Abstract

The design and evaluation of a prototype fiber-based lidar system for autonomous measurement of atmospheric water vapor are presented. The system components are described, along with current limitations and options for improvement. Atmospheric measurements show good agreement with modeled signal returns from 400 to 1000 m but are limited below 400 m as a result of errors in signal processing caused by violation of the assumptions used in the derivation of the differential absorption lidar equation.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  14. V. Brackett, S. Ismail, E. Browell, S. Kooi, M. Clayton, R. Ferrare, P. Minnis, B. Getzwich, J. Staszel, “LASE validation experiment: preliminary processing of relative humidity from LASE derived water vapor in the middle to upper troposphere,” in 19th International Laser Radar Conference, NASA Conf. Publ. CP-1998-207671 (1998), pp. 465–468.
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  34. J.-P. Chevillard, J.-Y. Mandin, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, “H216O: line positions and intensities between 9500 and 11500 cm-1. The interacting vibrational states (041), (220), (121), (022), (300), (201), (102), and (003),” Can. J. Phys. 67, 1065–1084 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  35. Z. Chu, T. D. Wilkerson, U. N. Singh, “Water-vapor absorption line measurements in the 940-nm band by using a Raman-shifted dye laser,” Appl. Opt. 32, 992–998 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. L. P. Giver, G. Gentry, G. Schwemmer, T. D. Wilkerson, “Water absorption lines, 931-961 nm: selected intensities, N2 collision-broadening coefficients, self-broadening coefficients, self-broadening coefficients, and pressure shifts in air,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 423–436 (1982).
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  41. S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, “Airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements of water vapor profiles: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3603–3614 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71–77 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  43. P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, J. Conradi, “Properties of avalanche photodiodes,” RCA Rev. 35, 234–279 (1974).
  44. S. Melle, A. MacGregor, “How to choose avalanche photodiodes,” Laser Focus World 31(10), 145–156 (1995).
  45. W. S. Benedict, L. D. Kaplan, “Calculation of line widths in H2O–N2 collisions,” J. Chem. Phys. 30, 388–398 (1959).

1999

P. D. Dragic, G. C. Papen, “Efficient amplification using the 4F3/2 → 4I9/2 transition in Nd-doped silica fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1593–1595 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

V. Wulfmeyer, J. Bösenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor profiling: assessment of accuracy, resolution, and meteorological applications,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3825–3844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F.-M. Bréon, “Comment on Rayleigh-scattering calculations for the terrestrial atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 37, 428–429 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bucholtz, “Response to comment on Rayleigh-scattering calculations for the terrestrial atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 37, 430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, “Balloon-borne measurements of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 11165–11169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Roh, J. S. Hughes, R. M. Lammert, M. L. Osowski, K. J. Beernink, G. C. Papen, J. J. Coleman, “Asymmetric cladding InGaAs–GaAs–AlGaAs ridge waveguide distributed Bragg reflector lasers with operating wavelengths of 915–935 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 285–287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Dragic, L. M. Little, G. C. Papen, “Fiber amplification in the 940-nm water vapor absorption band using the 4F3/2 → 4I9/2 transition in Nd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1478–1480 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. M. Smith, J. S. Hughes, R. M. Lammert, M. L. Osowski, G. C. Papen, J. T. Verdeyen, J. J. Coleman, “Wavelength tunable asymmetric cladding ridge waveguide distributed Bragg reflector lasers with very narrow linewidth,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1225–1229 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Little, K. J. Beernink, G. C. Papen, J. J. Coleman, “Performance characteristics of a narrow-linewidth distributed-Bragg-reflector laser for optical remote sensing systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1302–1304 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using the global positioning system,” Science 271, 1107–1110 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. Emanuel, D. Raymond, A. Betts, L. Bosart, C. Bretherton, K. Droegemeier, B. Farrell, J. M. Fritsch, R. Houze, M. Le Mone, D. Lilly, R. Rotunno, M. Shapire, R. Smith, A. Thorpe, “Report of the first prospectus development team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and the NSF,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 1194–1208 (1995).

R. Cess, M. Zhang, P. Minnis, L. Corsetti, E. Dutton, B. Forgan, D. Garber, W. Gates, J. Hack, E. Harrison, X. Jing, J. Keihl, C. Long, J.-L. Morcrette, G. Potter, V. Ramanathan, B. Subasilar, C. Whitlock, D. Young, Y. Zhou, “Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: observations versus models,” Science 267, 496–499 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Melle, A. MacGregor, “How to choose avalanche photodiodes,” Laser Focus World 31(10), 145–156 (1995).

A. Bucholtz, “Rayleigh-scattering calculations for the terrestrial atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2765–2773 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

H. H. Aumann, R. J. Pagano, “Atmospheric Infrared Sounder on the Earth Observing System,” Opt. Eng. 33, 776–784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Ismail, E. Browell, “Recent lidar technology developments and their influence on measurements of tropospheric water vapor,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 11, 76–84 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. Simeonidou, S. Hamidi, A. Siddiqui, “Theoretical and experimental study of a new delayed self-heterodyne technique for laser spectral linewidth measurement,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 8, 727–736 (1993).

Z. Chu, T. D. Wilkerson, U. N. Singh, “Water-vapor absorption line measurements in the 940-nm band by using a Raman-shifted dye laser,” Appl. Opt. 32, 992–998 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

1990

M. J. F. Digonnet, K. Liu, H. J. Shaw, “Characterization and optimization of the gain in Nd-doped single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1105–1110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, “Airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements of water vapor profiles: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3603–3614 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-P. Chevillard, J.-Y. Mandin, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, “H216O: line positions and intensities between 9500 and 11500 cm-1. The interacting vibrational states (041), (220), (121), (022), (300), (201), (102), and (003),” Can. J. Phys. 67, 1065–1084 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Raval, V. Ramanathan, “Observational determination of the greenhouse effect,” Nature (London) 342, 758–761 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

N. Schunk, K. Petermann, “Numerical analysis of the feedback regimes for a single-mode semiconductor laser with external feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1242–1247 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

T. Takamura, Y. Sasano, “Ratio of aerosol backscatter to extinction coefficients as determined from angular scattering measurements for use in atmospheric lidar applications,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 293–302 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982

L. P. Giver, G. Gentry, G. Schwemmer, T. D. Wilkerson, “Water absorption lines, 931-961 nm: selected intensities, N2 collision-broadening coefficients, self-broadening coefficients, self-broadening coefficients, and pressure shifts in air,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 423–436 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, A. Nakayama, “Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum,” Electron. Lett. 16, 630–631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978

1974

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71–77 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Webb, R. J. McIntyre, J. Conradi, “Properties of avalanche photodiodes,” RCA Rev. 35, 234–279 (1974).

1971

H. Kildal, R. L. Byer, “Comparison of laser methods for the remote detection of atmospheric pollutants,” Proc. IEEE 59, 1644–1663 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1959

W. S. Benedict, L. D. Kaplan, “Calculation of line widths in H2O–N2 collisions,” J. Chem. Phys. 30, 388–398 (1959).

1956

W. S. Benedict, R. Herman, G. E. Moore, S. Silverman, “The strengths, widths, and shapes of infrared lines. II. The HCl fundamental,” Can. J. Phys. 34, 850–875 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1954

W. S. Benedict, S. Silverman, “Line shapes in the infrared,” Phys. Rev. 94, 752 (1954).

Anderson, G. S.

G. S. Anderson, S. Clough, F. Kneizys, J. Chetwynd, E. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Aumann, H. H.

H. H. Aumann, R. J. Pagano, “Atmospheric Infrared Sounder on the Earth Observing System,” Opt. Eng. 33, 776–784 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beernink, K. J.

S. D. Roh, J. S. Hughes, R. M. Lammert, M. L. Osowski, K. J. Beernink, G. C. Papen, J. J. Coleman, “Asymmetric cladding InGaAs–GaAs–AlGaAs ridge waveguide distributed Bragg reflector lasers with operating wavelengths of 915–935 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 285–287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Little, K. J. Beernink, G. C. Papen, J. J. Coleman, “Performance characteristics of a narrow-linewidth distributed-Bragg-reflector laser for optical remote sensing systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1302–1304 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Benedict, W. S.

W. S. Benedict, L. D. Kaplan, “Calculation of line widths in H2O–N2 collisions,” J. Chem. Phys. 30, 388–398 (1959).

W. S. Benedict, R. Herman, G. E. Moore, S. Silverman, “The strengths, widths, and shapes of infrared lines. II. The HCl fundamental,” Can. J. Phys. 34, 850–875 (1956).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Benedict, S. Silverman, “Line shapes in the infrared,” Phys. Rev. 94, 752 (1954).

Bertiger, W. I.

E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using the global positioning system,” Science 271, 1107–1110 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Betts, A.

K. Emanuel, D. Raymond, A. Betts, L. Bosart, C. Bretherton, K. Droegemeier, B. Farrell, J. M. Fritsch, R. Houze, M. Le Mone, D. Lilly, R. Rotunno, M. Shapire, R. Smith, A. Thorpe, “Report of the first prospectus development team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and the NSF,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 1194–1208 (1995).

Bosart, L.

K. Emanuel, D. Raymond, A. Betts, L. Bosart, C. Bretherton, K. Droegemeier, B. Farrell, J. M. Fritsch, R. Houze, M. Le Mone, D. Lilly, R. Rotunno, M. Shapire, R. Smith, A. Thorpe, “Report of the first prospectus development team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and the NSF,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 1194–1208 (1995).

Bösenberg, J.

Brackett, V.

V. Brackett, S. Ismail, E. Browell, S. Kooi, M. Clayton, R. Ferrare, P. Minnis, B. Getzwich, J. Staszel, “LASE validation experiment: preliminary processing of relative humidity from LASE derived water vapor in the middle to upper troposphere,” in 19th International Laser Radar Conference, NASA Conf. Publ. CP-1998-207671 (1998), pp. 465–468.

Bréon, F.-M.

Bretherton, C.

K. Emanuel, D. Raymond, A. Betts, L. Bosart, C. Bretherton, K. Droegemeier, B. Farrell, J. M. Fritsch, R. Houze, M. Le Mone, D. Lilly, R. Rotunno, M. Shapire, R. Smith, A. Thorpe, “Report of the first prospectus development team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and the NSF,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 1194–1208 (1995).

Browell, E.

S. Ismail, E. Browell, “Recent lidar technology developments and their influence on measurements of tropospheric water vapor,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 11, 76–84 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Browell, S. Ismail, B. Grossman, “Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1517–1524 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Brackett, S. Ismail, E. Browell, S. Kooi, M. Clayton, R. Ferrare, P. Minnis, B. Getzwich, J. Staszel, “LASE validation experiment: preliminary processing of relative humidity from LASE derived water vapor in the middle to upper troposphere,” in 19th International Laser Radar Conference, NASA Conf. Publ. CP-1998-207671 (1998), pp. 465–468.

Browell, E. V.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

Bucholtz, A.

Byer, R. L.

H. Kildal, R. L. Byer, “Comparison of laser methods for the remote detection of atmospheric pollutants,” Proc. IEEE 59, 1644–1663 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

J.-P. Chevillard, J.-Y. Mandin, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, “H216O: line positions and intensities between 9500 and 11500 cm-1. The interacting vibrational states (041), (220), (121), (022), (300), (201), (102), and (003),” Can. J. Phys. 67, 1065–1084 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cess, R.

R. Cess, M. Zhang, P. Minnis, L. Corsetti, E. Dutton, B. Forgan, D. Garber, W. Gates, J. Hack, E. Harrison, X. Jing, J. Keihl, C. Long, J.-L. Morcrette, G. Potter, V. Ramanathan, B. Subasilar, C. Whitlock, D. Young, Y. Zhou, “Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: observations versus models,” Science 267, 496–499 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

Chetwynd, J.

G. S. Anderson, S. Clough, F. Kneizys, J. Chetwynd, E. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Chevillard, J.-P.

J.-P. Chevillard, J.-Y. Mandin, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, “H216O: line positions and intensities between 9500 and 11500 cm-1. The interacting vibrational states (041), (220), (121), (022), (300), (201), (102), and (003),” Can. J. Phys. 67, 1065–1084 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Z.

Clayton, M.

V. Brackett, S. Ismail, E. Browell, S. Kooi, M. Clayton, R. Ferrare, P. Minnis, B. Getzwich, J. Staszel, “LASE validation experiment: preliminary processing of relative humidity from LASE derived water vapor in the middle to upper troposphere,” in 19th International Laser Radar Conference, NASA Conf. Publ. CP-1998-207671 (1998), pp. 465–468.

Clough, S.

G. S. Anderson, S. Clough, F. Kneizys, J. Chetwynd, E. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

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[CrossRef]

G. M. Smith, J. S. Hughes, R. M. Lammert, M. L. Osowski, G. C. Papen, J. T. Verdeyen, J. J. Coleman, “Wavelength tunable asymmetric cladding ridge waveguide distributed Bragg reflector lasers with very narrow linewidth,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1225–1229 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Little, K. J. Beernink, G. C. Papen, J. J. Coleman, “Performance characteristics of a narrow-linewidth distributed-Bragg-reflector laser for optical remote sensing systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1302–1304 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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R. Cess, M. Zhang, P. Minnis, L. Corsetti, E. Dutton, B. Forgan, D. Garber, W. Gates, J. Hack, E. Harrison, X. Jing, J. Keihl, C. Long, J.-L. Morcrette, G. Potter, V. Ramanathan, B. Subasilar, C. Whitlock, D. Young, Y. Zhou, “Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: observations versus models,” Science 267, 496–499 (1995).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

Digonnet, M. J. F.

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[CrossRef]

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R. Cess, M. Zhang, P. Minnis, L. Corsetti, E. Dutton, B. Forgan, D. Garber, W. Gates, J. Hack, E. Harrison, X. Jing, J. Keihl, C. Long, J.-L. Morcrette, G. Potter, V. Ramanathan, B. Subasilar, C. Whitlock, D. Young, Y. Zhou, “Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: observations versus models,” Science 267, 496–499 (1995).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

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K. Emanuel, D. Raymond, A. Betts, L. Bosart, C. Bretherton, K. Droegemeier, B. Farrell, J. M. Fritsch, R. Houze, M. Le Mone, D. Lilly, R. Rotunno, M. Shapire, R. Smith, A. Thorpe, “Report of the first prospectus development team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and the NSF,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 1194–1208 (1995).

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E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using the global positioning system,” Science 271, 1107–1110 (1996).
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K. Emanuel, D. Raymond, A. Betts, L. Bosart, C. Bretherton, K. Droegemeier, B. Farrell, J. M. Fritsch, R. Houze, M. Le Mone, D. Lilly, R. Rotunno, M. Shapire, R. Smith, A. Thorpe, “Report of the first prospectus development team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and the NSF,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 1194–1208 (1995).

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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

J.-P. Chevillard, J.-Y. Mandin, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, “H216O: line positions and intensities between 9500 and 11500 cm-1. The interacting vibrational states (041), (220), (121), (022), (300), (201), (102), and (003),” Can. J. Phys. 67, 1065–1084 (1989).
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R. Cess, M. Zhang, P. Minnis, L. Corsetti, E. Dutton, B. Forgan, D. Garber, W. Gates, J. Hack, E. Harrison, X. Jing, J. Keihl, C. Long, J.-L. Morcrette, G. Potter, V. Ramanathan, B. Subasilar, C. Whitlock, D. Young, Y. Zhou, “Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: observations versus models,” Science 267, 496–499 (1995).
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K. Emanuel, D. Raymond, A. Betts, L. Bosart, C. Bretherton, K. Droegemeier, B. Farrell, J. M. Fritsch, R. Houze, M. Le Mone, D. Lilly, R. Rotunno, M. Shapire, R. Smith, A. Thorpe, “Report of the first prospectus development team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and the NSF,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 1194–1208 (1995).

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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

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R. Cess, M. Zhang, P. Minnis, L. Corsetti, E. Dutton, B. Forgan, D. Garber, W. Gates, J. Hack, E. Harrison, X. Jing, J. Keihl, C. Long, J.-L. Morcrette, G. Potter, V. Ramanathan, B. Subasilar, C. Whitlock, D. Young, Y. Zhou, “Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: observations versus models,” Science 267, 496–499 (1995).
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R. Cess, M. Zhang, P. Minnis, L. Corsetti, E. Dutton, B. Forgan, D. Garber, W. Gates, J. Hack, E. Harrison, X. Jing, J. Keihl, C. Long, J.-L. Morcrette, G. Potter, V. Ramanathan, B. Subasilar, C. Whitlock, D. Young, Y. Zhou, “Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: observations versus models,” Science 267, 496–499 (1995).
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V. Brackett, S. Ismail, E. Browell, S. Kooi, M. Clayton, R. Ferrare, P. Minnis, B. Getzwich, J. Staszel, “LASE validation experiment: preliminary processing of relative humidity from LASE derived water vapor in the middle to upper troposphere,” in 19th International Laser Radar Conference, NASA Conf. Publ. CP-1998-207671 (1998), pp. 465–468.

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L. P. Giver, G. Gentry, G. Schwemmer, T. D. Wilkerson, “Water absorption lines, 931-961 nm: selected intensities, N2 collision-broadening coefficients, self-broadening coefficients, self-broadening coefficients, and pressure shifts in air,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 423–436 (1982).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

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R. Cess, M. Zhang, P. Minnis, L. Corsetti, E. Dutton, B. Forgan, D. Garber, W. Gates, J. Hack, E. Harrison, X. Jing, J. Keihl, C. Long, J.-L. Morcrette, G. Potter, V. Ramanathan, B. Subasilar, C. Whitlock, D. Young, Y. Zhou, “Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: observations versus models,” Science 267, 496–499 (1995).
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[CrossRef]

G. M. Smith, J. S. Hughes, R. M. Lammert, M. L. Osowski, G. C. Papen, J. T. Verdeyen, J. J. Coleman, “Wavelength tunable asymmetric cladding ridge waveguide distributed Bragg reflector lasers with very narrow linewidth,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1225–1229 (1996).
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R. Cess, M. Zhang, P. Minnis, L. Corsetti, E. Dutton, B. Forgan, D. Garber, W. Gates, J. Hack, E. Harrison, X. Jing, J. Keihl, C. Long, J.-L. Morcrette, G. Potter, V. Ramanathan, B. Subasilar, C. Whitlock, D. Young, Y. Zhou, “Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: observations versus models,” Science 267, 496–499 (1995).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

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R. Cess, M. Zhang, P. Minnis, L. Corsetti, E. Dutton, B. Forgan, D. Garber, W. Gates, J. Hack, E. Harrison, X. Jing, J. Keihl, C. Long, J.-L. Morcrette, G. Potter, V. Ramanathan, B. Subasilar, C. Whitlock, D. Young, Y. Zhou, “Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: observations versus models,” Science 267, 496–499 (1995).
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Kooi, S.

V. Brackett, S. Ismail, E. Browell, S. Kooi, M. Clayton, R. Ferrare, P. Minnis, B. Getzwich, J. Staszel, “LASE validation experiment: preliminary processing of relative humidity from LASE derived water vapor in the middle to upper troposphere,” in 19th International Laser Radar Conference, NASA Conf. Publ. CP-1998-207671 (1998), pp. 465–468.

Kursinski, E. R.

E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using the global positioning system,” Science 271, 1107–1110 (1996).
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S. D. Roh, J. S. Hughes, R. M. Lammert, M. L. Osowski, K. J. Beernink, G. C. Papen, J. J. Coleman, “Asymmetric cladding InGaAs–GaAs–AlGaAs ridge waveguide distributed Bragg reflector lasers with operating wavelengths of 915–935 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 285–287 (1997).
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G. M. Smith, J. S. Hughes, R. M. Lammert, M. L. Osowski, G. C. Papen, J. T. Verdeyen, J. J. Coleman, “Wavelength tunable asymmetric cladding ridge waveguide distributed Bragg reflector lasers with very narrow linewidth,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1225–1229 (1996).
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K. Emanuel, D. Raymond, A. Betts, L. Bosart, C. Bretherton, K. Droegemeier, B. Farrell, J. M. Fritsch, R. Houze, M. Le Mone, D. Lilly, R. Rotunno, M. Shapire, R. Smith, A. Thorpe, “Report of the first prospectus development team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and the NSF,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 1194–1208 (1995).

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E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using the global positioning system,” Science 271, 1107–1110 (1996).
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K. Emanuel, D. Raymond, A. Betts, L. Bosart, C. Bretherton, K. Droegemeier, B. Farrell, J. M. Fritsch, R. Houze, M. Le Mone, D. Lilly, R. Rotunno, M. Shapire, R. Smith, A. Thorpe, “Report of the first prospectus development team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and the NSF,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 76, 1194–1208 (1995).

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P. D. Dragic, L. M. Little, G. C. Papen, “Fiber amplification in the 940-nm water vapor absorption band using the 4F3/2 → 4I9/2 transition in Nd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1478–1480 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Little, K. J. Beernink, G. C. Papen, J. J. Coleman, “Performance characteristics of a narrow-linewidth distributed-Bragg-reflector laser for optical remote sensing systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1302–1304 (1996).
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R. Cess, M. Zhang, P. Minnis, L. Corsetti, E. Dutton, B. Forgan, D. Garber, W. Gates, J. Hack, E. Harrison, X. Jing, J. Keihl, C. Long, J.-L. Morcrette, G. Potter, V. Ramanathan, B. Subasilar, C. Whitlock, D. Young, Y. Zhou, “Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: observations versus models,” Science 267, 496–499 (1995).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).

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E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using the global positioning system,” Science 271, 1107–1110 (1996).
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E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using the global positioning system,” Science 271, 1107–1110 (1996).
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E. R. Kursinski, G. A. Hajj, W. I. Bertiger, S. S. Leroy, T. K. Meehan, L. J. Romans, J. T. Schofield, D. J. McCleese, W. G. Melbourne, C. L. Thornton, T. P. Yunck, J. R. Eyre, R. N. Nagatani, “Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth’s atmosphere using the global positioning system,” Science 271, 1107–1110 (1996).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the transmitter and the receiver. Thin curves, fiber; thick curves, electrical wiring; dashed curves, free-space propagation of light. AOM, acousto-optic modulator; WDMs, wavelength-division multiplexers; GPIB, general-purpose interface bus; VCCSs, voltage-controlled current sources; APD, avalanche photodiode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raw signal returns for (solid curves) on-line and (pluses) off-line signals.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of modeled and measured signals.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Water-vapor profile calculated from measured data. Solid curve, model based on the U.S. 1976 Standard Atmosphere, with ground-level density tied to measured humidity. Measurements from Lincoln, Ill., at (filled circles) 0000 UDT and (filled triangles) 1200 UDT are included. Error bars show total error.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of measured profile shape and modeled profile without the slow-variation assumption.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of (dashed curve) model profile and (solid curve) profile calculated when the scattering equation does not make a slow-variation assumption. The overlap factor (pluses) and the normalized signal (filled circles) are shown for comparison.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Cross-section Measurement Results and Values Calculated from HITRAN Assuming a Lorentzian Line Shape in the Absorption Wings

Tables Icon

Table 2 System Parameters for Water-Vapor Profile Measurement

Tables Icon

Table 3 Summary of Sources of System Errora

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ne,rλ, R=Np,tηβRΔRξRA/R2×exp-20RNwzσwλ, z+αzdz,
ξR=1wπrrerf1wr2-x2exp-x-d2w2dx.
nw=12ΔRσon-σofflnN1,1N2,2N1,2N2,1.
δnwnw=12ΔRΔσnwi=12j=12Ni,j+BF+DNi,j21/2,
dnwnwtotal=δσoff-δσonσon-σoff.
δσσ=ΔN1-ΔN2N1-N2.
ST=S0TT01.5 expEhck1T0-1T,
γL=γL,OP/P0T0/Tm,
Prt=R1R2 PtRξRβRΩrTwv2RTatm2RdR,
Prt=PtξRβRA0R2-R1R2×exp-2 0RNwvzσz+αzdz.
Ne,r=ηPtτDhνβRΩFOVTatm2RTwv2R1×R1R2 ξRexp-2NwvRσRR-R1dR,
Ne,r=ηPtτDhνβRA0Tatm2RTwv2R1×R1R2 ξR1R2exp-2NwvRσR×R-R1dR.

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