using one single hologram. Experiments are presented to illustrate the recognition of a 3-D object in the presence of out-of-plane rotation and longitudinal shift along the z axis.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. B. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 10, 139–145 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New-York, 1968).
  3. B. Javidi, J. L. Horner, Real-Time Optical Information Processing (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1994).
  4. A. D. McAulay, Optical Computer Architectures (Wiley, New York, 1991).
  5. R. Bamler, J. Hofer-Alfeis, “Three- and four-dimensional filter operations by coherent optics,” Opt. Acta 29, 747–757 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Karasik, “Evaluation of three-dimensional convolutions by two-dimensional filtering,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7397–7401 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Pu, R. Denkewalter, D. Psaltis, “Real-time vehicle navigation using a holographic memory,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2737–2746 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Rosen, “Three-dimensional joint transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7538–7544 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. U. Schnars, W. Jüpter, “Direct recording of holograms by a CCD target and numerical reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 33, 179–181 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. Javidi, E. Tajahuerce, “Three-dimensional object recognition by use of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 610–612 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Tajahuerce, O. Matoba, B. Javidi, “Shift-invariant three-dimensional object recognition by means of digital holography,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Javidi, D. Painchaud, “Distortion-invariant pattern recognition with Fourier-plane nonlinear filters,” Appl. Opt. 35, 318–331 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Mahalanobis, “Review of correlation filters and their application for scene matching,” in Optoelectronic Devices and Systems for Processing, Vol. CR65 of the SPIE Critical Reviews of Optical Science Technology (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 240–260.
  15. J. H. Bruning, D. R. Herriott, J. E. Gallagher, D. P. Rosenfeld, A. D. White, D. J. Brangaccio, “Digital wavefront measuring interferometer for testing optical surfaces and lenses,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2693–2703 (1974).
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2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (3)

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

R. Bamler, J. Hofer-Alfeis, “Three- and four-dimensional filter operations by coherent optics,” Opt. Acta 29, 747–757 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1964 (1)

A. B. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 10, 139–145 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Bamler, R.

R. Bamler, J. Hofer-Alfeis, “Three- and four-dimensional filter operations by coherent optics,” Opt. Acta 29, 747–757 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Brangaccio, D. J.

Bruning, J. H.

Casasent, D.

Denkewalter, R.

A. Pu, R. Denkewalter, D. Psaltis, “Real-time vehicle navigation using a holographic memory,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2737–2746 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, J. E.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New-York, 1968).

Herriott, D. R.

Hofer-Alfeis, J.

R. Bamler, J. Hofer-Alfeis, “Three- and four-dimensional filter operations by coherent optics,” Opt. Acta 29, 747–757 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Horner, J. L.

B. Javidi, J. L. Horner, Real-Time Optical Information Processing (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1994).

Javidi, B.

B. Javidi, E. Tajahuerce, “Three-dimensional object recognition by use of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 610–612 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, D. Painchaud, “Distortion-invariant pattern recognition with Fourier-plane nonlinear filters,” Appl. Opt. 35, 318–331 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Tajahuerce, O. Matoba, B. Javidi, “Shift-invariant three-dimensional object recognition by means of digital holography,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

B. Javidi, J. L. Horner, Real-Time Optical Information Processing (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1994).

Jüpter, W.

Karasik, Y.

Mahalanobis, A.

A. Mahalanobis, “Review of correlation filters and their application for scene matching,” in Optoelectronic Devices and Systems for Processing, Vol. CR65 of the SPIE Critical Reviews of Optical Science Technology (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 240–260.

Matoba, O.

E. Tajahuerce, O. Matoba, B. Javidi, “Shift-invariant three-dimensional object recognition by means of digital holography,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

McAulay, A. D.

A. D. McAulay, Optical Computer Architectures (Wiley, New York, 1991).

Painchaud, D.

Psaltis, D.

A. Pu, R. Denkewalter, D. Psaltis, “Real-time vehicle navigation using a holographic memory,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2737–2746 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pu, A.

A. Pu, R. Denkewalter, D. Psaltis, “Real-time vehicle navigation using a holographic memory,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2737–2746 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, J.

Rosenfeld, D. P.

Schnars, U.

Tajahuerce, E.

B. Javidi, E. Tajahuerce, “Three-dimensional object recognition by use of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 610–612 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Tajahuerce, O. Matoba, B. Javidi, “Shift-invariant three-dimensional object recognition by means of digital holography,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

VanderLugt, A. B.

A. B. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 10, 139–145 (1964).
[CrossRef]

White, A. D.

Yamaguchi, I.

Zhang, T.

Appl. Opt. (6)

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. B. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 10, 139–145 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

R. Bamler, J. Hofer-Alfeis, “Three- and four-dimensional filter operations by coherent optics,” Opt. Acta 29, 747–757 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. Pu, R. Denkewalter, D. Psaltis, “Real-time vehicle navigation using a holographic memory,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2737–2746 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (5)

E. Tajahuerce, O. Matoba, B. Javidi, “Shift-invariant three-dimensional object recognition by means of digital holography,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New-York, 1968).

B. Javidi, J. L. Horner, Real-Time Optical Information Processing (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1994).

A. D. McAulay, Optical Computer Architectures (Wiley, New York, 1991).

A. Mahalanobis, “Review of correlation filters and their application for scene matching,” in Optoelectronic Devices and Systems for Processing, Vol. CR65 of the SPIE Critical Reviews of Optical Science Technology (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 240–260.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: M, mirror; BS, beam splitter; SF, spatial filter; L, lens; RP, retardation plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image of a die reconstructed from the hologram: (a) before and (b) after removal of the speckle pattern.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Shifting the reconstruction window inside the holograms results in a changing in the angle of view of the object.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Die reconstructed from different windows of the same hologram. The lateral shift of the reconstruction window is equivalent to a change in the angle of view by twice 0.6°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Die with a different illumination (image 20).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Some examples of false target objects: (a) image 23, (b) image 24, (c) image 25, and (d) image 27.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Correlation outputs: (a) image 25 (false object) and (b) image 10 (nontraining true target).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Correlation results obtained with various test objects: (a) filter made from one single view, (b) filter made from three views based on one single hologram, and (c) filter made from nine views based on three different holograms.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Value of the output peak versus longitudinal shift along the z axis. Comparison between a filter made with focused images (regular filter) and a filter including defocused images (longitudinal shift-tolerant filter).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Correlation results obtained with various test objects. The filter was made from 15 focused and defocused views based on one single hologram.

Equations (2)

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Udx, y=U0x, y * hdx, y,
hdx, y=-iλdexp(i 2πλ d)expiπ x2+y2λd

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