Abstract

We propose using the anisotropic molecule dope method for synthesizing a zero-birefringence polymer that showed no orientational birefringence at any orientation degree of polymer chains. In this method a rodlike molecule with polarizability anisotropy was chosen to compensate orientational birefringence. The zero-birefringence polymer was synthesized by doping of 3-wt.% trans-stilbene as an anisotropic molecule into poly(methyl methacrylate). The zero-birefringence at the 590-nm wavelength in the drawn film and the injection-molded plate made from the zero-birefringence polymer was confirmed by the rotating parallel nicols method. Furthermore, high transparency (37.2 dB/km) of the zero-birefringence polymer at the 633-nm wavelength was confirmed by the light-scattering measurement.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Iwata, H. Tsukahara, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Compensation for birefringence of oriented polymers by random copolymerization method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3896–3901 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Iwata, H. Tsukahara, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Transparent zero-birefringence copolymer and its optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4549–4555 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

S. Iwata, H. Tsukahara, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Compensation for birefringence of oriented polymers by random copolymerization method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3896–3901 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1989 (2)

Y. Koike, N. Tanio, Y. Ohtsuka, “Light scattering and heterogeneities in low-loss poly(methyl methacrylate) glasses,” Macromolecules 22, 1367–1373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Tanio, Y. Koike, Y. Ohtsuka, “Inherent light scattering losses by amorphous optical polymer glasses,” Polym. J. 21, 259–266 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

1987 (1)

H. Saito, T. Inoue, “Chain orientation and intrinsic anisotropy in birefringence-free polymer blend,” J. Polym. Sci. B 25, 1629–1636 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Y. Zhao, B. Jasse, L. Monerie, “Fourier transform infrared study of orientation and relaxation in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Macromol. Chem. Macromol. Symp. 5, 87–97 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. Hahn, J. H. Wendorff, “Compensation method for zero birefringence in oriented polymers,” Polymer 26, 1619–1622 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

B. Jasse, J. L. Koenig, “Orientational measurements in polymers using vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Macromol. Sci. Rev. Macromol. Chem. C 17, 61–135 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

P. Debye, H. R. Anderson, H. Brumerger, “Scattering by an inhomogeneous solid. II. The correlation function and its application,” J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679–683 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

P. Debye, A. M. Bueche, “Scattering by an inhomogeneous solid,” J. Appl. Phys. 20, 518–525 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, H. R.

P. Debye, H. R. Anderson, H. Brumerger, “Scattering by an inhomogeneous solid. II. The correlation function and its application,” J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679–683 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Bernacki, E.

Brumerger, H.

P. Debye, H. R. Anderson, H. Brumerger, “Scattering by an inhomogeneous solid. II. The correlation function and its application,” J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679–683 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Bueche, A. M.

P. Debye, A. M. Bueche, “Scattering by an inhomogeneous solid,” J. Appl. Phys. 20, 518–525 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Debye, P.

P. Debye, H. R. Anderson, H. Brumerger, “Scattering by an inhomogeneous solid. II. The correlation function and its application,” J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679–683 (1957).
[CrossRef]

P. Debye, A. M. Bueche, “Scattering by an inhomogeneous solid,” J. Appl. Phys. 20, 518–525 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Fujiki, M.

Hahn, R.

R. Hahn, J. H. Wendorff, “Compensation method for zero birefringence in oriented polymers,” Polymer 26, 1619–1622 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, T.

H. Saito, T. Inoue, “Chain orientation and intrinsic anisotropy in birefringence-free polymer blend,” J. Polym. Sci. B 25, 1629–1636 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ishigure, T.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Graded-index polymer optical fiber for high-speed data communication,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4261–4266 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwata, S.

S. Iwata, H. Tsukahara, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Transparent zero-birefringence copolymer and its optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4549–4555 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Iwata, H. Tsukahara, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Compensation for birefringence of oriented polymers by random copolymerization method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3896–3901 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jasse, B.

Y. Zhao, B. Jasse, L. Monerie, “Fourier transform infrared study of orientation and relaxation in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Macromol. Chem. Macromol. Symp. 5, 87–97 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. Jasse, J. L. Koenig, “Orientational measurements in polymers using vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Macromol. Sci. Rev. Macromol. Chem. C 17, 61–135 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

Koenig, J. L.

B. Jasse, J. L. Koenig, “Orientational measurements in polymers using vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Macromol. Sci. Rev. Macromol. Chem. C 17, 61–135 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Koike, Y.

S. Iwata, H. Tsukahara, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Transparent zero-birefringence copolymer and its optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4549–4555 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Iwata, H. Tsukahara, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Compensation for birefringence of oriented polymers by random copolymerization method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3896–3901 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Graded-index polymer optical fiber for high-speed data communication,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4261–4266 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Koike, N. Tanio, Y. Ohtsuka, “Light scattering and heterogeneities in low-loss poly(methyl methacrylate) glasses,” Macromolecules 22, 1367–1373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Tanio, Y. Koike, Y. Ohtsuka, “Inherent light scattering losses by amorphous optical polymer glasses,” Polym. J. 21, 259–266 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, Y. Takezawa, Y. Ohtsuka, “New interfacial-gel copolymerization technique for steric GRIN polymer optical waveguides and lens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 27, 486–491 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mansuripur, M.

Meeten, G. H.

G. H. Meeten, Optical Properties of Polymers (Elsevier, London, 1986), pp. 248–256.

Monerie, L.

Y. Zhao, B. Jasse, L. Monerie, “Fourier transform infrared study of orientation and relaxation in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Macromol. Chem. Macromol. Symp. 5, 87–97 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nara, S.

Nihei, E.

S. Iwata, H. Tsukahara, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Transparent zero-birefringence copolymer and its optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4549–4555 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Iwata, H. Tsukahara, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Compensation for birefringence of oriented polymers by random copolymerization method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3896–3901 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Graded-index polymer optical fiber for high-speed data communication,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4261–4266 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohtsuka, Y.

Y. Koike, N. Tanio, Y. Ohtsuka, “Light scattering and heterogeneities in low-loss poly(methyl methacrylate) glasses,” Macromolecules 22, 1367–1373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Tanio, Y. Koike, Y. Ohtsuka, “Inherent light scattering losses by amorphous optical polymer glasses,” Polym. J. 21, 259–266 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, Y. Takezawa, Y. Ohtsuka, “New interfacial-gel copolymerization technique for steric GRIN polymer optical waveguides and lens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 27, 486–491 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oikawa, S.

Saito, H.

H. Saito, T. Inoue, “Chain orientation and intrinsic anisotropy in birefringence-free polymer blend,” J. Polym. Sci. B 25, 1629–1636 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Takezawa, Y.

Tanio, N.

Y. Koike, N. Tanio, Y. Ohtsuka, “Light scattering and heterogeneities in low-loss poly(methyl methacrylate) glasses,” Macromolecules 22, 1367–1373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Tanio, Y. Koike, Y. Ohtsuka, “Inherent light scattering losses by amorphous optical polymer glasses,” Polym. J. 21, 259–266 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tsukahara, H.

S. Iwata, H. Tsukahara, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Transparent zero-birefringence copolymer and its optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4549–4555 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Iwata, H. Tsukahara, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Compensation for birefringence of oriented polymers by random copolymerization method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3896–3901 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wendorff, J. H.

R. Hahn, J. H. Wendorff, “Compensation method for zero birefringence in oriented polymers,” Polymer 26, 1619–1622 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, B. Jasse, L. Monerie, “Fourier transform infrared study of orientation and relaxation in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Macromol. Chem. Macromol. Symp. 5, 87–97 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

P. Debye, A. M. Bueche, “Scattering by an inhomogeneous solid,” J. Appl. Phys. 20, 518–525 (1949).
[CrossRef]

P. Debye, H. R. Anderson, H. Brumerger, “Scattering by an inhomogeneous solid. II. The correlation function and its application,” J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679–683 (1957).
[CrossRef]

J. Macromol. Sci. Rev. Macromol. Chem. C (1)

B. Jasse, J. L. Koenig, “Orientational measurements in polymers using vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Macromol. Sci. Rev. Macromol. Chem. C 17, 61–135 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci. B (1)

H. Saito, T. Inoue, “Chain orientation and intrinsic anisotropy in birefringence-free polymer blend,” J. Polym. Sci. B 25, 1629–1636 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Iwata, H. Tsukahara, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, “Compensation for birefringence of oriented polymers by random copolymerization method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3896–3901 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. Chem. Macromol. Symp. (1)

Y. Zhao, B. Jasse, L. Monerie, “Fourier transform infrared study of orientation and relaxation in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Macromol. Chem. Macromol. Symp. 5, 87–97 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

Y. Koike, N. Tanio, Y. Ohtsuka, “Light scattering and heterogeneities in low-loss poly(methyl methacrylate) glasses,” Macromolecules 22, 1367–1373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Polym. J. (1)

N. Tanio, Y. Koike, Y. Ohtsuka, “Inherent light scattering losses by amorphous optical polymer glasses,” Polym. J. 21, 259–266 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Polymer (1)

R. Hahn, J. H. Wendorff, “Compensation method for zero birefringence in oriented polymers,” Polymer 26, 1619–1622 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. H. Meeten, Optical Properties of Polymers (Elsevier, London, 1986), pp. 248–256.

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