Abstract

A radiometrically stable, commercially available spectroradiometer was used in conjunction with a simple, custom-designed telescope to make spectrally continuous measurements of solar spectral transmittance and directly transmitted solar spectral irradiance. The wavelength range of the instrument is 350–2500 nm and the resolution is 3–11.7 nm. Laboratory radiometric calibrations show the instrument to be stable to better than 1.0% over a nine-month period. The instrument and telescope are highly portable, can be set up in a matter of minutes, and can be operated by one person. A method of absolute radiometric calibration that can be tied to published top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) solar spectra in valid Langley channels as well as regions of strong molecular absorption is also presented. High-altitude Langley plot calibration experiments indicate that this technique is limited ultimately by the current uncertainties in the TOA solar spectra, approximately 2–3%. Example comparisons of measured and modtran-modeled direct solar irradiance show that the model can be parameterized to agree with measurements over the large majority of the wavelength range to the 3% level for the two example cases shown. Side-by-side comparisons with a filter-based solar radiometer are in excellent agreement, with a mean absolute difference of τ = 0.0036 for eight overlapping wavelengths over three experiment days.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Harrison, M. Beauharnois, J. Berndt, P. Kiedron, J. Michalsky, Q. L. Min, “The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1715–1718 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Sicard, K. J. Thome, B. G. Crowther, M. W. Smith, “Shortwave infrared spectroradiometer for atmospheric transmittance measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 174–183 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Pilewskie, A. F. H. Goetz, D. A. Beal, R. W. Bergstrom, P. Mariani, “Observations of the spectral distribution of solar irradiance at the ground during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1141–1144 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. J. Kaufman, D. D. Herring, K. J. Ranson, G. J. Collatz, “Earth Observing System AM1 mission to earth,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1045–1055 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. N. Goward, D. L. Williams, “Landsat and Earth systems science: development of terrestrial monitoring,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 887–900 (1997).
  6. S. G. Ungar, “Technologies for furture Landsat missions,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 901–905 (1997).
  7. R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. S. Solis, M. R. Olah, O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothman, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 report and the LOWTRAN 7 model,” (Geophysics Directorate, Phillips Laboratory, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).
  9. Analytical Spectral Devices Inc., “FieldSpec user’s guide,” (Boulder, Colo., 1996).
  10. Optronic Laboratories Inc., “Instructions for the Optronics Laboratories 1000-W FEL tungsten-halogen lamp standards of total and spectral irradiance” (Orlando, Fla., 1995).
  11. R. D. Jackson, T. R. Clarke, M. S. Moran, “Bidirectional calibration results for 11 Spectralon and 16 BaSO4 reference reflectance panels,” Remote Sens. Environ. 40, 231–239 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. E. Stiegman, C. J. Bruegge, A. W. Springsteen, “UV stability and contamination analysis of Spectralon diffuse reflectance material,” Opt. Eng. 32, 799–804 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K.-N. Liou, An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation (Academic, New York, 1980).
  14. J. A. Reagan, K. Thome, B. Herman, R. Gall, “Water vapor measurements in the 0.94 micron absorption band: calibration, measurements and data applications,” presented at the IGARSS ’87 Symposium, Ann Arbor, Mich., 18–21 May 1987.
  15. C. J. Bruegge, R. N. Halthore, B. Markham, M. Spanner, R. Wrigley, “Aerosol optical depth retrievals over the Konza Prairie,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 18743–18758 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Schmid, C. Wehrli, “Comparison of Sun photometer calibration by use of the Langley technique and the standard lamp,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4500–4512 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. W. Kiedron, J. J. Michalsky, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, “Comparison of spectral irradiance standards used to calibrate shortwave radiometers and spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2432–2439 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. P. Giver, C. Chackerian, P. Varanasi, “Visible and near-infrared H2O line intensity corrections for HITRAN96,” J. Quant. Spectroscoc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 101–105 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. L. Kurucz, “Solar irradiance by computation,” in Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, PL-TR-95-2060, G. P. Anderson, R. H. Picard, J. H. Chetwynd, eds. (Directorate of Geophysics, Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1995), pp. 333–334.
  21. G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The visible solar spectral irradiance from 350 to 850nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer during the Atlas I mission,” Sol. Phys. 177, 41–61 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. Schmid, P. R. Spyak, S. F. Biggar, C. Wehrli, J. Sekler, T. Ingold, C. Matzler, N. Kampfer, “Evaluation of the applicability of solar and lamp radiometric calibrations of a precision Sun photometer operating between 300 and 1025 nm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3923–3941 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. R. Ehansi, J. A. Reagan, W. H. Erxleben, “Design and performance analysis of an automated 10-channel solar radiometer instrument,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 697–707 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. Kasten, A. T. Young, “Revised optical air mass tables and approximation formula,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4735–4738 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. Reagan, K. Thome, B. Herman, R. Stone, J. Deluisi, J. Snider, “A comparison of columnar water vapor retrievals obtained with near-IR solar radiometer and microwave radiometer measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 1384–1391 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. P. Giver, C. Chackerian, P. Varanasi, “Visible and near-infrared H2O line intensity corrections for HITRAN96,” J. Quant. Spectroscoc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 101–105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

P. W. Kiedron, J. J. Michalsky, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, “Comparison of spectral irradiance standards used to calibrate shortwave radiometers and spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2432–2439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Harrison, M. Beauharnois, J. Berndt, P. Kiedron, J. Michalsky, Q. L. Min, “The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1715–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (8)

M. Sicard, K. J. Thome, B. G. Crowther, M. W. Smith, “Shortwave infrared spectroradiometer for atmospheric transmittance measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 174–183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Pilewskie, A. F. H. Goetz, D. A. Beal, R. W. Bergstrom, P. Mariani, “Observations of the spectral distribution of solar irradiance at the ground during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1141–1144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. D. Herring, K. J. Ranson, G. J. Collatz, “Earth Observing System AM1 mission to earth,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1045–1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. S. Solis, M. R. Olah, O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The visible solar spectral irradiance from 350 to 850nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer during the Atlas I mission,” Sol. Phys. 177, 41–61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, P. R. Spyak, S. F. Biggar, C. Wehrli, J. Sekler, T. Ingold, C. Matzler, N. Kampfer, “Evaluation of the applicability of solar and lamp radiometric calibrations of a precision Sun photometer operating between 300 and 1025 nm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3923–3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Ehansi, J. A. Reagan, W. H. Erxleben, “Design and performance analysis of an automated 10-channel solar radiometer instrument,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 697–707 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. N. Goward, D. L. Williams, “Landsat and Earth systems science: development of terrestrial monitoring,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 887–900 (1997).

S. G. Ungar, “Technologies for furture Landsat missions,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 901–905 (1997).

1995 (2)

B. Schmid, C. Wehrli, “Comparison of Sun photometer calibration by use of the Langley technique and the standard lamp,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4500–4512 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reagan, K. Thome, B. Herman, R. Stone, J. Deluisi, J. Snider, “A comparison of columnar water vapor retrievals obtained with near-IR solar radiometer and microwave radiometer measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 1384–1391 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. E. Stiegman, C. J. Bruegge, A. W. Springsteen, “UV stability and contamination analysis of Spectralon diffuse reflectance material,” Opt. Eng. 32, 799–804 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

C. J. Bruegge, R. N. Halthore, B. Markham, M. Spanner, R. Wrigley, “Aerosol optical depth retrievals over the Konza Prairie,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 18743–18758 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Jackson, T. R. Clarke, M. S. Moran, “Bidirectional calibration results for 11 Spectralon and 16 BaSO4 reference reflectance panels,” Remote Sens. Environ. 40, 231–239 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Abreu, L. W.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothman, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 report and the LOWTRAN 7 model,” (Geophysics Directorate, Phillips Laboratory, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Acharaya, P.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothman, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 report and the LOWTRAN 7 model,” (Geophysics Directorate, Phillips Laboratory, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Anderson, G. P.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothman, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 report and the LOWTRAN 7 model,” (Geophysics Directorate, Phillips Laboratory, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Aronsson, M.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. S. Solis, M. R. Olah, O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beal, D. A.

P. Pilewskie, A. F. H. Goetz, D. A. Beal, R. W. Bergstrom, P. Mariani, “Observations of the spectral distribution of solar irradiance at the ground during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1141–1144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beauharnois, M.

L. Harrison, M. Beauharnois, J. Berndt, P. Kiedron, J. Michalsky, Q. L. Min, “The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1715–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bergstrom, R. W.

P. Pilewskie, A. F. H. Goetz, D. A. Beal, R. W. Bergstrom, P. Mariani, “Observations of the spectral distribution of solar irradiance at the ground during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1141–1144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berk, A.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothman, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 report and the LOWTRAN 7 model,” (Geophysics Directorate, Phillips Laboratory, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Berndt, J.

L. Harrison, M. Beauharnois, J. Berndt, P. Kiedron, J. Michalsky, Q. L. Min, “The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1715–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berndt, J. L.

Bernstein, L. S.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothman, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 report and the LOWTRAN 7 model,” (Geophysics Directorate, Phillips Laboratory, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Biggar, S. F.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bruegge, C. J.

A. E. Stiegman, C. J. Bruegge, A. W. Springsteen, “UV stability and contamination analysis of Spectralon diffuse reflectance material,” Opt. Eng. 32, 799–804 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Bruegge, R. N. Halthore, B. Markham, M. Spanner, R. Wrigley, “Aerosol optical depth retrievals over the Konza Prairie,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 18743–18758 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chackerian, C.

L. P. Giver, C. Chackerian, P. Varanasi, “Visible and near-infrared H2O line intensity corrections for HITRAN96,” J. Quant. Spectroscoc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 101–105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothman, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 report and the LOWTRAN 7 model,” (Geophysics Directorate, Phillips Laboratory, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Chippendale, B. J.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. S. Solis, M. R. Olah, O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chovit, C. J.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. S. Solis, M. R. Olah, O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chrien, T. G.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. S. Solis, M. R. Olah, O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, T. R.

R. D. Jackson, T. R. Clarke, M. S. Moran, “Bidirectional calibration results for 11 Spectralon and 16 BaSO4 reference reflectance panels,” Remote Sens. Environ. 40, 231–239 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothman, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 report and the LOWTRAN 7 model,” (Geophysics Directorate, Phillips Laboratory, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Collatz, G. J.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. D. Herring, K. J. Ranson, G. J. Collatz, “Earth Observing System AM1 mission to earth,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1045–1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crowther, B. G.

M. Sicard, K. J. Thome, B. G. Crowther, M. W. Smith, “Shortwave infrared spectroradiometer for atmospheric transmittance measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 174–183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deluisi, J.

J. Reagan, K. Thome, B. Herman, R. Stone, J. Deluisi, J. Snider, “A comparison of columnar water vapor retrievals obtained with near-IR solar radiometer and microwave radiometer measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 1384–1391 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eastwood, M. L.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. S. Solis, M. R. Olah, O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ehansi, A. R.

A. R. Ehansi, J. A. Reagan, W. H. Erxleben, “Design and performance analysis of an automated 10-channel solar radiometer instrument,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 697–707 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erxleben, W. H.

A. R. Ehansi, J. A. Reagan, W. H. Erxleben, “Design and performance analysis of an automated 10-channel solar radiometer instrument,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 697–707 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Faust, J. A.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. S. Solis, M. R. Olah, O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Foujols, T.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The visible solar spectral irradiance from 350 to 850nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer during the Atlas I mission,” Sol. Phys. 177, 41–61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gall, R.

J. A. Reagan, K. Thome, B. Herman, R. Gall, “Water vapor measurements in the 0.94 micron absorption band: calibration, measurements and data applications,” presented at the IGARSS ’87 Symposium, Ann Arbor, Mich., 18–21 May 1987.

Gallery, W. O.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothman, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 report and the LOWTRAN 7 model,” (Geophysics Directorate, Phillips Laboratory, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gillotay, D.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The visible solar spectral irradiance from 350 to 850nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer during the Atlas I mission,” Sol. Phys. 177, 41–61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giver, L. P.

L. P. Giver, C. Chackerian, P. Varanasi, “Visible and near-infrared H2O line intensity corrections for HITRAN96,” J. Quant. Spectroscoc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 101–105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goetz, A. F. H.

P. Pilewskie, A. F. H. Goetz, D. A. Beal, R. W. Bergstrom, P. Mariani, “Observations of the spectral distribution of solar irradiance at the ground during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1141–1144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goward, S. N.

S. N. Goward, D. L. Williams, “Landsat and Earth systems science: development of terrestrial monitoring,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 887–900 (1997).

Green, R. O.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. S. Solis, M. R. Olah, O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Halthore, R. N.

C. J. Bruegge, R. N. Halthore, B. Markham, M. Spanner, R. Wrigley, “Aerosol optical depth retrievals over the Konza Prairie,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 18743–18758 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, L.

L. Harrison, M. Beauharnois, J. Berndt, P. Kiedron, J. Michalsky, Q. L. Min, “The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1715–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, L. C.

Herman, B.

J. Reagan, K. Thome, B. Herman, R. Stone, J. Deluisi, J. Snider, “A comparison of columnar water vapor retrievals obtained with near-IR solar radiometer and microwave radiometer measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 1384–1391 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, K. Thome, B. Herman, R. Gall, “Water vapor measurements in the 0.94 micron absorption band: calibration, measurements and data applications,” presented at the IGARSS ’87 Symposium, Ann Arbor, Mich., 18–21 May 1987.

Herring, D. D.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. D. Herring, K. J. Ranson, G. J. Collatz, “Earth Observing System AM1 mission to earth,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1045–1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Herse, M.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The visible solar spectral irradiance from 350 to 850nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer during the Atlas I mission,” Sol. Phys. 177, 41–61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ingold, T.

Jackson, R. D.

R. D. Jackson, T. R. Clarke, M. S. Moran, “Bidirectional calibration results for 11 Spectralon and 16 BaSO4 reference reflectance panels,” Remote Sens. Environ. 40, 231–239 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kampfer, N.

Kasten, F.

Kaufman, Y. J.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. D. Herring, K. J. Ranson, G. J. Collatz, “Earth Observing System AM1 mission to earth,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1045–1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kiedron, P.

L. Harrison, M. Beauharnois, J. Berndt, P. Kiedron, J. Michalsky, Q. L. Min, “The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1715–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kiedron, P. W.

Kneizys, F. X.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothman, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 report and the LOWTRAN 7 model,” (Geophysics Directorate, Phillips Laboratory, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Kurucz, R. L.

R. L. Kurucz, “Solar irradiance by computation,” in Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, PL-TR-95-2060, G. P. Anderson, R. H. Picard, J. H. Chetwynd, eds. (Directorate of Geophysics, Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1995), pp. 333–334.

Labs, D.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The visible solar spectral irradiance from 350 to 850nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer during the Atlas I mission,” Sol. Phys. 177, 41–61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liou, K.-N.

K.-N. Liou, An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation (Academic, New York, 1980).

Mandel, H.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The visible solar spectral irradiance from 350 to 850nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer during the Atlas I mission,” Sol. Phys. 177, 41–61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J. Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mariani, P.

P. Pilewskie, A. F. H. Goetz, D. A. Beal, R. W. Bergstrom, P. Mariani, “Observations of the spectral distribution of solar irradiance at the ground during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1141–1144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Markham, B.

C. J. Bruegge, R. N. Halthore, B. Markham, M. Spanner, R. Wrigley, “Aerosol optical depth retrievals over the Konza Prairie,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 18743–18758 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matzler, C.

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michalsky, J.

L. Harrison, M. Beauharnois, J. Berndt, P. Kiedron, J. Michalsky, Q. L. Min, “The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1715–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Michalsky, J. J.

Min, Q. L.

L. Harrison, M. Beauharnois, J. Berndt, P. Kiedron, J. Michalsky, Q. L. Min, “The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1715–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moran, M. S.

R. D. Jackson, T. R. Clarke, M. S. Moran, “Bidirectional calibration results for 11 Spectralon and 16 BaSO4 reference reflectance panels,” Remote Sens. Environ. 40, 231–239 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Olah, M. R.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. S. Solis, M. R. Olah, O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pavri, B. E.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. S. Solis, M. R. Olah, O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pilewskie, P.

P. Pilewskie, A. F. H. Goetz, D. A. Beal, R. W. Bergstrom, P. Mariani, “Observations of the spectral distribution of solar irradiance at the ground during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1141–1144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ranson, K. J.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. D. Herring, K. J. Ranson, G. J. Collatz, “Earth Observing System AM1 mission to earth,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1045–1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J.

J. Reagan, K. Thome, B. Herman, R. Stone, J. Deluisi, J. Snider, “A comparison of columnar water vapor retrievals obtained with near-IR solar radiometer and microwave radiometer measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 1384–1391 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

A. R. Ehansi, J. A. Reagan, W. H. Erxleben, “Design and performance analysis of an automated 10-channel solar radiometer instrument,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 697–707 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, K. Thome, B. Herman, R. Gall, “Water vapor measurements in the 0.94 micron absorption band: calibration, measurements and data applications,” presented at the IGARSS ’87 Symposium, Ann Arbor, Mich., 18–21 May 1987.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, D. C.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothman, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 report and the LOWTRAN 7 model,” (Geophysics Directorate, Phillips Laboratory, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothman, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 report and the LOWTRAN 7 model,” (Geophysics Directorate, Phillips Laboratory, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Sarture, C. M.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. S. Solis, M. R. Olah, O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, B.

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sekler, J.

Selby, J. E. A.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothman, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 report and the LOWTRAN 7 model,” (Geophysics Directorate, Phillips Laboratory, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Shettle, E. P.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothman, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 report and the LOWTRAN 7 model,” (Geophysics Directorate, Phillips Laboratory, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Sicard, M.

M. Sicard, K. J. Thome, B. G. Crowther, M. W. Smith, “Shortwave infrared spectroradiometer for atmospheric transmittance measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 174–183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Simon, P. C.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The visible solar spectral irradiance from 350 to 850nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer during the Atlas I mission,” Sol. Phys. 177, 41–61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. W.

M. Sicard, K. J. Thome, B. G. Crowther, M. W. Smith, “Shortwave infrared spectroradiometer for atmospheric transmittance measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 174–183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Snider, J.

J. Reagan, K. Thome, B. Herman, R. Stone, J. Deluisi, J. Snider, “A comparison of columnar water vapor retrievals obtained with near-IR solar radiometer and microwave radiometer measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 1384–1391 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Solis, M. S.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. S. Solis, M. R. Olah, O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spanner, M.

C. J. Bruegge, R. N. Halthore, B. Markham, M. Spanner, R. Wrigley, “Aerosol optical depth retrievals over the Konza Prairie,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 18743–18758 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Springsteen, A. W.

A. E. Stiegman, C. J. Bruegge, A. W. Springsteen, “UV stability and contamination analysis of Spectralon diffuse reflectance material,” Opt. Eng. 32, 799–804 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Spyak, P. R.

Stiegman, A. E.

A. E. Stiegman, C. J. Bruegge, A. W. Springsteen, “UV stability and contamination analysis of Spectralon diffuse reflectance material,” Opt. Eng. 32, 799–804 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stone, R.

J. Reagan, K. Thome, B. Herman, R. Stone, J. Deluisi, J. Snider, “A comparison of columnar water vapor retrievals obtained with near-IR solar radiometer and microwave radiometer measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 1384–1391 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thome, K.

J. Reagan, K. Thome, B. Herman, R. Stone, J. Deluisi, J. Snider, “A comparison of columnar water vapor retrievals obtained with near-IR solar radiometer and microwave radiometer measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 1384–1391 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, K. Thome, B. Herman, R. Gall, “Water vapor measurements in the 0.94 micron absorption band: calibration, measurements and data applications,” presented at the IGARSS ’87 Symposium, Ann Arbor, Mich., 18–21 May 1987.

Thome, K. J.

M. Sicard, K. J. Thome, B. G. Crowther, M. W. Smith, “Shortwave infrared spectroradiometer for atmospheric transmittance measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 174–183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thuillier, G.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The visible solar spectral irradiance from 350 to 850nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer during the Atlas I mission,” Sol. Phys. 177, 41–61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ungar, S. G.

S. G. Ungar, “Technologies for furture Landsat missions,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 901–905 (1997).

Varanasi, P.

L. P. Giver, C. Chackerian, P. Varanasi, “Visible and near-infrared H2O line intensity corrections for HITRAN96,” J. Quant. Spectroscoc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 101–105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wehrli, C.

Williams, D. L.

S. N. Goward, D. L. Williams, “Landsat and Earth systems science: development of terrestrial monitoring,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 887–900 (1997).

Williams, O.

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. S. Solis, M. R. Olah, O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wrigley, R.

C. J. Bruegge, R. N. Halthore, B. Markham, M. Spanner, R. Wrigley, “Aerosol optical depth retrievals over the Konza Prairie,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 18743–18758 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Young, A. T.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

L. Harrison, M. Beauharnois, J. Berndt, P. Kiedron, J. Michalsky, Q. L. Min, “The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1715–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Pilewskie, A. F. H. Goetz, D. A. Beal, R. W. Bergstrom, P. Mariani, “Observations of the spectral distribution of solar irradiance at the ground during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1141–1144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

Y. J. Kaufman, D. D. Herring, K. J. Ranson, G. J. Collatz, “Earth Observing System AM1 mission to earth,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1045–1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

J. Reagan, K. Thome, B. Herman, R. Stone, J. Deluisi, J. Snider, “A comparison of columnar water vapor retrievals obtained with near-IR solar radiometer and microwave radiometer measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 1384–1391 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (2)

A. R. Ehansi, J. A. Reagan, W. H. Erxleben, “Design and performance analysis of an automated 10-channel solar radiometer instrument,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 697–707 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Sicard, K. J. Thome, B. G. Crowther, M. W. Smith, “Shortwave infrared spectroradiometer for atmospheric transmittance measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 174–183 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

C. J. Bruegge, R. N. Halthore, B. Markham, M. Spanner, R. Wrigley, “Aerosol optical depth retrievals over the Konza Prairie,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 18743–18758 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectroscoc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. P. Giver, C. Chackerian, P. Varanasi, “Visible and near-infrared H2O line intensity corrections for HITRAN96,” J. Quant. Spectroscoc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 101–105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. E. Stiegman, C. J. Bruegge, A. W. Springsteen, “UV stability and contamination analysis of Spectralon diffuse reflectance material,” Opt. Eng. 32, 799–804 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. (2)

S. N. Goward, D. L. Williams, “Landsat and Earth systems science: development of terrestrial monitoring,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 887–900 (1997).

S. G. Ungar, “Technologies for furture Landsat missions,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 63, 901–905 (1997).

Remote Sens. Environ. (2)

R. O. Green, M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. S. Solis, M. R. Olah, O. Williams, “Imaging spectroscopy and the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS),” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 227–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Jackson, T. R. Clarke, M. S. Moran, “Bidirectional calibration results for 11 Spectralon and 16 BaSO4 reference reflectance panels,” Remote Sens. Environ. 40, 231–239 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Phys. (1)

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, P. C. Simon, D. Labs, H. Mandel, D. Gillotay, T. Foujols, “The visible solar spectral irradiance from 350 to 850nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer during the Atlas I mission,” Sol. Phys. 177, 41–61 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothman, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The MODTRAN 2/3 report and the LOWTRAN 7 model,” (Geophysics Directorate, Phillips Laboratory, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Analytical Spectral Devices Inc., “FieldSpec user’s guide,” (Boulder, Colo., 1996).

Optronic Laboratories Inc., “Instructions for the Optronics Laboratories 1000-W FEL tungsten-halogen lamp standards of total and spectral irradiance” (Orlando, Fla., 1995).

K.-N. Liou, An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation (Academic, New York, 1980).

J. A. Reagan, K. Thome, B. Herman, R. Gall, “Water vapor measurements in the 0.94 micron absorption band: calibration, measurements and data applications,” presented at the IGARSS ’87 Symposium, Ann Arbor, Mich., 18–21 May 1987.

R. L. Kurucz, “Solar irradiance by computation,” in Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference on Atmospheric Transmission Models, PL-TR-95-2060, G. P. Anderson, R. H. Picard, J. H. Chetwynd, eds. (Directorate of Geophysics, Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1995), pp. 333–334.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Digital number for all 42 calibrations are plotted on the left. Coefficient of variation is plotted on the right for all 42 calibrations (solid curve) and for the summer months when the instrument was in near constant use (dotted curve).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simple schematic drawing, in cross section (top view), of the telescope. Front and rear apertures are exchangeable to change the FOV. The telescope is 570 cm in length and weight 2 kg. It can be attached to a solar tracking device or track the Sun manually. The pinhole and target are on top of the telescope and are not shown in this view.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example optical depth spectrum is plotted on the left, and the solar irradiance spectrum is plotted on the right. The optical depth spectrum, from Mauna Loa, is the result of a Langley plot; thus the optical depths are not correct for regions of strong absorption. The example surface solar irradiance spectrum is from the coast of Hawaii.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Top) Series of the solar irradiance spectra from modtran simulating a high-altitude calibration experiment and evenly spaced in the air mass. (Middle) The solid curve is the Langley-plot-reconstructed TOA solar spectrum; the dotted curve is the modtran input TOA solar spectrum. (Bottom) The channels that recreate the TOA solar spectrum to ± 0.5% are overplotted with diamonds.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Coefficient of variation for eight Langley-plot-determined calibrations performed at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, are plotted on the left. Coefficient of variation for four Langley plot calibrations undertaken at the MLO are plotted on the right.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Top) Radiometric coefficients from the Langley experiments (dotted curve) and the scaled standard lamps (solid curve) for Niwot Ridge on the left and MLO on the right. (Bottom) Ratios of the scaled standard lamp coefficients to the Langley-derived coefficients in the valid Langley channels.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Top) At-surface solar irradiance spectrum calculated by modtran at its highest sampling and resolution. (Middle) Linearly interpolated and uninterpolated spectra. The differences are nearly impossible to detect from this plot. (Bottom) The ratio of the interpolated and uninterpolated spectra. The errors are greatest in areas of strong absorption combined with high instrumental resolution.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

ASD-FR measured (solid curve) and the modtran-modeled (dotted curve) direct solar irradiance for a measurement taken at MLO are shown on the left. The same is shown on the right for Waima Bay, Hawaii, with a higher water-vapor amount.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Identical plots to Fig. 8 but the spectra are broken into three spectral regions corresponding to the three spectrometers in the ASD-FR for clarity. The solid curves are the measurements; the dotted curves are the modtran models.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Plots of the modtran model spectra (solid curves) and ± 3% of the ASD-FR measured values (dotted curves) for MLO and Waima Bay.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Optical depths determined for the three sunrise experiments conducted at the Table1 Mountain Observatory are shown on the left. The solid curves are the ASD-FR measurements; the diamonds are the Reagan solar radiometer measurements. Note that these are the results from straight Langley analysis and are not true optical depths for regions of strong molecular absorption. Examples of the Langley plots from three different wavelengths for the three different days are shown on the right. The triangles are the Reagan radiometer values; the diamonds are the ASD-FR values.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 modtran4.0 Parameterization and Output for Mauna Loa and Waima Bay, Hawaii

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Optical Depths from the ASD-FR and the Reagan Solar Radiometer

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Fλ=F0λR-2Tλ,
Tλ=expmτλ,
CLλ=CBλS.

Metrics