Abstract

The recent interest in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has led to the development of an array of at-wavelength metrologies implemented on synchrotron beamlines. These beamlines commonly use Kirkpatrick–Baez (K–B) systems consisting of two perpendicular, elliptically bent mirrors in series. To achieve high-efficiency focusing into a small spot, unprecedented fabrication and assembly tolerance is required of these systems. Here we present a detailed error-budget analysis and develop a set of specifications for diffraction-limited performance for the K–B optic operating on the EUV interferometry beamline at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s Advanced Light Source. The specifications are based on code v modeling tools developed explicitly for these optical systems. Although developed for one particular system, the alignment sensitivities presented here are relevant to K–B system designs in general.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “At-wavelength, system-level flare characterization of extreme-ultraviolet optical systems,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2941–2947 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. M. Gullikson, “Scattering from normal incidence EUV optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 72–80 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. Walton, S. Prisbrey, E. Tenjil, J. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Underwood, E. Gullikson, “Beamline for measurement and characterization of multilayer optics for EUV lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 52–61 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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  15. M. R. Howells, D. Lunt, “Design considerations for adjustable-curvature, high-power, x-ray mirrors based on elastic bending,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1981–1989 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2748–2761 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. code v is a registered trademark of Optical Research Associates, 3280 E. Foothill Blvd., Pasadena, Calif. 91107.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. CODE V Version 8.30 Reference Manual (Optical Research Associates, Pasadena, Calif., 1998), Chaps. 2A, 11C, 11D.

2000 (2)

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “At-wavelength, system-level flare characterization of extreme-ultraviolet optical systems,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2941–2947 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2748–2761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. Walton, S. Prisbrey, E. Tenjil, J. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1986 (1)

B. Lai, F. Cerrina, “SHADOW: a synchrotron radiation ray tracing program,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 337–341 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1977 (1)

J. Underwood, “Generation of a parallel x-ray beam and its use for testing collimators,” Space Sci. Instrum. 3, 259–270 (1977).

1949 (1)

1948 (1)

Attwood, D.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, G. Sommargren, R. Beguiristain, K. Nguyen, J. Bokor, N. Ceglio, K. Jackson, M. Koike, J. Underwood, “Undulator radiation for at-wavelength interferometry of optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7022–7031 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baez, A.

Barbee, T. W.

Batson, P.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beguiristain, R.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, G. Sommargren, R. Beguiristain, K. Nguyen, J. Bokor, N. Ceglio, K. Jackson, M. Koike, J. Underwood, “Undulator radiation for at-wavelength interferometry of optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7022–7031 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjorkholm, J.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “At-wavelength, system-level flare characterization of extreme-ultraviolet optical systems,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2941–2947 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. Walton, S. Prisbrey, E. Tenjil, J. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Attwood, G. Sommargren, R. Beguiristain, K. Nguyen, J. Bokor, N. Ceglio, K. Jackson, M. Koike, J. Underwood, “Undulator radiation for at-wavelength interferometry of optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7022–7031 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cambie, D.

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2748–2761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ceglio, N.

Cerrina, F.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Lai, F. Cerrina, “SHADOW: a synchrotron radiation ray tracing program,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 337–341 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duarte, R.

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2748–2761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ehrenberg, W.

Goldberg, K.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “At-wavelength, system-level flare characterization of extreme-ultraviolet optical systems,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2941–2947 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, K. A.

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “At-wavelength, system-level flare characterization of extreme-ultraviolet optical systems,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2941–2947 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Underwood, E. Gullikson, “Beamline for measurement and characterization of multilayer optics for EUV lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 52–61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. M. Gullikson, “Scattering from normal incidence EUV optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 72–80 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Howells, M. R.

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2748–2761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Howells, D. Lunt, “Design considerations for adjustable-curvature, high-power, x-ray mirrors based on elastic bending,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1981–1989 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Irick, S.

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2748–2761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, K.

Jackson, K. H.

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. Walton, S. Prisbrey, E. Tenjil, J. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. Walton, S. Prisbrey, E. Tenjil, J. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, P.

Koike, M.

LaFontaine, B.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lai, B.

B. Lai, F. Cerrina, “SHADOW: a synchrotron radiation ray tracing program,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 337–341 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lunt, D.

M. R. Howells, D. Lunt, “Design considerations for adjustable-curvature, high-power, x-ray mirrors based on elastic bending,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1981–1989 (1993).
[CrossRef]

MacDowell, A. A.

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2748–2761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Medecki, H.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “At-wavelength, system-level flare characterization of extreme-ultraviolet optical systems,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2941–2947 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, K.

Padmore, H. A.

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2748–2761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prisbrey, S.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. Walton, S. Prisbrey, E. Tenjil, J. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rah, S.

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2748–2761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rekawa, S.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. Walton, S. Prisbrey, E. Tenjil, J. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Renner, T. R.

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2748–2761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sandler, R.

M. R. Howells, D. Cambie, R. Duarte, S. Irick, A. A. MacDowell, H. A. Padmore, T. R. Renner, S. Rah, R. Sandler, “Theory and practice of elliptically bent x-ray mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2748–2761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sommargren, G.

Spector, S. J.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stulen, R.

R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D.

R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Z.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tejnil, E.

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tenjil, E.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. Walton, S. Prisbrey, E. Tenjil, J. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tennant, D.

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tennant, D. M.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. Walton, S. Prisbrey, E. Tenjil, J. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, G. Sommargren, R. Beguiristain, K. Nguyen, J. Bokor, N. Ceglio, K. Jackson, M. Koike, J. Underwood, “Undulator radiation for at-wavelength interferometry of optics for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7022–7031 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Underwood, “Generation of a parallel x-ray beam and its use for testing collimators,” Space Sci. Instrum. 3, 259–270 (1977).

J. Underwood, E. Gullikson, “Beamline for measurement and characterization of multilayer optics for EUV lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 52–61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

Walton, C.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. Walton, S. Prisbrey, E. Tenjil, J. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wood, O. R.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

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D. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, H. Medecki, J. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (3)

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. Walton, S. Prisbrey, E. Tenjil, J. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. A. MacDowell, O. R. Wood, Z. Tan, B. LaFontaine, D. M. Tennant, “Phase-measuring interferometry using extreme ultraviolet radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2919–2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, W. Ng, F. Cerrina, Z. Tan, J. Bjorkholm, D. Tennant, S. J. Spector, “Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3089–3093 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Space Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Underwood, “Generation of a parallel x-ray beam and its use for testing collimators,” Space Sci. Instrum. 3, 259–270 (1977).

Other (5)

code v is a registered trademark of Optical Research Associates, 3280 E. Foothill Blvd., Pasadena, Calif. 91107.

CODE V Version 8.30 Reference Manual (Optical Research Associates, Pasadena, Calif., 1998), Chaps. 2A, 11C, 11D.

K. A. Goldberg, E. Tejnil, S. H. Lee, H. Medecki, D. T. Attwood, K. H. Jackson, J. Bokor, “Characterization of an EUV Schwarzschild objective using phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies, D. E. Seeger, ed., Proc. SPIE3048, 264–270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Underwood, E. Gullikson, “Beamline for measurement and characterization of multilayer optics for EUV lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 52–61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, “Scattering from normal incidence EUV optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 72–80 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the EUV interferometry beamline at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron radiation facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This beamline produces a demagnified image of the undulator source at the focal plane of the K–B, corresponding to the entrance plane of the experimental station.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Computer model of the EUV interferometry beamline K–B system. The vertically focusing mirror (M5) has an object distance d o of 5564.71 mm, an image distance d i of 775.28 mm, and an angle of incidence (AOI) of 84.5° from normal. The horizontally focusing mirror (M6) has an object distance of 24393.44 mm, an image distance of 406.56 mm, and an AOI of 87° from normal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

code v calculated point-spread function for the beamline in Fig. 1 with K–B from Fig. 2. The sinc function like behavior comes from the rectangular beamline aperture.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mirror coordinate axes definition.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example of a twist error (magnitude exaggerated for visualization purposes).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

code v calculation of the system response to random profile errors. We simulated 1000 realizations of the profile error. The plots show the 53% encircled energy disk diameter as a function of the rms width profile error for each mirror. In each case, the other mirror is assumed ideal.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) code v-calculated spot diagram of the image distribution when the M5 mirror has twist error and is intentionally defocused. The twist error is 26-µm PV relative to a fixed end at a length of 200 mm and across a width of 30 mm. This error magnitude is approximately equal to the error tolerance described in Table 4. The defocus is set to cause a PV sag error of 10 µm across the 200-mm mirror length. (b) Experimental results obtained under conditions set to nominally match the modeling parameters for (a). We recorded the image by placing a fluorescent YAG crystal in the image plane and reimaging the crystal to a CCD using a microscope objective.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) code v-calculated spot diagram for the same twist error as described in Fig. 7, but here one end of the mirror is overfocused causing the line to fold into a V shape. The twist causes light from the two extreme ends of the mirror to be directed to different points in the cross-focus direction (the x direction for the mirror under consideration). The separation that can be seen at the top of the V would be the effective image blur in the optimal focus position. (b) Experimental results obtained under conditions set to nominally match the modeling parameters for (a). The image was recorded as described in Fig. 7.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Rotation Error Tolerances for M5 and M6a

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Table 2 Twist Error Tolerancea

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Table 3 Roll Error Tolerances for M5 and M6 with and without Twist and Bend Compensationa

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Table 4 Balanced Twist Error Tolerance

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Table 5 Tolerance to rms Width Profile Error Assuming a Nominal Mirror Width of 30 mma

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