Abstract

Autofluorescence is emerging as a useful tool for the detection of early cancers in the bronchi. It has already produced interesting results, which have been implemented in commercial imaging devices. Their design relies on the spectroscopy of the tissues of interest. However, a large majority of these autofluorescence spectroscopy studies have been presented in arbitrary units. This is a drawback for, in particular, the designing of imaging devices based on autofluorescence. Using correction factors and a spectral sensitivity correction curve, we determined the absolute spectral distribution of the tissue autofluorescence in vivo. These measurements were performed on healthy, metaplastic, and dysplastic bronchial tissues at several excitation wavelengths ranging from 350 to 495 nm. Moreover, we measured at a fixed distance between the tissue and the probe to avoid geometric distortions of the spectra that are due to the optical characteristics of tissue. We found that the order of magnitude of the autofluorescence brightness was stable as the excitation wavelengths varied (on the order of 5 pW/µW × nm at the maximum of the fluorescence emission spectra).

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  4. T. Horvath, M. Horvathova, F. Salajka, B. Habanec, L. Foretova, J. Kana, H. Koukalova, P. Pafko, F. Wurst, E. Novotna, J. Pecina, V. Vagunda, R. Vrbacky, R. Talac, H. Coupkova, Z. Pacovsky, “Detection of bronchial neoplasia in uranium miners by autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE-1000),” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 91–98 (1999).
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  23. M. Anidjar, D. Ettori, O. Cussenot, P. Meria, F. Desgrandchamps, A. Cortesse, P. Teillac, A. Leduc, S. Avrillier, “Laser-induced autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder-tumors—dependence on the excitation wavelength,” J. Urol. 156, 1590–1596 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  27. M. Kakihana, K. K. Il, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, T. Hirano, C. Konaka, H. Kato, T. Ebihara, “Early detection of bronchial lesions using system of autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE) 1000,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 99–104 (1999).
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  29. S. Takehana, M. Kaneko, H. Mizuno, “Endoscopic diagnostic system using autofluorescence,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 59–63 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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  32. G. Wagnières, S. G. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J.-P. Ballini, H. E. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415–1426 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. H. Zeng, C. McAulay, D. I. McLean, B. Palcic, “Spectroscopic and microscopic characteristics of human skin autofluorescence emission,” Photochem. Photobiol. 61, 639–645 (1995).
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  34. R. Richards-Kortum, E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555–606 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. D. R. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, P. Monnier, H. E. van den Bergh, “Optimizing light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of early-stage carcinomas of the esophagus using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 340–346 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  36. D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, T. Glanzmann, P. Monnier, G. Wagnières, H. E. van den Bergh, “Optimizing light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of the bronchi by fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 11, 247–254 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  37. T. Glanzmann, C. Hadjur, M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, M. Forrer, J. P. Ballini, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, C. K. Lim, G. Wagnières, “Pharmacokinetics of tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin in human plasma and individualized light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 596–602 (1998).
    [PubMed]
  38. A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. Elnaggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngology Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  39. B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. Mac Aulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging techniques,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. D. J. Anthony, A. E. Profio, O. J. Balchum, “Fluorescence spectra in lung with porphyrin injection,” Photochem. Photobiol. 49, 583–586 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, D. Goujon, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, G. Wagnières, “In vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy of human bronchial tissue to optimize the detection and imaging of early cancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 41–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

G. Bottiroli, A. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, K. Lanza, E. Giombelli, F. Tancioni, E. Benericetti, “Brain tissue autofluorescence properties: application to glioma resection margin delineation during surgical operation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, Special Issue, 38S, MPM-E11 (1999).

M. Kakihana, K. K. Il, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, T. Hirano, C. Konaka, H. Kato, T. Ebihara, “Early detection of bronchial lesions using system of autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE) 1000,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 99–104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Leonhard, “New incoherent autofluorescence/fluorescence system for early detection of lung cancer,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 71–75 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Takehana, M. Kaneko, H. Mizuno, “Endoscopic diagnostic system using autofluorescence,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 59–63 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Häussinger, F. Stanzel, R. M. Huber, J. Pichler, H. Stepp, “Autofluorescence detection of bronchial tumors with the D-Light/AF,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 105–112 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Horvath, M. Horvathova, F. Salajka, B. Habanec, L. Foretova, J. Kana, H. Koukalova, P. Pafko, F. Wurst, E. Novotna, J. Pecina, V. Vagunda, R. Vrbacky, R. Talac, H. Coupkova, Z. Pacovsky, “Detection of bronchial neoplasia in uranium miners by autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE-1000),” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 91–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. J. M. George, “Fluorescence bronchoscopy for the early detection of lung cancer,” Thorax 54, 180–183 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

J. M. Kurie, J. S. Lee, R. C. Morice, G. L. Walsh, F. R. Khuri, A. Broxson, J. Y. Ro, W. A. Franklin, R. Yu, W. K. Hong, “Autofluorescence bronchoscopy in the detection of squamous metaplasia and dysplasia in current and former smokers,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 90, 991–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wagnières, W. Star, B. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–632 (1998).
[PubMed]

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy: a technique with potential to improve the early detection of aerodigestive tract neoplasia,” Head Neck J. 20, 556–562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Lam, M. Unger, V. Rush, J. C. LeRiche, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest 113, 696–702 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Koenig, F. J. Mcgovern, H. Enquist, R. Larne, T. F. Deutsch, K. T. Schomacker, “Autofluorescence guided biopsy for the early diagnosis of bladder-Carcinoma,” J. Urol. 159, 1871–1875 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Weiss, H. Zeng, R. W. Kline, C. Macauley, N. Mackinnon, “Use of endoscopic autofluorescence imaging in diagnosis of disease of the esophagus and stomach,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 70–70 (1998).

T. Glanzmann, C. Hadjur, M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, M. Forrer, J. P. Ballini, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, C. K. Lim, G. Wagnières, “Pharmacokinetics of tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin in human plasma and individualized light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 596–602 (1998).
[PubMed]

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. Elnaggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngology Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

G. Wagnières, S. G. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J.-P. Ballini, H. E. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415–1426 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Ingrams, J. K. Dhingra, K. Roy, D. F. Perrault, I. D. Bottrill, S. Kabani, E. E. Rebeiz, M. M. Pankratov, S. M. Shapshay, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Autofluorescence characteristics of oral-mucosa,” Head Neck J. 19, 27–32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fryen, H. Glanz, W. Lohmann, T. Dreyer, R. M. Bohle, “Significance of autofluorescence for the optical demarcation of field cancerisation in the upper aerodigestive tract,” Acta Otolaryngol 117, 316–319 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zargi, L. Smid, I. Fajdiga, B. Bubnic, J. Lenarcic, P. Oblak, “Laser-induced fluorescence in diagnostics of laryngeal cancer,” Acta Otolaryngol. 5275, 125–127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Gupta, S. K. Majumder, A. Uppal, “Breast-cancer diagnosis using N-2 laser-excited autofluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 417–422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in vivo using laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 63–74 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Development of a multivariate statistical algorithm to analyse human cervical tissue fluorescence spectra acquired in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 46–62 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. Mcmillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aaerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181–1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Onizawa, H. Saginoya, Y. Furuya, H. Yoshida, “Fluorescence photography as a diagnostic method for oral-cancer,” Cancer Lett. 108, 61–66 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Richards-Kortum, E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555–606 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, P. Monnier, H. E. van den Bergh, “Optimizing light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of early-stage carcinomas of the esophagus using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 340–346 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, T. Glanzmann, P. Monnier, G. Wagnières, H. E. van den Bergh, “Optimizing light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of the bronchi by fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 11, 247–254 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Anidjar, D. Ettori, O. Cussenot, P. Meria, F. Desgrandchamps, A. Cortesse, P. Teillac, A. Leduc, S. Avrillier, “Laser-induced autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder-tumors—dependence on the excitation wavelength,” J. Urol. 156, 1590–1596 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon—a comprehensive ‘ex-vivo’ study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Zeng, C. McAulay, D. I. McLean, B. Palcic, “Spectroscopic and microscopic characteristics of human skin autofluorescence emission,” Photochem. Photobiol. 61, 639–645 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pradhan, B. B. Das, K. M. Yoo, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved UV photoexcited fluorescence kinetics from malignant and non-malignant human breast tissues,” Lasers Life Sci. 4, 225–234 (1992).

1991

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, B. Palcic, “Autofluorescence of normal and malignant bronchial tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 99–105 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. Mac Aulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging techniques,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

D. J. Anthony, A. E. Profio, O. J. Balchum, “Fluorescence spectra in lung with porphyrin injection,” Photochem. Photobiol. 49, 583–586 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, R. R. Alfano, “Spectroscopic differences between human cancer and normal lung and breast tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 290–295 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal breast and lung tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

A. Pradhan, B. B. Das, K. M. Yoo, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved UV photoexcited fluorescence kinetics from malignant and non-malignant human breast tissues,” Lasers Life Sci. 4, 225–234 (1992).

G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, R. R. Alfano, “Spectroscopic differences between human cancer and normal lung and breast tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 290–295 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal breast and lung tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Anidjar, M.

M. Anidjar, D. Ettori, O. Cussenot, P. Meria, F. Desgrandchamps, A. Cortesse, P. Teillac, A. Leduc, S. Avrillier, “Laser-induced autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder-tumors—dependence on the excitation wavelength,” J. Urol. 156, 1590–1596 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anthony, D. J.

D. J. Anthony, A. E. Profio, O. J. Balchum, “Fluorescence spectra in lung with porphyrin injection,” Photochem. Photobiol. 49, 583–586 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkinson, N.

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in vivo using laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 63–74 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avrillier, S.

M. Anidjar, D. Ettori, O. Cussenot, P. Meria, F. Desgrandchamps, A. Cortesse, P. Teillac, A. Leduc, S. Avrillier, “Laser-induced autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder-tumors—dependence on the excitation wavelength,” J. Urol. 156, 1590–1596 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balchum, O. J.

D. J. Anthony, A. E. Profio, O. J. Balchum, “Fluorescence spectra in lung with porphyrin injection,” Photochem. Photobiol. 49, 583–586 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballini, J. P.

T. Glanzmann, C. Hadjur, M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, M. Forrer, J. P. Ballini, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, C. K. Lim, G. Wagnières, “Pharmacokinetics of tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin in human plasma and individualized light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 596–602 (1998).
[PubMed]

Ballini, J.-P.

G. Wagnières, S. G. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J.-P. Ballini, H. E. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415–1426 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benericetti, E.

G. Bottiroli, A. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, K. Lanza, E. Giombelli, F. Tancioni, E. Benericetti, “Brain tissue autofluorescence properties: application to glioma resection margin delineation during surgical operation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, Special Issue, 38S, MPM-E11 (1999).

Bohle, R. M.

A. Fryen, H. Glanz, W. Lohmann, T. Dreyer, R. M. Bohle, “Significance of autofluorescence for the optical demarcation of field cancerisation in the upper aerodigestive tract,” Acta Otolaryngol 117, 316–319 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bottiroli, G.

G. Bottiroli, A. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, K. Lanza, E. Giombelli, F. Tancioni, E. Benericetti, “Brain tissue autofluorescence properties: application to glioma resection margin delineation during surgical operation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, Special Issue, 38S, MPM-E11 (1999).

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon—a comprehensive ‘ex-vivo’ study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bottrill, I. D.

D. R. Ingrams, J. K. Dhingra, K. Roy, D. F. Perrault, I. D. Bottrill, S. Kabani, E. E. Rebeiz, M. M. Pankratov, S. M. Shapshay, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Autofluorescence characteristics of oral-mucosa,” Head Neck J. 19, 27–32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Braichotte, D.

G. Wagnières, S. G. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J.-P. Ballini, H. E. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415–1426 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, T. Glanzmann, P. Monnier, G. Wagnières, H. E. van den Bergh, “Optimizing light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of the bronchi by fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 11, 247–254 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Braichotte, D. R.

D. R. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, P. Monnier, H. E. van den Bergh, “Optimizing light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of early-stage carcinomas of the esophagus using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 340–346 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Broxson, A.

J. M. Kurie, J. S. Lee, R. C. Morice, G. L. Walsh, F. R. Khuri, A. Broxson, J. Y. Ro, W. A. Franklin, R. Yu, W. K. Hong, “Autofluorescence bronchoscopy in the detection of squamous metaplasia and dysplasia in current and former smokers,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 90, 991–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bubnic, B.

M. Zargi, L. Smid, I. Fajdiga, B. Bubnic, J. Lenarcic, P. Oblak, “Laser-induced fluorescence in diagnostics of laryngeal cancer,” Acta Otolaryngol. 5275, 125–127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Celmer, E.

A. Pradhan, B. B. Das, K. M. Yoo, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved UV photoexcited fluorescence kinetics from malignant and non-malignant human breast tissues,” Lasers Life Sci. 4, 225–234 (1992).

Cheng, S. G.

G. Wagnières, S. G. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J.-P. Ballini, H. E. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415–1426 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choy, D. S. J.

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal breast and lung tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Clayman, G.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. Elnaggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngology Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cleary, J.

A. Pradhan, B. B. Das, K. M. Yoo, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved UV photoexcited fluorescence kinetics from malignant and non-malignant human breast tissues,” Lasers Life Sci. 4, 225–234 (1992).

Colasanti, A.

A. Colasanti, P. Colasanti, G. Fabbrocini, R. Liuzzi, M. Quarto, P. Riccio, G. Roberti, F. Villani, “Non-invasive spectroscopic analysis of dermatological lesions excited with N2 laser,” in Optical Biopsies, R. Cubeddu, S. R. Mordon, K. Sranberg, eds., Proc. SPIE2627, 77–89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Colasanti, P.

A. Colasanti, P. Colasanti, G. Fabbrocini, R. Liuzzi, M. Quarto, P. Riccio, G. Roberti, F. Villani, “Non-invasive spectroscopic analysis of dermatological lesions excited with N2 laser,” in Optical Biopsies, R. Cubeddu, S. R. Mordon, K. Sranberg, eds., Proc. SPIE2627, 77–89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Compton, C. C.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cortesse, A.

M. Anidjar, D. Ettori, O. Cussenot, P. Meria, F. Desgrandchamps, A. Cortesse, P. Teillac, A. Leduc, S. Avrillier, “Laser-induced autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder-tumors—dependence on the excitation wavelength,” J. Urol. 156, 1590–1596 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coupkova, H.

T. Horvath, M. Horvathova, F. Salajka, B. Habanec, L. Foretova, J. Kana, H. Koukalova, P. Pafko, F. Wurst, E. Novotna, J. Pecina, V. Vagunda, R. Vrbacky, R. Talac, H. Coupkova, Z. Pacovsky, “Detection of bronchial neoplasia in uranium miners by autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE-1000),” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 91–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Croce, A.

G. Bottiroli, A. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, K. Lanza, E. Giombelli, F. Tancioni, E. Benericetti, “Brain tissue autofluorescence properties: application to glioma resection margin delineation during surgical operation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, Special Issue, 38S, MPM-E11 (1999).

Croce, A. C.

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon—a comprehensive ‘ex-vivo’ study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cussenot, O.

M. Anidjar, D. Ettori, O. Cussenot, P. Meria, F. Desgrandchamps, A. Cortesse, P. Teillac, A. Leduc, S. Avrillier, “Laser-induced autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder-tumors—dependence on the excitation wavelength,” J. Urol. 156, 1590–1596 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuzzoni, C.

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon—a comprehensive ‘ex-vivo’ study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dalfante, M.

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon—a comprehensive ‘ex-vivo’ study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Das, B. B.

A. Pradhan, B. B. Das, K. M. Yoo, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved UV photoexcited fluorescence kinetics from malignant and non-malignant human breast tissues,” Lasers Life Sci. 4, 225–234 (1992).

Desgrandchamps, F.

M. Anidjar, D. Ettori, O. Cussenot, P. Meria, F. Desgrandchamps, A. Cortesse, P. Teillac, A. Leduc, S. Avrillier, “Laser-induced autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder-tumors—dependence on the excitation wavelength,” J. Urol. 156, 1590–1596 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deutsch, T. F.

F. Koenig, F. J. Mcgovern, H. Enquist, R. Larne, T. F. Deutsch, K. T. Schomacker, “Autofluorescence guided biopsy for the early diagnosis of bladder-Carcinoma,” J. Urol. 159, 1871–1875 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhingra, J. K.

D. R. Ingrams, J. K. Dhingra, K. Roy, D. F. Perrault, I. D. Bottrill, S. Kabani, E. E. Rebeiz, M. M. Pankratov, S. M. Shapshay, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Autofluorescence characteristics of oral-mucosa,” Head Neck J. 19, 27–32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. Mcmillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aaerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181–1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dipalma, S.

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon—a comprehensive ‘ex-vivo’ study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dreyer, T.

A. Fryen, H. Glanz, W. Lohmann, T. Dreyer, R. M. Bohle, “Significance of autofluorescence for the optical demarcation of field cancerisation in the upper aerodigestive tract,” Acta Otolaryngol 117, 316–319 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebihara, T.

M. Kakihana, K. K. Il, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, T. Hirano, C. Konaka, H. Kato, T. Ebihara, “Early detection of bronchial lesions using system of autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE) 1000,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 99–104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elnaggar, A. K.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. Elnaggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngology Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Enquist, H.

F. Koenig, F. J. Mcgovern, H. Enquist, R. Larne, T. F. Deutsch, K. T. Schomacker, “Autofluorescence guided biopsy for the early diagnosis of bladder-Carcinoma,” J. Urol. 159, 1871–1875 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ettori, D.

M. Anidjar, D. Ettori, O. Cussenot, P. Meria, F. Desgrandchamps, A. Cortesse, P. Teillac, A. Leduc, S. Avrillier, “Laser-induced autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder-tumors—dependence on the excitation wavelength,” J. Urol. 156, 1590–1596 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabbrocini, G.

A. Colasanti, P. Colasanti, G. Fabbrocini, R. Liuzzi, M. Quarto, P. Riccio, G. Roberti, F. Villani, “Non-invasive spectroscopic analysis of dermatological lesions excited with N2 laser,” in Optical Biopsies, R. Cubeddu, S. R. Mordon, K. Sranberg, eds., Proc. SPIE2627, 77–89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fajdiga, I.

M. Zargi, L. Smid, I. Fajdiga, B. Bubnic, J. Lenarcic, P. Oblak, “Laser-induced fluorescence in diagnostics of laryngeal cancer,” Acta Otolaryngol. 5275, 125–127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

D. R. Ingrams, J. K. Dhingra, K. Roy, D. F. Perrault, I. D. Bottrill, S. Kabani, E. E. Rebeiz, M. M. Pankratov, S. M. Shapshay, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Autofluorescence characteristics of oral-mucosa,” Head Neck J. 19, 27–32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. Mcmillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aaerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181–1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T. J.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foretova, L.

T. Horvath, M. Horvathova, F. Salajka, B. Habanec, L. Foretova, J. Kana, H. Koukalova, P. Pafko, F. Wurst, E. Novotna, J. Pecina, V. Vagunda, R. Vrbacky, R. Talac, H. Coupkova, Z. Pacovsky, “Detection of bronchial neoplasia in uranium miners by autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE-1000),” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 91–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Forrer, M.

T. Glanzmann, C. Hadjur, M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, M. Forrer, J. P. Ballini, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, C. K. Lim, G. Wagnières, “Pharmacokinetics of tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin in human plasma and individualized light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 596–602 (1998).
[PubMed]

Franklin, W. A.

J. M. Kurie, J. S. Lee, R. C. Morice, G. L. Walsh, F. R. Khuri, A. Broxson, J. Y. Ro, W. A. Franklin, R. Yu, W. K. Hong, “Autofluorescence bronchoscopy in the detection of squamous metaplasia and dysplasia in current and former smokers,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 90, 991–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frisoli, J. K.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fryen, A.

A. Fryen, H. Glanz, W. Lohmann, T. Dreyer, R. M. Bohle, “Significance of autofluorescence for the optical demarcation of field cancerisation in the upper aerodigestive tract,” Acta Otolaryngol 117, 316–319 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furukawa, K.

M. Kakihana, K. K. Il, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, T. Hirano, C. Konaka, H. Kato, T. Ebihara, “Early detection of bronchial lesions using system of autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE) 1000,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 99–104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Furuya, Y.

K. Onizawa, H. Saginoya, Y. Furuya, H. Yoshida, “Fluorescence photography as a diagnostic method for oral-cancer,” Cancer Lett. 108, 61–66 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganeshappa, R.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. Elnaggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngology Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

George, P. J. M.

P. J. M. George, “Fluorescence bronchoscopy for the early detection of lung cancer,” Thorax 54, 180–183 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. Elnaggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngology Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy: a technique with potential to improve the early detection of aerodigestive tract neoplasia,” Head Neck J. 20, 556–562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giombelli, E.

G. Bottiroli, A. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, K. Lanza, E. Giombelli, F. Tancioni, E. Benericetti, “Brain tissue autofluorescence properties: application to glioma resection margin delineation during surgical operation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, Special Issue, 38S, MPM-E11 (1999).

Glanz, H.

A. Fryen, H. Glanz, W. Lohmann, T. Dreyer, R. M. Bohle, “Significance of autofluorescence for the optical demarcation of field cancerisation in the upper aerodigestive tract,” Acta Otolaryngol 117, 316–319 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glanzmann, T.

T. Glanzmann, C. Hadjur, M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, M. Forrer, J. P. Ballini, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, C. K. Lim, G. Wagnières, “Pharmacokinetics of tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin in human plasma and individualized light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 596–602 (1998).
[PubMed]

D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, T. Glanzmann, P. Monnier, G. Wagnières, H. E. van den Bergh, “Optimizing light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of the bronchi by fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 11, 247–254 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goujon, D.

M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, D. Goujon, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, G. Wagnières, “In vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy of human bronchial tissue to optimize the detection and imaging of early cancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 41–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosjean, P.

M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, D. Goujon, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, G. Wagnières, “In vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy of human bronchial tissue to optimize the detection and imaging of early cancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 41–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Glanzmann, C. Hadjur, M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, M. Forrer, J. P. Ballini, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, C. K. Lim, G. Wagnières, “Pharmacokinetics of tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin in human plasma and individualized light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 596–602 (1998).
[PubMed]

Gupta, P. K.

P. K. Gupta, S. K. Majumder, A. Uppal, “Breast-cancer diagnosis using N-2 laser-excited autofluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 417–422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Habanec, B.

T. Horvath, M. Horvathova, F. Salajka, B. Habanec, L. Foretova, J. Kana, H. Koukalova, P. Pafko, F. Wurst, E. Novotna, J. Pecina, V. Vagunda, R. Vrbacky, R. Talac, H. Coupkova, Z. Pacovsky, “Detection of bronchial neoplasia in uranium miners by autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE-1000),” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 91–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hadjur, C.

T. Glanzmann, C. Hadjur, M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, M. Forrer, J. P. Ballini, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, C. K. Lim, G. Wagnières, “Pharmacokinetics of tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin in human plasma and individualized light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 596–602 (1998).
[PubMed]

Häussinger, K.

K. Häussinger, F. Stanzel, R. M. Huber, J. Pichler, H. Stepp, “Autofluorescence detection of bronchial tumors with the D-Light/AF,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 105–112 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, T.

M. Kakihana, K. K. Il, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, T. Hirano, C. Konaka, H. Kato, T. Ebihara, “Early detection of bronchial lesions using system of autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE) 1000,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 99–104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, W. K.

J. M. Kurie, J. S. Lee, R. C. Morice, G. L. Walsh, F. R. Khuri, A. Broxson, J. Y. Ro, W. A. Franklin, R. Yu, W. K. Hong, “Autofluorescence bronchoscopy in the detection of squamous metaplasia and dysplasia in current and former smokers,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 90, 991–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horvath, T.

T. Horvath, M. Horvathova, F. Salajka, B. Habanec, L. Foretova, J. Kana, H. Koukalova, P. Pafko, F. Wurst, E. Novotna, J. Pecina, V. Vagunda, R. Vrbacky, R. Talac, H. Coupkova, Z. Pacovsky, “Detection of bronchial neoplasia in uranium miners by autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE-1000),” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 91–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horvathova, M.

T. Horvath, M. Horvathova, F. Salajka, B. Habanec, L. Foretova, J. Kana, H. Koukalova, P. Pafko, F. Wurst, E. Novotna, J. Pecina, V. Vagunda, R. Vrbacky, R. Talac, H. Coupkova, Z. Pacovsky, “Detection of bronchial neoplasia in uranium miners by autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE-1000),” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 91–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R. M.

K. Häussinger, F. Stanzel, R. M. Huber, J. Pichler, H. Stepp, “Autofluorescence detection of bronchial tumors with the D-Light/AF,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 105–112 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hung, J.

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. Mac Aulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging techniques,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, B. Palcic, “Autofluorescence of normal and malignant bronchial tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 99–105 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Il, K. K.

M. Kakihana, K. K. Il, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, T. Hirano, C. Konaka, H. Kato, T. Ebihara, “Early detection of bronchial lesions using system of autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE) 1000,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 99–104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ingrams, D. R.

D. R. Ingrams, J. K. Dhingra, K. Roy, D. F. Perrault, I. D. Bottrill, S. Kabani, E. E. Rebeiz, M. M. Pankratov, S. M. Shapshay, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Autofluorescence characteristics of oral-mucosa,” Head Neck J. 19, 27–32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

D. R. Ingrams, J. K. Dhingra, K. Roy, D. F. Perrault, I. D. Bottrill, S. Kabani, E. E. Rebeiz, M. M. Pankratov, S. M. Shapshay, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Autofluorescence characteristics of oral-mucosa,” Head Neck J. 19, 27–32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. Mcmillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aaerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181–1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacob, R.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. Elnaggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngology Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy: a technique with potential to improve the early detection of aerodigestive tract neoplasia,” Head Neck J. 20, 556–562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kabani, S.

D. R. Ingrams, J. K. Dhingra, K. Roy, D. F. Perrault, I. D. Bottrill, S. Kabani, E. E. Rebeiz, M. M. Pankratov, S. M. Shapshay, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Autofluorescence characteristics of oral-mucosa,” Head Neck J. 19, 27–32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. Mcmillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aaerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181–1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kakihana, M.

M. Kakihana, K. K. Il, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, T. Hirano, C. Konaka, H. Kato, T. Ebihara, “Early detection of bronchial lesions using system of autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE) 1000,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 99–104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kana, J.

T. Horvath, M. Horvathova, F. Salajka, B. Habanec, L. Foretova, J. Kana, H. Koukalova, P. Pafko, F. Wurst, E. Novotna, J. Pecina, V. Vagunda, R. Vrbacky, R. Talac, H. Coupkova, Z. Pacovsky, “Detection of bronchial neoplasia in uranium miners by autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE-1000),” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 91–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, M.

S. Takehana, M. Kaneko, H. Mizuno, “Endoscopic diagnostic system using autofluorescence,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 59–63 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kato, H.

M. Kakihana, K. K. Il, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, T. Hirano, C. Konaka, H. Kato, T. Ebihara, “Early detection of bronchial lesions using system of autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE) 1000,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 99–104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, B.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. Elnaggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngology Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khuri, F. R.

J. M. Kurie, J. S. Lee, R. C. Morice, G. L. Walsh, F. R. Khuri, A. Broxson, J. Y. Ro, W. A. Franklin, R. Yu, W. K. Hong, “Autofluorescence bronchoscopy in the detection of squamous metaplasia and dysplasia in current and former smokers,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 90, 991–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kline, R. W.

A. A. Weiss, H. Zeng, R. W. Kline, C. Macauley, N. Mackinnon, “Use of endoscopic autofluorescence imaging in diagnosis of disease of the esophagus and stomach,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 70–70 (1998).

Koenig, F.

F. Koenig, F. J. Mcgovern, H. Enquist, R. Larne, T. F. Deutsch, K. T. Schomacker, “Autofluorescence guided biopsy for the early diagnosis of bladder-Carcinoma,” J. Urol. 159, 1871–1875 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konaka, C.

M. Kakihana, K. K. Il, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, T. Hirano, C. Konaka, H. Kato, T. Ebihara, “Early detection of bronchial lesions using system of autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE) 1000,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 99–104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koukalova, H.

T. Horvath, M. Horvathova, F. Salajka, B. Habanec, L. Foretova, J. Kana, H. Koukalova, P. Pafko, F. Wurst, E. Novotna, J. Pecina, V. Vagunda, R. Vrbacky, R. Talac, H. Coupkova, Z. Pacovsky, “Detection of bronchial neoplasia in uranium miners by autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE-1000),” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 91–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kurie, J. M.

J. M. Kurie, J. S. Lee, R. C. Morice, G. L. Walsh, F. R. Khuri, A. Broxson, J. Y. Ro, W. A. Franklin, R. Yu, W. K. Hong, “Autofluorescence bronchoscopy in the detection of squamous metaplasia and dysplasia in current and former smokers,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 90, 991–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

S. Lam, M. Unger, V. Rush, J. C. LeRiche, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest 113, 696–702 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, B. Palcic, “Autofluorescence of normal and malignant bronchial tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 99–105 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. Mac Aulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging techniques,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, W.

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal breast and lung tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lanza, K.

G. Bottiroli, A. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, K. Lanza, E. Giombelli, F. Tancioni, E. Benericetti, “Brain tissue autofluorescence properties: application to glioma resection margin delineation during surgical operation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, Special Issue, 38S, MPM-E11 (1999).

Larne, R.

F. Koenig, F. J. Mcgovern, H. Enquist, R. Larne, T. F. Deutsch, K. T. Schomacker, “Autofluorescence guided biopsy for the early diagnosis of bladder-Carcinoma,” J. Urol. 159, 1871–1875 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leduc, A.

M. Anidjar, D. Ettori, O. Cussenot, P. Meria, F. Desgrandchamps, A. Cortesse, P. Teillac, A. Leduc, S. Avrillier, “Laser-induced autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder-tumors—dependence on the excitation wavelength,” J. Urol. 156, 1590–1596 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. S.

J. M. Kurie, J. S. Lee, R. C. Morice, G. L. Walsh, F. R. Khuri, A. Broxson, J. Y. Ro, W. A. Franklin, R. Yu, W. K. Hong, “Autofluorescence bronchoscopy in the detection of squamous metaplasia and dysplasia in current and former smokers,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 90, 991–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenarcic, J.

M. Zargi, L. Smid, I. Fajdiga, B. Bubnic, J. Lenarcic, P. Oblak, “Laser-induced fluorescence in diagnostics of laryngeal cancer,” Acta Otolaryngol. 5275, 125–127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leonhard, M.

M. Leonhard, “New incoherent autofluorescence/fluorescence system for early detection of lung cancer,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 71–75 (1999).
[CrossRef]

LeRiche, J. C.

S. Lam, M. Unger, V. Rush, J. C. LeRiche, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest 113, 696–702 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, B. Palcic, “Autofluorescence of normal and malignant bronchial tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 99–105 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, C. K.

T. Glanzmann, C. Hadjur, M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, M. Forrer, J. P. Ballini, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, C. K. Lim, G. Wagnières, “Pharmacokinetics of tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin in human plasma and individualized light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 596–602 (1998).
[PubMed]

Liuzzi, R.

A. Colasanti, P. Colasanti, G. Fabbrocini, R. Liuzzi, M. Quarto, P. Riccio, G. Roberti, F. Villani, “Non-invasive spectroscopic analysis of dermatological lesions excited with N2 laser,” in Optical Biopsies, R. Cubeddu, S. R. Mordon, K. Sranberg, eds., Proc. SPIE2627, 77–89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Locatelli, D.

G. Bottiroli, A. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, K. Lanza, E. Giombelli, F. Tancioni, E. Benericetti, “Brain tissue autofluorescence properties: application to glioma resection margin delineation during surgical operation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, Special Issue, 38S, MPM-E11 (1999).

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon—a comprehensive ‘ex-vivo’ study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lohmann, W.

A. Fryen, H. Glanz, W. Lohmann, T. Dreyer, R. M. Bohle, “Significance of autofluorescence for the optical demarcation of field cancerisation in the upper aerodigestive tract,” Acta Otolaryngol 117, 316–319 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mac Aulay, C.

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. Mac Aulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging techniques,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macauley, C.

A. A. Weiss, H. Zeng, R. W. Kline, C. Macauley, N. Mackinnon, “Use of endoscopic autofluorescence imaging in diagnosis of disease of the esophagus and stomach,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 70–70 (1998).

Mackinnon, N.

A. A. Weiss, H. Zeng, R. W. Kline, C. Macauley, N. Mackinnon, “Use of endoscopic autofluorescence imaging in diagnosis of disease of the esophagus and stomach,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 70–70 (1998).

Mahadevan, A.

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Development of a multivariate statistical algorithm to analyse human cervical tissue fluorescence spectra acquired in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 46–62 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in vivo using laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 63–74 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Majumder, S. K.

P. K. Gupta, S. K. Majumder, A. Uppal, “Breast-cancer diagnosis using N-2 laser-excited autofluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 417–422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Malpica, A.

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in vivo using laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 63–74 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

D. R. Ingrams, J. K. Dhingra, K. Roy, D. F. Perrault, I. D. Bottrill, S. Kabani, E. E. Rebeiz, M. M. Pankratov, S. M. Shapshay, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Autofluorescence characteristics of oral-mucosa,” Head Neck J. 19, 27–32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. Mcmillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aaerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181–1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchesini, R.

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon—a comprehensive ‘ex-vivo’ study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McAulay, C.

H. Zeng, C. McAulay, D. I. McLean, B. Palcic, “Spectroscopic and microscopic characteristics of human skin autofluorescence emission,” Photochem. Photobiol. 61, 639–645 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mcgovern, F. J.

F. Koenig, F. J. Mcgovern, H. Enquist, R. Larne, T. F. Deutsch, K. T. Schomacker, “Autofluorescence guided biopsy for the early diagnosis of bladder-Carcinoma,” J. Urol. 159, 1871–1875 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLean, D. I.

H. Zeng, C. McAulay, D. I. McLean, B. Palcic, “Spectroscopic and microscopic characteristics of human skin autofluorescence emission,” Photochem. Photobiol. 61, 639–645 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mcmillan, K.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. Mcmillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aaerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181–1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meria, P.

M. Anidjar, D. Ettori, O. Cussenot, P. Meria, F. Desgrandchamps, A. Cortesse, P. Teillac, A. Leduc, S. Avrillier, “Laser-induced autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder-tumors—dependence on the excitation wavelength,” J. Urol. 156, 1590–1596 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, M. F.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. Elnaggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngology Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Development of a multivariate statistical algorithm to analyse human cervical tissue fluorescence spectra acquired in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 46–62 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in vivo using laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 63–74 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizuno, H.

S. Takehana, M. Kaneko, H. Mizuno, “Endoscopic diagnostic system using autofluorescence,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 59–63 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monnier, P.

M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, D. Goujon, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, G. Wagnières, “In vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy of human bronchial tissue to optimize the detection and imaging of early cancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 41–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Glanzmann, C. Hadjur, M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, M. Forrer, J. P. Ballini, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, C. K. Lim, G. Wagnières, “Pharmacokinetics of tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin in human plasma and individualized light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 596–602 (1998).
[PubMed]

D. R. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, P. Monnier, H. E. van den Bergh, “Optimizing light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of early-stage carcinomas of the esophagus using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 340–346 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, T. Glanzmann, P. Monnier, G. Wagnières, H. E. van den Bergh, “Optimizing light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of the bronchi by fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 11, 247–254 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morice, R. C.

J. M. Kurie, J. S. Lee, R. C. Morice, G. L. Walsh, F. R. Khuri, A. Broxson, J. Y. Ro, W. A. Franklin, R. Yu, W. K. Hong, “Autofluorescence bronchoscopy in the detection of squamous metaplasia and dysplasia in current and former smokers,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 90, 991–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano, R.

G. Bottiroli, A. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, K. Lanza, E. Giombelli, F. Tancioni, E. Benericetti, “Brain tissue autofluorescence properties: application to glioma resection margin delineation during surgical operation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, Special Issue, 38S, MPM-E11 (1999).

Nishioka, N. S.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotna, E.

T. Horvath, M. Horvathova, F. Salajka, B. Habanec, L. Foretova, J. Kana, H. Koukalova, P. Pafko, F. Wurst, E. Novotna, J. Pecina, V. Vagunda, R. Vrbacky, R. Talac, H. Coupkova, Z. Pacovsky, “Detection of bronchial neoplasia in uranium miners by autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE-1000),” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 91–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oblak, P.

M. Zargi, L. Smid, I. Fajdiga, B. Bubnic, J. Lenarcic, P. Oblak, “Laser-induced fluorescence in diagnostics of laryngeal cancer,” Acta Otolaryngol. 5275, 125–127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okunaka, T.

M. Kakihana, K. K. Il, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, T. Hirano, C. Konaka, H. Kato, T. Ebihara, “Early detection of bronchial lesions using system of autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE) 1000,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 99–104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Onizawa, K.

K. Onizawa, H. Saginoya, Y. Furuya, H. Yoshida, “Fluorescence photography as a diagnostic method for oral-cancer,” Cancer Lett. 108, 61–66 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opher, E.

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal breast and lung tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pacovsky, Z.

T. Horvath, M. Horvathova, F. Salajka, B. Habanec, L. Foretova, J. Kana, H. Koukalova, P. Pafko, F. Wurst, E. Novotna, J. Pecina, V. Vagunda, R. Vrbacky, R. Talac, H. Coupkova, Z. Pacovsky, “Detection of bronchial neoplasia in uranium miners by autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE-1000),” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 91–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pafko, P.

T. Horvath, M. Horvathova, F. Salajka, B. Habanec, L. Foretova, J. Kana, H. Koukalova, P. Pafko, F. Wurst, E. Novotna, J. Pecina, V. Vagunda, R. Vrbacky, R. Talac, H. Coupkova, Z. Pacovsky, “Detection of bronchial neoplasia in uranium miners by autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE-1000),” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 91–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Palcic, B.

H. Zeng, C. McAulay, D. I. McLean, B. Palcic, “Spectroscopic and microscopic characteristics of human skin autofluorescence emission,” Photochem. Photobiol. 61, 639–645 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. Mac Aulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging techniques,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, B. Palcic, “Autofluorescence of normal and malignant bronchial tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 99–105 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, J. L.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. Elnaggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngology Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pankratov, M. M.

D. R. Ingrams, J. K. Dhingra, K. Roy, D. F. Perrault, I. D. Bottrill, S. Kabani, E. E. Rebeiz, M. M. Pankratov, S. M. Shapshay, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Autofluorescence characteristics of oral-mucosa,” Head Neck J. 19, 27–32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pecina, J.

T. Horvath, M. Horvathova, F. Salajka, B. Habanec, L. Foretova, J. Kana, H. Koukalova, P. Pafko, F. Wurst, E. Novotna, J. Pecina, V. Vagunda, R. Vrbacky, R. Talac, H. Coupkova, Z. Pacovsky, “Detection of bronchial neoplasia in uranium miners by autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE-1000),” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 91–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perrault, D. F.

D. R. Ingrams, J. K. Dhingra, K. Roy, D. F. Perrault, I. D. Bottrill, S. Kabani, E. E. Rebeiz, M. M. Pankratov, S. M. Shapshay, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Autofluorescence characteristics of oral-mucosa,” Head Neck J. 19, 27–32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. Mcmillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aaerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181–1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pichler, J.

K. Häussinger, F. Stanzel, R. M. Huber, J. Pichler, H. Stepp, “Autofluorescence detection of bronchial tumors with the D-Light/AF,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 105–112 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pignoli, E.

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon—a comprehensive ‘ex-vivo’ study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, A.

A. Pradhan, B. B. Das, K. M. Yoo, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved UV photoexcited fluorescence kinetics from malignant and non-malignant human breast tissues,” Lasers Life Sci. 4, 225–234 (1992).

G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, R. R. Alfano, “Spectroscopic differences between human cancer and normal lung and breast tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 290–295 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal breast and lung tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Profio, A. E.

D. J. Anthony, A. E. Profio, O. J. Balchum, “Fluorescence spectra in lung with porphyrin injection,” Photochem. Photobiol. 49, 583–586 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prudente, R.

A. Pradhan, B. B. Das, K. M. Yoo, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved UV photoexcited fluorescence kinetics from malignant and non-malignant human breast tissues,” Lasers Life Sci. 4, 225–234 (1992).

Quarto, M.

A. Colasanti, P. Colasanti, G. Fabbrocini, R. Liuzzi, M. Quarto, P. Riccio, G. Roberti, F. Villani, “Non-invasive spectroscopic analysis of dermatological lesions excited with N2 laser,” in Optical Biopsies, R. Cubeddu, S. R. Mordon, K. Sranberg, eds., Proc. SPIE2627, 77–89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, N.

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in vivo using laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 63–74 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Development of a multivariate statistical algorithm to analyse human cervical tissue fluorescence spectra acquired in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 46–62 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rebeiz, E. E.

D. R. Ingrams, J. K. Dhingra, K. Roy, D. F. Perrault, I. D. Bottrill, S. Kabani, E. E. Rebeiz, M. M. Pankratov, S. M. Shapshay, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Autofluorescence characteristics of oral-mucosa,” Head Neck J. 19, 27–32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. Mcmillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aaerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181–1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riccio, P.

A. Colasanti, P. Colasanti, G. Fabbrocini, R. Liuzzi, M. Quarto, P. Riccio, G. Roberti, F. Villani, “Non-invasive spectroscopic analysis of dermatological lesions excited with N2 laser,” in Optical Biopsies, R. Cubeddu, S. R. Mordon, K. Sranberg, eds., Proc. SPIE2627, 77–89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. Elnaggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngology Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy: a technique with potential to improve the early detection of aerodigestive tract neoplasia,” Head Neck J. 20, 556–562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Richards-Kortum, E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555–606 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Development of a multivariate statistical algorithm to analyse human cervical tissue fluorescence spectra acquired in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 46–62 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in vivo using laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 63–74 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, J. M.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ro, J. Y.

J. M. Kurie, J. S. Lee, R. C. Morice, G. L. Walsh, F. R. Khuri, A. Broxson, J. Y. Ro, W. A. Franklin, R. Yu, W. K. Hong, “Autofluorescence bronchoscopy in the detection of squamous metaplasia and dysplasia in current and former smokers,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 90, 991–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberti, G.

A. Colasanti, P. Colasanti, G. Fabbrocini, R. Liuzzi, M. Quarto, P. Riccio, G. Roberti, F. Villani, “Non-invasive spectroscopic analysis of dermatological lesions excited with N2 laser,” in Optical Biopsies, R. Cubeddu, S. R. Mordon, K. Sranberg, eds., Proc. SPIE2627, 77–89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roy, K.

D. R. Ingrams, J. K. Dhingra, K. Roy, D. F. Perrault, I. D. Bottrill, S. Kabani, E. E. Rebeiz, M. M. Pankratov, S. M. Shapshay, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Autofluorescence characteristics of oral-mucosa,” Head Neck J. 19, 27–32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rush, V.

S. Lam, M. Unger, V. Rush, J. C. LeRiche, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest 113, 696–702 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saginoya, H.

K. Onizawa, H. Saginoya, Y. Furuya, H. Yoshida, “Fluorescence photography as a diagnostic method for oral-cancer,” Cancer Lett. 108, 61–66 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salajka, F.

T. Horvath, M. Horvathova, F. Salajka, B. Habanec, L. Foretova, J. Kana, H. Koukalova, P. Pafko, F. Wurst, E. Novotna, J. Pecina, V. Vagunda, R. Vrbacky, R. Talac, H. Coupkova, Z. Pacovsky, “Detection of bronchial neoplasia in uranium miners by autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE-1000),” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 91–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Savary, J.-F.

D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, T. Glanzmann, P. Monnier, G. Wagnières, H. E. van den Bergh, “Optimizing light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of the bronchi by fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 11, 247–254 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, P. Monnier, H. E. van den Bergh, “Optimizing light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of early-stage carcinomas of the esophagus using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 340–346 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schomacker, K. T.

F. Koenig, F. J. Mcgovern, H. Enquist, R. Larne, T. F. Deutsch, K. T. Schomacker, “Autofluorescence guided biopsy for the early diagnosis of bladder-Carcinoma,” J. Urol. 159, 1871–1875 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E.

R. Richards-Kortum, E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555–606 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapshay, S. M.

D. R. Ingrams, J. K. Dhingra, K. Roy, D. F. Perrault, I. D. Bottrill, S. Kabani, E. E. Rebeiz, M. M. Pankratov, S. M. Shapshay, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Autofluorescence characteristics of oral-mucosa,” Head Neck J. 19, 27–32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. Mcmillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aaerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181–1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smid, L.

M. Zargi, L. Smid, I. Fajdiga, B. Bubnic, J. Lenarcic, P. Oblak, “Laser-induced fluorescence in diagnostics of laryngeal cancer,” Acta Otolaryngol. 5275, 125–127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, P.

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon—a comprehensive ‘ex-vivo’ study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Staerkel, G.

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stanzel, F.

K. Häussinger, F. Stanzel, R. M. Huber, J. Pichler, H. Stepp, “Autofluorescence detection of bronchial tumors with the D-Light/AF,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 105–112 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Star, W.

G. Wagnières, W. Star, B. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–632 (1998).
[PubMed]

Stepp, H.

K. Häussinger, F. Stanzel, R. M. Huber, J. Pichler, H. Stepp, “Autofluorescence detection of bronchial tumors with the D-Light/AF,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 105–112 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takehana, S.

S. Takehana, M. Kaneko, H. Mizuno, “Endoscopic diagnostic system using autofluorescence,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 59–63 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Talac, R.

T. Horvath, M. Horvathova, F. Salajka, B. Habanec, L. Foretova, J. Kana, H. Koukalova, P. Pafko, F. Wurst, E. Novotna, J. Pecina, V. Vagunda, R. Vrbacky, R. Talac, H. Coupkova, Z. Pacovsky, “Detection of bronchial neoplasia in uranium miners by autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE-1000),” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 91–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tancioni, F.

G. Bottiroli, A. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, K. Lanza, E. Giombelli, F. Tancioni, E. Benericetti, “Brain tissue autofluorescence properties: application to glioma resection margin delineation during surgical operation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, Special Issue, 38S, MPM-E11 (1999).

Tang, G. C.

G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, R. R. Alfano, “Spectroscopic differences between human cancer and normal lung and breast tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 290–295 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal breast and lung tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Teillac, P.

M. Anidjar, D. Ettori, O. Cussenot, P. Meria, F. Desgrandchamps, A. Cortesse, P. Teillac, A. Leduc, S. Avrillier, “Laser-induced autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder-tumors—dependence on the excitation wavelength,” J. Urol. 156, 1590–1596 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomsen, S.

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Development of a multivariate statistical algorithm to analyse human cervical tissue fluorescence spectra acquired in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 46–62 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in vivo using laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 63–74 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomsen, S. L.

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomatis, S.

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon—a comprehensive ‘ex-vivo’ study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Unger, M.

S. Lam, M. Unger, V. Rush, J. C. LeRiche, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest 113, 696–702 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uppal, A.

P. K. Gupta, S. K. Majumder, A. Uppal, “Breast-cancer diagnosis using N-2 laser-excited autofluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 417–422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Utke, N.

G. Wagnières, S. G. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J.-P. Ballini, H. E. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415–1426 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vagunda, V.

T. Horvath, M. Horvathova, F. Salajka, B. Habanec, L. Foretova, J. Kana, H. Koukalova, P. Pafko, F. Wurst, E. Novotna, J. Pecina, V. Vagunda, R. Vrbacky, R. Talac, H. Coupkova, Z. Pacovsky, “Detection of bronchial neoplasia in uranium miners by autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE-1000),” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 91–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van den Bergh, H.

M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, D. Goujon, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, G. Wagnières, “In vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy of human bronchial tissue to optimize the detection and imaging of early cancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 41–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Glanzmann, C. Hadjur, M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, M. Forrer, J. P. Ballini, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, C. K. Lim, G. Wagnières, “Pharmacokinetics of tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin in human plasma and individualized light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 596–602 (1998).
[PubMed]

van den Bergh, H. E.

G. Wagnières, S. G. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J.-P. Ballini, H. E. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415–1426 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, T. Glanzmann, P. Monnier, G. Wagnières, H. E. van den Bergh, “Optimizing light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of the bronchi by fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 11, 247–254 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, P. Monnier, H. E. van den Bergh, “Optimizing light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of early-stage carcinomas of the esophagus using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 340–346 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Villani, F.

A. Colasanti, P. Colasanti, G. Fabbrocini, R. Liuzzi, M. Quarto, P. Riccio, G. Roberti, F. Villani, “Non-invasive spectroscopic analysis of dermatological lesions excited with N2 laser,” in Optical Biopsies, R. Cubeddu, S. R. Mordon, K. Sranberg, eds., Proc. SPIE2627, 77–89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vrbacky, R.

T. Horvath, M. Horvathova, F. Salajka, B. Habanec, L. Foretova, J. Kana, H. Koukalova, P. Pafko, F. Wurst, E. Novotna, J. Pecina, V. Vagunda, R. Vrbacky, R. Talac, H. Coupkova, Z. Pacovsky, “Detection of bronchial neoplasia in uranium miners by autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE-1000),” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 91–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wagnières, G.

M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, D. Goujon, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, G. Wagnières, “In vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy of human bronchial tissue to optimize the detection and imaging of early cancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 41–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wagnières, W. Star, B. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–632 (1998).
[PubMed]

T. Glanzmann, C. Hadjur, M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, M. Forrer, J. P. Ballini, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, C. K. Lim, G. Wagnières, “Pharmacokinetics of tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin in human plasma and individualized light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 596–602 (1998).
[PubMed]

G. Wagnières, S. G. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J.-P. Ballini, H. E. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415–1426 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, T. Glanzmann, P. Monnier, G. Wagnières, H. E. van den Bergh, “Optimizing light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of the bronchi by fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 11, 247–254 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, G. L.

J. M. Kurie, J. S. Lee, R. C. Morice, G. L. Walsh, F. R. Khuri, A. Broxson, J. Y. Ro, W. A. Franklin, R. Yu, W. K. Hong, “Autofluorescence bronchoscopy in the detection of squamous metaplasia and dysplasia in current and former smokers,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 90, 991–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, A. A.

A. A. Weiss, H. Zeng, R. W. Kline, C. Macauley, N. Mackinnon, “Use of endoscopic autofluorescence imaging in diagnosis of disease of the esophagus and stomach,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 70–70 (1998).

Wilson, B.

G. Wagnières, W. Star, B. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–632 (1998).
[PubMed]

Wright, T.

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in vivo using laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 63–74 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wurst, F.

T. Horvath, M. Horvathova, F. Salajka, B. Habanec, L. Foretova, J. Kana, H. Koukalova, P. Pafko, F. Wurst, E. Novotna, J. Pecina, V. Vagunda, R. Vrbacky, R. Talac, H. Coupkova, Z. Pacovsky, “Detection of bronchial neoplasia in uranium miners by autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE-1000),” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 91–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, K. M.

A. Pradhan, B. B. Das, K. M. Yoo, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved UV photoexcited fluorescence kinetics from malignant and non-malignant human breast tissues,” Lasers Life Sci. 4, 225–234 (1992).

Yoshida, H.

K. Onizawa, H. Saginoya, Y. Furuya, H. Yoshida, “Fluorescence photography as a diagnostic method for oral-cancer,” Cancer Lett. 108, 61–66 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, R.

J. M. Kurie, J. S. Lee, R. C. Morice, G. L. Walsh, F. R. Khuri, A. Broxson, J. Y. Ro, W. A. Franklin, R. Yu, W. K. Hong, “Autofluorescence bronchoscopy in the detection of squamous metaplasia and dysplasia in current and former smokers,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 90, 991–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zargi, M.

M. Zargi, L. Smid, I. Fajdiga, B. Bubnic, J. Lenarcic, P. Oblak, “Laser-induced fluorescence in diagnostics of laryngeal cancer,” Acta Otolaryngol. 5275, 125–127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zellweger, M.

M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, D. Goujon, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, G. Wagnières, “In vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy of human bronchial tissue to optimize the detection and imaging of early cancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 41–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Glanzmann, C. Hadjur, M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, M. Forrer, J. P. Ballini, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, C. K. Lim, G. Wagnières, “Pharmacokinetics of tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin in human plasma and individualized light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 596–602 (1998).
[PubMed]

G. Wagnières, S. G. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J.-P. Ballini, H. E. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415–1426 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

A. A. Weiss, H. Zeng, R. W. Kline, C. Macauley, N. Mackinnon, “Use of endoscopic autofluorescence imaging in diagnosis of disease of the esophagus and stomach,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 70–70 (1998).

H. Zeng, C. McAulay, D. I. McLean, B. Palcic, “Spectroscopic and microscopic characteristics of human skin autofluorescence emission,” Photochem. Photobiol. 61, 639–645 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Otolaryngol

A. Fryen, H. Glanz, W. Lohmann, T. Dreyer, R. M. Bohle, “Significance of autofluorescence for the optical demarcation of field cancerisation in the upper aerodigestive tract,” Acta Otolaryngol 117, 316–319 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Otolaryngol.

M. Zargi, L. Smid, I. Fajdiga, B. Bubnic, J. Lenarcic, P. Oblak, “Laser-induced fluorescence in diagnostics of laryngeal cancer,” Acta Otolaryngol. 5275, 125–127 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.

R. Richards-Kortum, E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555–606 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. Mcmillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aaerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122, 1181–1186 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Otolaryngology Head Neck Surg.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. Elnaggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngology Head Neck Surg. 124, 1251–1258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cancer Lett.

K. Onizawa, H. Saginoya, Y. Furuya, H. Yoshida, “Fluorescence photography as a diagnostic method for oral-cancer,” Cancer Lett. 108, 61–66 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chest

S. Lam, M. Unger, V. Rush, J. C. LeRiche, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest 113, 696–702 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. Mac Aulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging techniques,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc.

M. Kakihana, K. K. Il, T. Okunaka, K. Furukawa, T. Hirano, C. Konaka, H. Kato, T. Ebihara, “Early detection of bronchial lesions using system of autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE) 1000,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 99–104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Leonhard, “New incoherent autofluorescence/fluorescence system for early detection of lung cancer,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 71–75 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Takehana, M. Kaneko, H. Mizuno, “Endoscopic diagnostic system using autofluorescence,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 59–63 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Häussinger, F. Stanzel, R. M. Huber, J. Pichler, H. Stepp, “Autofluorescence detection of bronchial tumors with the D-Light/AF,” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 105–112 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Horvath, M. Horvathova, F. Salajka, B. Habanec, L. Foretova, J. Kana, H. Koukalova, P. Pafko, F. Wurst, E. Novotna, J. Pecina, V. Vagunda, R. Vrbacky, R. Talac, H. Coupkova, Z. Pacovsky, “Detection of bronchial neoplasia in uranium miners by autofluorescence endoscopy (SAFE-1000),” Diagnost. Therapeut. Endosc. 5, 91–98 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gastrointest. Endosc.

A. A. Weiss, H. Zeng, R. W. Kline, C. Macauley, N. Mackinnon, “Use of endoscopic autofluorescence imaging in diagnosis of disease of the esophagus and stomach,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 70–70 (1998).

Head Neck J.

D. R. Ingrams, J. K. Dhingra, K. Roy, D. F. Perrault, I. D. Bottrill, S. Kabani, E. E. Rebeiz, M. M. Pankratov, S. M. Shapshay, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, “Autofluorescence characteristics of oral-mucosa,” Head Neck J. 19, 27–32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Richards-Kortum, “Fluorescence spectroscopy: a technique with potential to improve the early detection of aerodigestive tract neoplasia,” Head Neck J. 20, 556–562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron.

R. R. Alfano, G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, W. Lam, D. S. J. Choy, E. Opher, “Fluorescence spectra from cancerous and normal breast and lung tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE23, 1806–1811 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, D. Goujon, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, G. Wagnières, “In vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy of human bronchial tissue to optimize the detection and imaging of early cancers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 41–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nat. Cancer Inst.

J. M. Kurie, J. S. Lee, R. C. Morice, G. L. Walsh, F. R. Khuri, A. Broxson, J. Y. Ro, W. A. Franklin, R. Yu, W. K. Hong, “Autofluorescence bronchoscopy in the detection of squamous metaplasia and dysplasia in current and former smokers,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 90, 991–995 (1998).
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J. Urol.

F. Koenig, F. J. Mcgovern, H. Enquist, R. Larne, T. F. Deutsch, K. T. Schomacker, “Autofluorescence guided biopsy for the early diagnosis of bladder-Carcinoma,” J. Urol. 159, 1871–1875 (1998).
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M. Anidjar, D. Ettori, O. Cussenot, P. Meria, F. Desgrandchamps, A. Cortesse, P. Teillac, A. Leduc, S. Avrillier, “Laser-induced autofluorescence diagnosis of bladder-tumors—dependence on the excitation wavelength,” J. Urol. 156, 1590–1596 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Life Sci.

A. Pradhan, B. B. Das, K. M. Yoo, J. Cleary, R. Prudente, E. Celmer, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved UV photoexcited fluorescence kinetics from malignant and non-malignant human breast tissues,” Lasers Life Sci. 4, 225–234 (1992).

Lasers Med. Sci.

D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, T. Glanzmann, P. Monnier, G. Wagnières, H. E. van den Bergh, “Optimizing light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of the bronchi by fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Med. Sci. 11, 247–254 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med.

P. K. Gupta, S. K. Majumder, A. Uppal, “Breast-cancer diagnosis using N-2 laser-excited autofluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 417–422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63–78 (1992).
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G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Dipalma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon—a comprehensive ‘ex-vivo’ study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in vivo using laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 63–74 (1996).
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G. C. Tang, A. Pradhan, R. R. Alfano, “Spectroscopic differences between human cancer and normal lung and breast tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 290–295 (1989).
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J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, B. Palcic, “Autofluorescence of normal and malignant bronchial tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 99–105 (1991).
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N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Development of a multivariate statistical algorithm to analyse human cervical tissue fluorescence spectra acquired in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 46–62 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, P. Monnier, H. E. van den Bergh, “Optimizing light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of early-stage carcinomas of the esophagus using fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 340–346 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol.

G. Bottiroli, A. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Nano, K. Lanza, E. Giombelli, F. Tancioni, E. Benericetti, “Brain tissue autofluorescence properties: application to glioma resection margin delineation during surgical operation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, Special Issue, 38S, MPM-E11 (1999).

H. Zeng, C. McAulay, D. I. McLean, B. Palcic, “Spectroscopic and microscopic characteristics of human skin autofluorescence emission,” Photochem. Photobiol. 61, 639–645 (1995).
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G. Wagnières, W. Star, B. Wilson, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603–632 (1998).
[PubMed]

N. Ramanujam, M. F. Mitchell, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, S. L. Thomsen, G. Staerkel, A. Malpica, T. Wright, N. Atkinson, R. Richards-Kortum, “Cervical precancer detection using a multivariate statistical algorithm based on laser-induced fluorescence spectra at multiple excitation wavelengths,” Photochem. Photobiol. 64, 720–735 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Glanzmann, C. Hadjur, M. Zellweger, P. Grosjean, M. Forrer, J. P. Ballini, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, C. K. Lim, G. Wagnières, “Pharmacokinetics of tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin in human plasma and individualized light dosimetry in photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 596–602 (1998).
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D. J. Anthony, A. E. Profio, O. J. Balchum, “Fluorescence spectra in lung with porphyrin injection,” Photochem. Photobiol. 49, 583–586 (1989).
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Phys. Med. Biol.

G. Wagnières, S. G. Cheng, M. Zellweger, N. Utke, D. Braichotte, J.-P. Ballini, H. E. van den Bergh, “An optical phantom with tissue-like properties in the visible for use in PDT and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1415–1426 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorax

P. J. M. George, “Fluorescence bronchoscopy for the early detection of lung cancer,” Thorax 54, 180–183 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. Colasanti, P. Colasanti, G. Fabbrocini, R. Liuzzi, M. Quarto, P. Riccio, G. Roberti, F. Villani, “Non-invasive spectroscopic analysis of dermatological lesions excited with N2 laser,” in Optical Biopsies, R. Cubeddu, S. R. Mordon, K. Sranberg, eds., Proc. SPIE2627, 77–89 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ratio of the autofluorescence in the blue (480–510-nm), the green (510–560-nm), and the red (600–650-nm) windows as a function of the probe–sample distance. These results were acquired on the authors’ buccal mucosa with an excitation wavelength of (a) 360 nm and (b) 415 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absolute autofluorescence emission spectra of healthy bronchial tissue in picowatts per microwatt of excitation power per nanometer of spectral width as a function of the emission wavelength. The excitation wavelength is 405 nm. The curve represents the average autofluorescence spectra observed at this excitation wavelength, and the bars delimit the corresponding 67% confidence interval.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absolute autofluorescence yield at 650 nm as a function of the excitation wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative modifications of the average autofluorescence spectra as the healthy tissue (curve 1) turns metaplastic or inflammatory (curve 2) dysplastic or CIS (curve 3) and to invasive carcinoma (curve 4). The spectra are expressed relative to the healthy spectrum that has been normalized (excitation wavelength, 405 nm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Lesion/healthy autofluorescence intensity ratio at the emission maximum as a function of the tissue histopathological status and the excitation wavelength, metaplastic or inflammatory (white), dysplastic or CIS (black), and invasive lesions (gray, whenever available).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Emission Wavelength of the Maximum Average Fluorescence Yield at the Autofluorescence Maximum of Normal Bronchial Tissue in vivo for Different Excitation Wavelengths

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

corrλ=measλtheorλπ/4d2Ft,
csλ=spectrλ/corrλ,
ctsWx×s×pixctsWm×s=WmWx×pix,
WmWx×nm,

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