Abstract

The airborne differential absorption lidar LEANDRE II, developed for profiling tropospheric water-vapor mixing ratios, is described. The emitter is a flash-lamp-pumped alexandrite laser, which operates in a double-pulse, dual-wavelength mode in the 727–736 nm spectral domain. Two 50-mJ successive on-line and off-line pulses with an output linewidth of 2.4 × 10-2 cm-1 and a spectral purity larger than 99.99% are emitted at a 50-µs time interval. The spectral positioning is controlled in real time by a wavemeter with an absolute accuracy of 5 × 10-3 cm-1. The receiver is a 30-cm aperture telescope with a 3.5-mrad field of view and a 1-nm filter bandwidth. These instrument characteristics are defined for measuring the water-vapor mixing ratio with an accuracy better than 0.5 g kg-1 in the first 5 km of the atmosphere with a range resolution of 300 m, integration on 100 shots, and an instrumental systematic error of less than 2%. The sensitivity study and first results are presented in part II [Appl. Opt. 40, 3462–3475 (2001)].

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  28. C. Cahen, B. E. Grossmann, J. L. Lesne, J. Benard, G. Leboudec, “Intensities and atmospheric broadening coefficients measured for O2 and H2O absorption lines selected for DIAL monitoring of both temperature and humidity. 2. H2O,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4268–4271 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectroscopy of water-vapor in the 720-nm wavelength region: line strengths, self-induced pressure broadening and shifts, and temperature dependence of line-widths and shifts,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 136, 264–294 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
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2001 (1)

1999 (5)

S. E. Bisson, J. E. M. Goldsmith, M. G. Mitchell, “Narrow-band, narrow-field-of-view Raman lidar with combined day and night capability for tropospheric water-vapor profile measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1841–1849 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sherlock, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, “Implementation and validation of a Raman lidar measurement of middle and upper tropospheric water vapor,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5838–5850 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Twenty-four-hour Raman lidar water vapor measurements during the atmospheric radiation measurement program’s 1996 and 1997 water vapor intensive observation periods,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1062–1076 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Ehret, K. P. Hoinka, J. Stein, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, G. Poberaj, “Low stratospheric water vapor measured by an airborne DIAL,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,351–31,359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR–NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

1994 (2)

1991 (1)

1989 (4)

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, “Airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements of water profiles: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3603–3615 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectroscopy of water-vapor in the 720-nm wavelength region: line strengths, self-induced pressure broadening and shifts, and temperature dependence of line-widths and shifts,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 136, 264–294 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Water-vapor broadening and shifting by air, nitrogen, oxygen and argon in the 720-nm wavelength region,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 138, 562–595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, “Observation of atmospheric fronts using Raman lidar moisture measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 789–806 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

1982 (1)

C. Cahen, G. Mégie, P. Flamant, “Lidar monitoring of the water vapor cycle in the troposphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1506–1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

C. Cahen, J.-P. Jegou, J. Pelon, P. Gildwarg, J. Porteneuve, “Wavelength stabilization and control of the emission of pulsed dye lasers by means of a multiple beam Fizeau interferometer,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 16, 353–359 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurements of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71–77 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J. A. Cooney, “Remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor profiles using the Raman component of laser backscatter,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 182–184 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295–297 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

1953 (1)

K. Kinosita, “Numerical evaluation of the intensity curve of a Fizeau fringe,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 8, 249–255 (1953).

Allen, R. J.

Arnaud des Lions, T.

Banta, R. M.

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR–NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barrick, J. D. W.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. M. Hall, A. S. Moore, S. A. Kooi, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, F. J. Schmidlin, N. S. Higdon, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, “LASE validation experiment,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Selected Papers of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 289–295.

Benard, J.

Bisson, S. E.

Blair, F. H.

Blanchard, O.

O. Blanchard, “Conception et développement d’un mesureur de longueur d’onde haute résolution pour des expériences lidar embarquées sur avion,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, 1990).

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975).

Bosenberg, J.

Brackett, V. G.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. M. Hall, A. S. Moore, S. A. Kooi, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, F. J. Schmidlin, N. S. Higdon, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, “LASE validation experiment,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Selected Papers of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 289–295.

Browell, E. V.

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, B. E. Grossmann, C. F. Butler, T. H. Chyba, M. L. Mayo, R. J. Allen, A. W. Heuser, W. B. Grant, S. Ismail, S. D. Mayor, A. F. Carter, “Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6422–6438 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Water-vapor broadening and shifting by air, nitrogen, oxygen and argon in the 720-nm wavelength region,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 138, 562–595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, “Airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements of water profiles: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3603–3615 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectroscopy of water-vapor in the 720-nm wavelength region: line strengths, self-induced pressure broadening and shifts, and temperature dependence of line-widths and shifts,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 136, 264–294 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. M. Hall, A. S. Moore, S. A. Kooi, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, F. J. Schmidlin, N. S. Higdon, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, “LASE validation experiment,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Selected Papers of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 289–295.

Bruneau, D.

Butler, C. F.

Cahen, C.

C. Cahen, B. E. Grossmann, J. L. Lesne, J. Benard, G. Leboudec, “Intensities and atmospheric broadening coefficients measured for O2 and H2O absorption lines selected for DIAL monitoring of both temperature and humidity. 2. H2O,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4268–4271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Cahen, G. Mégie, P. Flamant, “Lidar monitoring of the water vapor cycle in the troposphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1506–1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. Cahen, J.-P. Jegou, J. Pelon, P. Gildwarg, J. Porteneuve, “Wavelength stabilization and control of the emission of pulsed dye lasers by means of a multiple beam Fizeau interferometer,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 16, 353–359 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

J.-Y. Mandin, J.-P. Chevillard, C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, “The high-resolution spectrum of water vapor between 13 200 and 16 500 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 116, 167–172 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Carter, A. F.

Cazeneuve, H.

Chevillard, J.-P.

J.-Y. Mandin, J.-P. Chevillard, C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, “The high-resolution spectrum of water vapor between 13 200 and 16 500 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 116, 167–172 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chyba, T. H.

Clayton, M. B.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. M. Hall, A. S. Moore, S. A. Kooi, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, F. J. Schmidlin, N. S. Higdon, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, “LASE validation experiment,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Selected Papers of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 289–295.

Collis, R. T. H.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russel, “Lidar measurement of particles and gases by elastic backscattering and differential absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinckley, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), p. 140.

Cooney, J. A.

J. A. Cooney, “Remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor profiles using the Raman component of laser backscatter,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 182–184 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ehret, G.

G. Ehret, K. P. Hoinka, J. Stein, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, G. Poberaj, “Low stratospheric water vapor measured by an airborne DIAL,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,351–31,359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R.

S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, “Observation of atmospheric fronts using Raman lidar moisture measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 789–806 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fix, A.

G. Ehret, K. P. Hoinka, J. Stein, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, G. Poberaj, “Low stratospheric water vapor measured by an airborne DIAL,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,351–31,359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, C.

Flamant, P.

C. Cahen, G. Mégie, P. Flamant, “Lidar monitoring of the water vapor cycle in the troposphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1506–1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, P. Flamant, G. Mégie, M. Meissonnier, “The LEANDRE project: a French airborne lidar system for meteorological studies,” in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Laser Radar Conference, V. Cammelli, V. M. Sacco, eds, (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche/Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Florence, Italy, 1988), pp. 197–200.

Flaud, J.-M.

J.-Y. Mandin, J.-P. Chevillard, C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, “The high-resolution spectrum of water vapor between 13 200 and 16 500 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 116, 167–172 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Garnier, A.

Gildwarg, P.

C. Cahen, J.-P. Jegou, J. Pelon, P. Gildwarg, J. Porteneuve, “Wavelength stabilization and control of the emission of pulsed dye lasers by means of a multiple beam Fizeau interferometer,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 16, 353–359 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

Grant, W. B.

Grossmann, B.

B. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Water-vapor broadening and shifting by air, nitrogen, oxygen and argon in the 720-nm wavelength region,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 138, 562–595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectroscopy of water-vapor in the 720-nm wavelength region: line strengths, self-induced pressure broadening and shifts, and temperature dependence of line-widths and shifts,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 136, 264–294 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Grossmann, B. E.

Hall, W. M.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. M. Hall, A. S. Moore, S. A. Kooi, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, F. J. Schmidlin, N. S. Higdon, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, “LASE validation experiment,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Selected Papers of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 289–295.

Hardesty, R. M.

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR–NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hauchecorne, A.

Heuser, A. W.

Higdon, N. S.

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, B. E. Grossmann, C. F. Butler, T. H. Chyba, M. L. Mayo, R. J. Allen, A. W. Heuser, W. B. Grant, S. Ismail, S. D. Mayor, A. F. Carter, “Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6422–6438 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. M. Hall, A. S. Moore, S. A. Kooi, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, F. J. Schmidlin, N. S. Higdon, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, “LASE validation experiment,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Selected Papers of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 289–295.

Hoinka, K. P.

G. Ehret, K. P. Hoinka, J. Stein, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, G. Poberaj, “Low stratospheric water vapor measured by an airborne DIAL,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,351–31,359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, S.

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, B. E. Grossmann, C. F. Butler, T. H. Chyba, M. L. Mayo, R. J. Allen, A. W. Heuser, W. B. Grant, S. Ismail, S. D. Mayor, A. F. Carter, “Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6422–6438 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, “Airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements of water profiles: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3603–3615 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. M. Hall, A. S. Moore, S. A. Kooi, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, F. J. Schmidlin, N. S. Higdon, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, “LASE validation experiment,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Selected Papers of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 289–295.

Jegou, J.-P.

C. Cahen, J.-P. Jegou, J. Pelon, P. Gildwarg, J. Porteneuve, “Wavelength stabilization and control of the emission of pulsed dye lasers by means of a multiple beam Fizeau interferometer,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 16, 353–359 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Keckhut, P.

Kiemle, C.

G. Ehret, K. P. Hoinka, J. Stein, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, G. Poberaj, “Low stratospheric water vapor measured by an airborne DIAL,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,351–31,359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kinosita, K.

K. Kinosita, “Numerical evaluation of the intensity curve of a Fizeau fringe,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 8, 249–255 (1953).

Kogelnik, H.

Kooi, S. A.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. M. Hall, A. S. Moore, S. A. Kooi, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, F. J. Schmidlin, N. S. Higdon, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, “LASE validation experiment,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Selected Papers of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 289–295.

Lawrence, J. D.

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295–297 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Leboudec, G.

Lesne, J. L.

Li, T.

Loth, C.

Mandin, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Mandin, J.-P. Chevillard, C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, “The high-resolution spectrum of water vapor between 13 200 and 16 500 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 116, 167–172 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mayo, M. L.

Mayor, S. D.

McCormick, M. P.

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295–297 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Mégie, G.

C. Cahen, G. Mégie, P. Flamant, “Lidar monitoring of the water vapor cycle in the troposphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1506–1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, P. Flamant, G. Mégie, M. Meissonnier, “The LEANDRE project: a French airborne lidar system for meteorological studies,” in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Laser Radar Conference, V. Cammelli, V. M. Sacco, eds, (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche/Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Florence, Italy, 1988), pp. 197–200.

Meissonnier, M.

J. Pelon, P. Flamant, G. Mégie, M. Meissonnier, “The LEANDRE project: a French airborne lidar system for meteorological studies,” in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Laser Radar Conference, V. Cammelli, V. M. Sacco, eds, (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche/Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Florence, Italy, 1988), pp. 197–200.

Melfi, S. H.

S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, “Observation of atmospheric fronts using Raman lidar moisture measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 789–806 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295–297 (1969).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. M. Hall, A. S. Moore, S. A. Kooi, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, F. J. Schmidlin, N. S. Higdon, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, “LASE validation experiment,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Selected Papers of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 289–295.

Mitchell, M. G.

Moore, A. S.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. M. Hall, A. S. Moore, S. A. Kooi, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, F. J. Schmidlin, N. S. Higdon, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, “LASE validation experiment,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Selected Papers of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 289–295.

Pelon, J.

D. Bruneau, P. Quaglia, C. Flamant, J. Pelon, “The airborne lidar LEANDRE II for water vapor profiling in the troposphere. II. First results,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3462–3475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Bruneau, T. Arnaud des Lions, P. Quaglia, J. Pelon, “Injection-seeded pulsed alexandrite laser for differential absorption lidar application,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3941–3950 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bruneau, H. Cazeneuve, C. Loth, J. Pelon, “Double-pulse dual-wavelength alexandrite laser for atmospheric water vapor measurement,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3930–3937 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cahen, J.-P. Jegou, J. Pelon, P. Gildwarg, J. Porteneuve, “Wavelength stabilization and control of the emission of pulsed dye lasers by means of a multiple beam Fizeau interferometer,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 16, 353–359 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, P. Flamant, G. Mégie, M. Meissonnier, “The LEANDRE project: a French airborne lidar system for meteorological studies,” in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Laser Radar Conference, V. Cammelli, V. M. Sacco, eds, (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche/Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Florence, Italy, 1988), pp. 197–200.

Poberaj, G.

G. Ehret, K. P. Hoinka, J. Stein, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, G. Poberaj, “Low stratospheric water vapor measured by an airborne DIAL,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,351–31,359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ponsardin, P.

Porteneuve, J.

C. Cahen, J.-P. Jegou, J. Pelon, P. Gildwarg, J. Porteneuve, “Wavelength stabilization and control of the emission of pulsed dye lasers by means of a multiple beam Fizeau interferometer,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 16, 353–359 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Quaglia, P.

Russel, P. B.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russel, “Lidar measurement of particles and gases by elastic backscattering and differential absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinckley, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), p. 140.

Schmidlin, F. J.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. M. Hall, A. S. Moore, S. A. Kooi, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, F. J. Schmidlin, N. S. Higdon, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, “LASE validation experiment,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Selected Papers of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 289–295.

Schotland, R. M.

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurements of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71–77 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, “Some observation of the vertical profile of water vapor by means of a laser optical radar,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1966), pp. 273–283.

Sherlock, V.

Stein, J.

G. Ehret, K. P. Hoinka, J. Stein, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, G. Poberaj, “Low stratospheric water vapor measured by an airborne DIAL,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,351–31,359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Turner, D. D.

D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Twenty-four-hour Raman lidar water vapor measurements during the atmospheric radiation measurement program’s 1996 and 1997 water vapor intensive observation periods,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1062–1076 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, F. H. Blair, S. E. Bisson, D. D. Turner, “Turn-key Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4979–4990 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wakimoto, R. M.

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR–NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weckwerth, T. M.

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR–NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D.

S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, “Observation of atmospheric fronts using Raman lidar moisture measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 789–806 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D. N.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. M. Hall, A. S. Moore, S. A. Kooi, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, F. J. Schmidlin, N. S. Higdon, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, “LASE validation experiment,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Selected Papers of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 289–295.

Wilson, J. W.

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR–NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975).

Wulfmeyer, V.

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR–NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, J. Bosenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor profiling: assessment of accuracy, resolution and meteorological applications,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3825–3844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (12)

H. Kogelnik, T. Li, “Laser beams and resonators,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1550–1567 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cahen, B. E. Grossmann, J. L. Lesne, J. Benard, G. Leboudec, “Intensities and atmospheric broadening coefficients measured for O2 and H2O absorption lines selected for DIAL monitoring of both temperature and humidity. 2. H2O,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4268–4271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, “Airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements of water profiles: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3603–3615 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bruneau, H. Cazeneuve, C. Loth, J. Pelon, “Double-pulse dual-wavelength alexandrite laser for atmospheric water vapor measurement,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3930–3937 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bruneau, T. Arnaud des Lions, P. Quaglia, J. Pelon, “Injection-seeded pulsed alexandrite laser for differential absorption lidar application,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3941–3950 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Higdon, E. V. Browell, P. Ponsardin, B. E. Grossmann, C. F. Butler, T. H. Chyba, M. L. Mayo, R. J. Allen, A. W. Heuser, W. B. Grant, S. Ismail, S. D. Mayor, A. F. Carter, “Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6422–6438 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Wulfmeyer, J. Bosenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor profiling: assessment of accuracy, resolution and meteorological applications,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3825–3844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Bosenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor profiling: methodology,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3845–3860 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, F. H. Blair, S. E. Bisson, D. D. Turner, “Turn-key Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4979–4990 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Bisson, J. E. M. Goldsmith, M. G. Mitchell, “Narrow-band, narrow-field-of-view Raman lidar with combined day and night capability for tropospheric water-vapor profile measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1841–1849 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sherlock, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, “Implementation and validation of a Raman lidar measurement of middle and upper tropospheric water vapor,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5838–5850 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Bruneau, P. Quaglia, C. Flamant, J. Pelon, “The airborne lidar LEANDRE II for water vapor profiling in the troposphere. II. First results,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3462–3475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295–297 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR–NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (4)

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurements of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71–77 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Cooney, “Remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor profiles using the Raman component of laser backscatter,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 182–184 (1970).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Melfi, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, “Observation of atmospheric fronts using Raman lidar moisture measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 789–806 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Cahen, G. Mégie, P. Flamant, “Lidar monitoring of the water vapor cycle in the troposphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1506–1515 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (1)

D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Twenty-four-hour Raman lidar water vapor measurements during the atmospheric radiation measurement program’s 1996 and 1997 water vapor intensive observation periods,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1062–1076 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

G. Ehret, K. P. Hoinka, J. Stein, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, G. Poberaj, “Low stratospheric water vapor measured by an airborne DIAL,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31,351–31,359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (3)

J.-Y. Mandin, J.-P. Chevillard, C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, “The high-resolution spectrum of water vapor between 13 200 and 16 500 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 116, 167–172 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Spectroscopy of water-vapor in the 720-nm wavelength region: line strengths, self-induced pressure broadening and shifts, and temperature dependence of line-widths and shifts,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 136, 264–294 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. Grossmann, E. V. Browell, “Water-vapor broadening and shifting by air, nitrogen, oxygen and argon in the 720-nm wavelength region,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 138, 562–595 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

K. Kinosita, “Numerical evaluation of the intensity curve of a Fizeau fringe,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 8, 249–255 (1953).

Rev. Phys. Appl. (1)

C. Cahen, J.-P. Jegou, J. Pelon, P. Gildwarg, J. Porteneuve, “Wavelength stabilization and control of the emission of pulsed dye lasers by means of a multiple beam Fizeau interferometer,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 16, 353–359 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

J. Pelon, P. Flamant, G. Mégie, M. Meissonnier, “The LEANDRE project: a French airborne lidar system for meteorological studies,” in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Laser Radar Conference, V. Cammelli, V. M. Sacco, eds, (Istituto di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche/Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Florence, Italy, 1988), pp. 197–200.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russel, “Lidar measurement of particles and gases by elastic backscattering and differential absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinckley, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), p. 140.

O. Blanchard, “Conception et développement d’un mesureur de longueur d’onde haute résolution pour des expériences lidar embarquées sur avion,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, 1990).

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. M. Hall, A. S. Moore, S. A. Kooi, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, J. D. W. Barrick, F. J. Schmidlin, N. S. Higdon, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, “LASE validation experiment,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, Selected Papers of the Eighteenth International Laser Radar Conference, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 289–295.

Study Group on GEWEX, “Concept of the global energy and water cycle experiment,” (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 1988).

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1984).

R. M. Schotland, “Some observation of the vertical profile of water vapor by means of a laser optical radar,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1966), pp. 273–283.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the LEANDRE II system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical arrangement of the laser cavity: CM, cavity mirror; PC, Pockels cell; LF, Lyot filter; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; AR, alexandrite rod; BE, beam expander; FP1, thin Fabry–Perot etalon; FP2, thick Fabry–Perot etalon; OC, output coupler.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of the wavemeter optics: SL, stabilized He–Ne laser; CH, chopper; FOs, focusing objectives; SFs, single-mode optical fibers; FC, fiber coupler; CO’s, collimation objectives; IWs, input windows; VCs, vacuum chambers; FI1, thin Fizeau interferometer; FI2, thick Fizeau interferometer; OWs, output windows; CLs, cylindrical lenses; CCD, linear CCD camera.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for wavemeter calibration: AL, argon laser; TSL, Ti:sapphire single-mode laser; SLD, spectral locking device; MAS, multipass absorption cell; D, detector; GS, grating spectrometer; WMI, wavemeter interferometers; WME, wavemeter electronics; CH, chopper; CDR, computer and data storage.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Difference between the wavelength measured by the wavemeter and the wavelength of the tables of Mandin et al.27 for the 16 absorption lines.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Distribution of the on-line wavelength measured on a shot-to-shot basis (solid curve) and Gaussian fit (dashed curve).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Evolution of the on-line wavelength (averaged over 10 shots) with time when spectral locking is used.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Evolution of the spectral purity with time over a 1-h period.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Main Characteristics of the LEANDRE II Lidar

Tables Icon

Table 2 Characteristics of Wavemeter Fizeau Interferometer

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k=Ek0+εFλ0λ,
εF=x-x0x0-x0,
λ=λ0k0+εFk,
Δλλk2Δx|x0-x0|,
Δλ4Δλ Δx|x0-x0|.
λ¯i=λi-1+λi-λ¯i-1N,
σ¯=-+ lvSvdv,

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