Abstract

X-ray characterization measurements of the x-ray telescope (XRT) onboard the Astro-E satellite were carried out at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan) x-ray beam facility by means of a raster scan with a narrow x-ray pencil beam. The on-axis half-power diameter (HPD) was evaluated to be 1.8′–2.2′, irrespective of the x-ray energy. The on-axis effective areas of the XRTs for x-ray imaging spectrometers (XISs) were approximately 440, 320, 240, and 170 cm2 at energies of 1.49, 4.51, 8.04, and 9.44 keV, respectively. Those of the x-ray spectrometer (XRS) were larger by 5–10%. The replication method introduced for reflector production significantly improved the imaging capability of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophyics (ASCA) XRT, whose HPD is ∼3.6′. The increase in the effective area by a factor of 1.5–2.5, depending upon the x-ray energy, compared with that of the ASCA, was brought about by mechanical scale up and longer focal lengths. The off-axis HPDs were almost the same as those obtained on the optical axis. The field of view is defined as the off-axis angle at which the effective area becomes half of the on-axis value. The diameter of the field of view was ∼19′ at 1.49 keV, decreasing with increasing x-ray energy, and became ∼13′ at 9.44 keV. The intensity of stray light and the distribution of this kind of light on the focal plane were measured at the large off-axis angles 30′ and 60′. In the entire XIS field of view (25.4 mm × 25.4 mm), the intensity of the stray light caused by a pointlike x-ray source became at most 1% of the same pointlike source that was on the optical axis.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Ph. Gondoin, B. Ashenbach, M. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J. P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight mirror module. II. Effective area,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 290–301 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).
  10. R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Honda, T. Endo, J. Ishida, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, Y. Ogasaka, M. Watanabe, K. Misaki, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, Y. Terashima, S. Akao, “X-ray calibration of the telescopes on board ASTRO-E satellite,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 598–609 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

K. Mitsuda, R. Kelley, “The XRS system—the first cryogenic x-ray detector in orbit,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. A 436, 212–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

1993 (1)

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Akao, S.

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Honda, T. Endo, J. Ishida, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, Y. Ogasaka, M. Watanabe, K. Misaki, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, Y. Terashima, S. Akao, “X-ray calibration of the telescopes on board ASTRO-E satellite,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 598–609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Asakura, R.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ashenbach, B.

Ph. Gondoin, B. Ashenbach, M. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J. P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight mirror module. II. Effective area,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 290–301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Awaki, H.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bautz, M. W.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M.

Ph. Gondoin, B. Ashenbach, M. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J. P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight mirror module. II. Effective area,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 290–301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K.-W.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Honda, T. Endo, J. Ishida, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, Y. Ogasaka, M. Watanabe, K. Misaki, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, Y. Terashima, S. Akao, “X-ray calibration of the telescopes on board ASTRO-E satellite,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 598–609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

David, L. P.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dewey, D.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, R. H.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dotani, T.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Doty, J. P.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edgar, R. J.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Egger, R.

Ph. Gondoin, B. Ashenbach, M. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J. P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight mirror module. II. Effective area,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 290–301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elsner, R.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Honda, T. Endo, J. Ishida, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, Y. Ogasaka, M. Watanabe, K. Misaki, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, Y. Terashima, S. Akao, “X-ray calibration of the telescopes on board ASTRO-E satellite,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 598–609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ezawa, H.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Foster, R. F.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fukazawa, Y.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Furuzawa, A.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Honda, T. Endo, J. Ishida, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, Y. Ogasaka, M. Watanabe, K. Misaki, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, Y. Terashima, S. Akao, “X-ray calibration of the telescopes on board ASTRO-E satellite,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 598–609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

Gaetz, T. J.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gondoin, Ph.

Ph. Gondoin, B. Ashenbach, M. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J. P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight mirror module. II. Effective area,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 290–301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Graessle, D. E.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haga, K.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

Hashimotodani, K.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hatsukade, I.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hayashida, K.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hidaka, Y.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

Hirayama, M.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Honda, H.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Honda, T. Endo, J. Ishida, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, Y. Ogasaka, M. Watanabe, K. Misaki, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, Y. Terashima, S. Akao, “X-ray calibration of the telescopes on board ASTRO-E satellite,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 598–609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

Idesawa, E.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, H.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Imamura, K.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

Ishida, J.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Honda, T. Endo, J. Ishida, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, Y. Ogasaka, M. Watanabe, K. Misaki, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, Y. Terashima, S. Akao, “X-ray calibration of the telescopes on board ASTRO-E satellite,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 598–609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, M.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Honda, T. Endo, J. Ishida, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, Y. Ogasaka, M. Watanabe, K. Misaki, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, Y. Terashima, S. Akao, “X-ray calibration of the telescopes on board ASTRO-E satellite,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 598–609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

Itoh, K.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

Itoh, M.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Iyomoto, N.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jalota, L.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Jansen, F.

Ph. Gondoin, B. Ashenbach, M. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J. P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight mirror module. II. Effective area,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 290–301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jerius, D.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Juda, M.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kamae, T.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaneda, H.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, J.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Katayama, H.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Katayama, K.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguti, G.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, R.

K. Mitsuda, R. Kelley, “The XRS system—the first cryogenic x-ray detector in orbit,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. A 436, 212–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kellogg, E. M.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kii, T.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kissel, S. E.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kitamoto, S.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kohmura, T.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, M.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejczak, J.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, K.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, H.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, A.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kunieda, H.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Honda, T. Endo, J. Ishida, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, Y. Ogasaka, M. Watanabe, K. Misaki, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, Y. Terashima, S. Akao, “X-ray calibration of the telescopes on board ASTRO-E satellite,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 598–609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

MacNamara, B. R.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

Makino, F.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Makishima, K.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marchall, H. L.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, K.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matsuzaki, K.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Misaki, K.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Honda, T. Endo, J. Ishida, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, Y. Ogasaka, M. Watanabe, K. Misaki, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, Y. Terashima, S. Akao, “X-ray calibration of the telescopes on board ASTRO-E satellite,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 598–609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuda, K.

K. Mitsuda, R. Kelley, “The XRS system—the first cryogenic x-ray detector in orbit,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. A 436, 212–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, E.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, T.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mori, H.

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

Murakami, T.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, K.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nomachi, M.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nomoto, S.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O’Dell, S. L.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Obayashi, H.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ogasaka, Y.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Honda, T. Endo, J. Ishida, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, Y. Ogasaka, M. Watanabe, K. Misaki, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, Y. Terashima, S. Akao, “X-ray calibration of the telescopes on board ASTRO-E satellite,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 598–609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

Ogawara, Y.

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Okajima, T.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

Osone, S.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ota, N.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ozawa, H.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Plucinsky, P. P.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ricker, G. R.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saito, Y.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sakima, Y.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Schulz, N. S.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, D. A.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Serlemitsos, P. J.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Honda, T. Endo, J. Ishida, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, Y. Ogasaka, M. Watanabe, K. Misaki, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, Y. Terashima, S. Akao, “X-ray calibration of the telescopes on board ASTRO-E satellite,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 598–609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, R.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Honda, T. Endo, J. Ishida, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, Y. Ogasaka, M. Watanabe, K. Misaki, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, Y. Terashima, S. Akao, “X-ray calibration of the telescopes on board ASTRO-E satellite,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 598–609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shouho, M.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Soong, Y.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Honda, T. Endo, J. Ishida, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, Y. Ogasaka, M. Watanabe, K. Misaki, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, Y. Terashima, S. Akao, “X-ray calibration of the telescopes on board ASTRO-E satellite,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 598–609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

Stockman, Y.

Ph. Gondoin, B. Ashenbach, M. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J. P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight mirror module. II. Effective area,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 290–301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sugizaki, M.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Swartz, D. A.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, T.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takizawa, K.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, T.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tashiro, M.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tawara, Y.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Honda, T. Endo, J. Ishida, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, Y. Ogasaka, M. Watanabe, K. Misaki, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, Y. Terashima, S. Akao, “X-ray calibration of the telescopes on board ASTRO-E satellite,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 598–609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

Tennant, A.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Terashima, Y.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Honda, T. Endo, J. Ishida, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, Y. Ogasaka, M. Watanabe, K. Misaki, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, Y. Terashima, S. Akao, “X-ray calibration of the telescopes on board ASTRO-E satellite,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 598–609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tock, J. P.

Ph. Gondoin, B. Ashenbach, M. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J. P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight mirror module. II. Effective area,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 290–301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsukada, K.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsunemi, H.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsuru, T. G.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsusaka, Y.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Uchibori, Y.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

VanSpeybroeck, L. P.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wada, M.

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wargelin, B.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Honda, T. Endo, J. Ishida, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, Y. Ogasaka, M. Watanabe, K. Misaki, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, Y. Terashima, S. Akao, “X-ray calibration of the telescopes on board ASTRO-E satellite,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 598–609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

Weisskopf, M. C.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wolk, S.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamaoka, K.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, K.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Uchibori, H. Honda, M. Itoh, H. Awaki, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, “Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4848–4856 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

Yamazaki, T.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, A.

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoshioka, H.

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Yoshioka, T.

H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, K. Misaki, R. Shibata, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: optical design and fabrication of thin foil mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 40, 553–564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Honda, T. Endo, J. Ishida, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, Y. Ogasaka, M. Watanabe, K. Misaki, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, Y. Terashima, S. Akao, “X-ray calibration of the telescopes on board ASTRO-E satellite,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 598–609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshita, K.

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, P.

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Kunieda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Ogasaka, H. Awaki, Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, T. Yamazaki, M. Itoh, T. Kii, F. Makino, Y. Ogawara, H. Tsunemi, K. Hayashida, S. Nomoto, M. Wada, E. Miyata, I. Hatsukade, “Thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4805–4813 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. A (1)

K. Mitsuda, R. Kelley, “The XRS system—the first cryogenic x-ray detector in orbit,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res. A 436, 212–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. (1)

P. J. Serlemitsos, L. Jalota, Y. Soong, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, Y. Tsusaka, H. Suzuki, Y. Sakima, T. Yamazaki, H. Yoshioka, A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Awaki, M. Itoh, Y. Ogasaka, H. Honda, Y. Uchibori, “The x-ray telescope on board ASCA,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 47, 105–114 (1995).

Other (6)

R. Shibata, M. Ishida, H. Honda, T. Endo, J. Ishida, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, Y. Ogasaka, M. Watanabe, K. Misaki, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, Y. Terashima, S. Akao, “X-ray calibration of the telescopes on board ASTRO-E satellite,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 598–609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Misaki, H. Kunieda, M. Ishida, T. Endo, Y. Hidaka, H. Honda, K. Imamura, J. Ishida, M. Maeda, R. Shibata, H. Mori, K. Itoh, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, Y. Ogasaka, T. Okajima, Y. Tawara, Y. Terashima, M. Watanabe, K. Yamashita, T. Yoshioka, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan are preparing a manuscript to be called “X-ray telescope onboard Astro-E: guidelines to performance improvements and optimization of ray-tracing program.”

D. A. Schwartz, L. P. David, R. H. Donnelly, R. J. Edgar, T. J. Gaetz, D. E. Graessle, D. Jerius, M. Juda, E. M. Kellogg, B. R. MacNamara, P. P. Plucinsky, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, B. Wargelin, S. Wolk, P. Zhao, D. Dewey, H. L. Marchall, N. S. Schulz, R. Elsner, J. Kolodziejczak, S. L. O’Dell, D. A. Swartz, A. Tennant, M. C. Weisskopf, “The absolute effective area of the Chandra high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA),” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III, J. E. Trümper, B. Ashenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4012, 28–40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Gondoin, B. Ashenbach, M. Beijersbergen, R. Egger, F. Jansen, Y. Stockman, J. P. Tock, “Calibration of the first XMM flight mirror module. II. Effective area,” in X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions, R. B. Hoover, A. B. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE3444, 290–301 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayashida, S. Kitamoto, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Hashimotodani, K. Katayama, T. Kohmura, R. Asakura, K. Yoshita, H. Katayama, M. Shouho, K. Koyama, T. G. Tsuru, H. Awaki, T. Dotani, M. Ozaki, G. R. Ricker, J. P. Doty, M. W. Bautz, S. E. Kissel, R. F. Foster, “Soft x-ray response of the prototype CCD camera (XIS) for Astro-E,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, M. A. Gummin, O. H. Siegmund, eds., Proc. SPIE3445, 278–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Kamae, H. Ezawa, Y. Fukazawa, M. Hirayama, E. Idesawa, N. Iyomoto, H. Kaneda, G. Kawaguti, M. Kokubun, H. Kubo, A. Kubota, K. Matsushita, K. Matsuzaki, K. Makishima, T. Mizuno, K. Nakazawa, S. Osone, H. Obayashi, Y. Saito, T. Tamura, M. Tanaka, M. Tashiro, J. Kataoka, T. Murakami, N. Ota, H. Ozawa, M. Sugizaki, K. Takizawa, T. Takahashi, K. Yamaoka, A. Yoshida, H. Ikeda, K. Tsukada, M. Nomachi, “Astro-E hard x-ray detector,” in Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions, T. A. Parnell, B. D. Ramsey, eds., Proc. SPIE2806, 314–328 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (26)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Coordinate system for the response function of the XRT.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic view of the ISAS x-ray beam line: DCM, double-crystal monochromator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmissions of metal filters.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra of x-ray beams from Al, Ti, and Cu targets with and without filters. Measurements were made with a proportional counter. The voltage/current of the x-ray generator was 6, 10, and 15 kV/10 mA for Al, Ti, and Cu targets, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic view of the DCM together with configurations of the metal filters. (b) Output spectrum about the Cu Kα1 and Kα2 emission lines.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Left, image of the x-ray beam and the profiles projected onto center, the y axis and right, the z axis. The target is Cu with a Ni filter. The image is viewed from the side of an x-ray generator. The beam is collimated by the movable slit to 2 mm × 2 mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Mechanical stages in the sample and detector chambers.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Raster scan method of illuminating an XRT (see text for explanation).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

On-axis look-down image (top), PSF (bottom left) and EEF (bottom right) of XRT-I3 measured at Ti-Kα (4.51 keV) filtered by Ti (50 µm) with a beam size of 2 mm × 2 mm. The contour of the top plot is drawn on a logarithmic scale, dividing the peak and 1% of the peak into 10 contours. The innermost contour corresponds to ∼63% of the peak brightness. The configurations of the quadrants are also indicated. The x-ray generator setup for the Ti target is described in Table 1. The PSF is characterized well, with a double Gaussian profile representing the core and the wing, represented by dotted and dashed curves, respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Energy dependences of HPDs. HPDs at Ti (4.51 keV) and Cu (8.04 keV) from all 24 quadrants are compared with the HPD at Al (1.49 keV) at the left and right, respectively.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Configuration of the photon leakage measurements. Quadrant 2 of XRT-I2 is placed at the Z- side. A two-by-two mosaic field of view is formed by the four independent raster scans by a CCD placed at P1–P4. To check the quality of the mosaic mapping results, we additionally made a raster scan at P0.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

EEF obtained from the mosaic CCD mapping. The EEF is normalized at 8.9′ in radius. The results for 1.49, 4.51, and 8.04 keV are shown.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Configuration of the off-axis b fp measurement of the quadrant. Left, schematic view of the configuration when the optical axis of the quadrant is tilted from the x-ray beam marked X by the angles θ Y and θ Z . Right, quadrant along the optical axis. Here X is the orientation of the narrow x-ray beam offset from optical axis QX by θ Y and θ Z .

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Off-axis images of XRT-I1Q3 at 4.51 keV. The location of the centroid of each image indicates off-axis angles θ Y and θ Z . The scale and the coordinate of each image is shown at the upper left. The contours are drawn every 5% of the peak intensity at θ Y = θ Z = 0.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

EEF and PSF variation of XRT-I1Q3 at θ = 0′, 4′, 10′ on the line ψ = 45°. The x-ray energy is 4.51 keV.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

HPDs from all the sets of (θ, ψ) of XRT-I1Q3. The incident energy is the x-ray energy. The abscissa implies an off-axis angle θ. For clarity, the data for ψ = 135° and ψ = 180° are plotted from the origin to the left.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

On-axis effective area of the quadrants. Averages of top, 16 quadrants from XRT-I; bottom left, 4 quadrants from XRT-S(Pt); and bottom right, 4 quadrants from XRT-S(Au) together with design curves and 80% of the design curves. The error bars indicate standard deviations of the members. In all cases the effective areas at Al (1.49 keV) and Ti (4.51 keV) are reduced to ∼80% from the design values and those at Cu (8.04 keV) and Pt (9.44 keV) are reduced to ∼75%.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Vignetting function v(E, θ, ψ) of the four quadrants from XRT-I at Al (1.49 keV) and Ti (4.51 keV). Solid, dashed, and dotted–dashed curves are empirical double Gaussian functions fitted on the data from ψ = 0°, 180°; ψ = 45°, 135°; and ψ = 90°. Different marks are used for the data to discriminate the quadrants.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Light paths of normal, secondary, and back-side reflection. The grazing angle of the primary reflectors is denoted τ. The areas contaminated by stray light are shaded. The range of x-ray incident angle θ that brings about each class of reflection is noted in parentheses at the top of each figure.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Configuration of measurements of the stray light. We tilt the XRT with stage θ Z and perform mosaic mapping with the CCD camera placed at P1–P4. The origin of the coordinate in the focal plane is taken at the on-axis focus of the XRT. See text for details.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Stray-light image and average surface brightness. Left, image of the stray light from XRT-I1 at 1.49 keV with θ Z = 30′. The origin of the coordinate system is the on-axis focus. Bright area D Y < 0 is formed by the secondary reflection, and dark area D Y > 0 is mostly occupied by the back-side reflection. The shadow caused by the alignment bars is seen in the image of the secondary reflection. Right, flux distribution averaged azimuthally centered on (D Y , D Z ) = (-30′, 0′).

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Configuration for measuring the profile of an x-ray beam reflected by a single pair of reflectors. Left, top view of the target sector. The target sector is parallel to the y direction, and the beam size in the y direction is adjusted such that the beam illuminates only a single pair of reflectors. Right, sectional view of the beam illuminating a single reflector.

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

Reflected x-ray beam profiles from left, reflectors 100, 125, and 150 of sector 3 of XRT-S(Au) Q3 and right, their projection to the y axis.

Fig. 24
Fig. 24

Examples of the microscopic reflectivity measurements of sector 8 of XRT-S(Au)Q3. Abscissa, radial position of the beam from the center of the XRT. Ordinate, number of reflected photons with 10-s exposure. Data for reflectors 71–80 are shown. Crosses are the data points, and the histogram is the expected number of photons for an ideal XRT.

Fig. 25
Fig. 25

Reflectivity of each pair of reflectors as a function of the incident angle of x rays for each pair of reflectors. Dotted curve, ideal reflectivity curve. The data points are well fitted by the solid curve, which takes into account a surface roughness of σ = 5.1 Å, marked 5.1[A].

Fig. 26
Fig. 26

PSF and EEF of XRT-I and of the ASCA XRT.

Tables (9)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Setup of the Metal Filters and Resultant Beam Intensities

Tables Icon

Table 2 Setup of the DCM and Resultant Beam Intensities

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Table 3 Parameters of the Mechanical Stages

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Table 4 HPDs of XRTs and Quadrants Measured at the Optical Axis of Each XRT

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Table 5 HPDs of Quadrants at the Optical Axis of Each Quadranta

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Table 6 Fraction of the Photon Leakage and Its Effect on HPDa

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Table 7 Effective Area S eff(E) of the Quadrants At Their Individual Optical Axesa

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Table 8 Angular Diameter of the Field of View of the XRTs Based on Measurements of the Quadrants in ψ = 45°, 135°

Tables Icon

Table 9 Effective Area (EA) of the Stray Light and Its Fraction of the On-Axis EA

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Bfpr, ϕ; E, θ, ψ=Rr, ϕ; E, θ, ψIE, θ, ψ.
Rr, ϕ; E, θ, ψ=SE, θ, ψbfpr, ϕ; E, θ, ψ,
0drr 02πdϕbfpr, ϕ; E, θ, ψ=1.
SE, θ, ψ=SeffEvE, θ, ψ,
vE, 0, 0=1.
Rr, ϕ; E, θ, ψ=SeffEvE, θ, ψbfpr, ϕ; E, θ, ψ,
Rr, ϕ; E, 0, 0=SeffEbfpr, ϕ; E, 0, 0.
SeffE=0drr 02πdϕRr, ϕ; E, 0, 0
b¯fpr; E, θ, ψ=12π02π bfpr, ϕ; E, θ, ψdϕ.
Pr; E, θ, ψ=0r b¯fpρ; E, θ, ψ2πρdρ.
PLH/2; E, θ, ψ=0.5.
θb=w2+σX21/2L=6.88 w1 mm2+11/2 arcsec,
θ=θY2+θZ2.
ψ=arctanθY/θZ.
SeffE=Sgeoε¯E=SgeoCrefC0.
C0=I SgeovybZ,
SeffE=vybZCrefI.
LH15τ0.4°l100 mmf4750 mm-1 arc sec.
ρ=ρ0 exp-4πσ sin τλ2,
Rpsr0; E, θ, ψ0r0 rdr 02πdϕRr, ϕ; E, θ, ψ =SeffEvE, θ, ψ×0r002π bfpr, ϕ; E, θ, ψdϕrdr =SeffEvE, θ, ψ2π 0r0 b¯fprrdr,

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