Abstract

The mechanism for hologram formation by fixation-free rehalogenating bleaching has been treated by several authors. Experiments carried out with Kodak and Agfa photographic plates have led to the conclusion that the transfer of material from the exposed to the unexposed zones is the main mechanism that drives the process. We show that when BB-640 emulsion is used in the recording of holograms by means of fixation-free rehalogenating bleaching, the mechanism for the transfer of material from exposed to unexposed zones is efficient enough to create high refractive-index modulations. We also comment on the overmodulation effects, which result in a decrease in diffraction efficiency.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Solymar, D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, London, 1981), pp. 315–326.
  2. H. T. Buschman, “Bleichprozesse zur Erzeugung rauscharmer, lichtstarker Phasenhologramme,” Optik (Stuttgart) 34, 240–253 (1971).
  3. P. Hariharan, C. S. Ramanathan, G. S. Kaushik, “Simplified processing technique for photographic phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 246–247 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Crespo, A. Fimia, J. A. Quintana, “Fixation-free methods in bleached reflection holography,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1642–1645 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Hariharan, C. M. Chidley, “Rehalogenating bleaches for photographic phase holograms: the influence of halide type and concentration on diffraction efficiency and scattering,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3895–3898 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. K. Kostuk, “Factorial optimization of bleach constituents for silver halide holograms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1611–1616 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Hariharan, “Basic processes involved in the production of bleached holograms,” J. Photograph. Sci. Eng. 38, 76–81 (1990).
  8. P. Hariharan, “Rehalogenating bleaches for photographic phase holograms. 3. Mechanism of material transfer,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2983–2985 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Birenheide, “BB emulsions series: current standings and future developments,” in Sixth International Symposium on Display Holography, T. H. Jeong, ed., Proc. SPIE3358, 28–30 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, M. Flores, I. Pascual, “High-efficiency silver-halide sensitized gelatin holograms with low absorption and scatter,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1985–1992 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin derived from BB-640 holographic emulsion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1348–1356 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a fixation-free rehalogenating bleach for BB-640 holographic emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1671–1679 (2000).
  13. A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Analysis and elimination of boundary reflections in transmission holograms,” Opt. Laser Technol. 30, 555–556 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. R. A. Syms, Practical Volume Holography (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1990), pp. 54–64.
  16. W. R. Graver, J. W. Gladden, J. W. Eastes, “Phase holograms formed by silver halide (sensitized) gelatin processing,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1529–1536 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. Biedermann, “Silver halide photographic materials,” in Holographic Recording Materials, H. M. Smith, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 21–74.
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Meyerhofer, “Dichromated gelatin,” in Holographic Recording Materials, H. M. Smith, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 75–100.
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Manivannan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Mailhot, M. Bolte, “Primary photoprocesses of Cr(IV) in real-time holographic recording material: dichromated poly(vinyl alcohol),” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 7228–7233 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. I. Bjelkhagen, Silver Halide Recording Materials for Holography and Their Processing (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), pp. 182–197.
  21. P. Hariharan, C. M. Chidley, “Photographic phase holograms: the influence of developer composition on diffraction efficiency and scattering,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1230–1234 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a fixation-free rehalogenating bleach for BB-640 holographic emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1671–1679 (2000).

1999 (2)

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Analysis and elimination of boundary reflections in transmission holograms,” Opt. Laser Technol. 30, 555–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin derived from BB-640 holographic emulsion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1348–1356 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, M. Flores, I. Pascual, “High-efficiency silver-halide sensitized gelatin holograms with low absorption and scatter,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1985–1992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

G. Manivannan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Mailhot, M. Bolte, “Primary photoprocesses of Cr(IV) in real-time holographic recording material: dichromated poly(vinyl alcohol),” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 7228–7233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (2)

P. Hariharan, “Basic processes involved in the production of bleached holograms,” J. Photograph. Sci. Eng. 38, 76–81 (1990).

P. Hariharan, “Rehalogenating bleaches for photographic phase holograms. 3. Mechanism of material transfer,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2983–2985 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

1986 (1)

1980 (1)

1971 (2)

H. T. Buschman, “Bleichprozesse zur Erzeugung rauscharmer, lichtstarker Phasenhologramme,” Optik (Stuttgart) 34, 240–253 (1971).

P. Hariharan, C. S. Ramanathan, G. S. Kaushik, “Simplified processing technique for photographic phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 246–247 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Beléndez, A.

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a fixation-free rehalogenating bleach for BB-640 holographic emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1671–1679 (2000).

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Analysis and elimination of boundary reflections in transmission holograms,” Opt. Laser Technol. 30, 555–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin derived from BB-640 holographic emulsion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1348–1356 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, M. Flores, I. Pascual, “High-efficiency silver-halide sensitized gelatin holograms with low absorption and scatter,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1985–1992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biedermann, K.

K. Biedermann, “Silver halide photographic materials,” in Holographic Recording Materials, H. M. Smith, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 21–74.
[CrossRef]

Birenheide, R.

R. Birenheide, “BB emulsions series: current standings and future developments,” in Sixth International Symposium on Display Holography, T. H. Jeong, ed., Proc. SPIE3358, 28–30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bjelkhagen, H. I.

H. I. Bjelkhagen, Silver Halide Recording Materials for Holography and Their Processing (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), pp. 182–197.

Bolte, M.

G. Manivannan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Mailhot, M. Bolte, “Primary photoprocesses of Cr(IV) in real-time holographic recording material: dichromated poly(vinyl alcohol),” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 7228–7233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buschman, H. T.

H. T. Buschman, “Bleichprozesse zur Erzeugung rauscharmer, lichtstarker Phasenhologramme,” Optik (Stuttgart) 34, 240–253 (1971).

Changkakoti, R.

G. Manivannan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Mailhot, M. Bolte, “Primary photoprocesses of Cr(IV) in real-time holographic recording material: dichromated poly(vinyl alcohol),” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 7228–7233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chidley, C. M.

Cooke, D. J.

L. Solymar, D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, London, 1981), pp. 315–326.

Crespo, J.

Eastes, J. W.

Fimia, A.

Flores, M.

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, M. Flores, I. Pascual, “High-efficiency silver-halide sensitized gelatin holograms with low absorption and scatter,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1985–1992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gladden, J. W.

Graver, W. R.

Hariharan, P.

Kaushik, G. S.

P. Hariharan, C. S. Ramanathan, G. S. Kaushik, “Simplified processing technique for photographic phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 246–247 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kostuk, R. K.

Lessard, R. A.

G. Manivannan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Mailhot, M. Bolte, “Primary photoprocesses of Cr(IV) in real-time holographic recording material: dichromated poly(vinyl alcohol),” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 7228–7233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mailhot, G.

G. Manivannan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Mailhot, M. Bolte, “Primary photoprocesses of Cr(IV) in real-time holographic recording material: dichromated poly(vinyl alcohol),” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 7228–7233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Manivannan, G.

G. Manivannan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Mailhot, M. Bolte, “Primary photoprocesses of Cr(IV) in real-time holographic recording material: dichromated poly(vinyl alcohol),” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 7228–7233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meyerhofer, D.

D. Meyerhofer, “Dichromated gelatin,” in Holographic Recording Materials, H. M. Smith, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 75–100.
[CrossRef]

Neipp, C.

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a fixation-free rehalogenating bleach for BB-640 holographic emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1671–1679 (2000).

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Analysis and elimination of boundary reflections in transmission holograms,” Opt. Laser Technol. 30, 555–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin derived from BB-640 holographic emulsion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1348–1356 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, M. Flores, I. Pascual, “High-efficiency silver-halide sensitized gelatin holograms with low absorption and scatter,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1985–1992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pascual, I.

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a fixation-free rehalogenating bleach for BB-640 holographic emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1671–1679 (2000).

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Analysis and elimination of boundary reflections in transmission holograms,” Opt. Laser Technol. 30, 555–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin derived from BB-640 holographic emulsion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1348–1356 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, M. Flores, I. Pascual, “High-efficiency silver-halide sensitized gelatin holograms with low absorption and scatter,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1985–1992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Quintana, J. A.

Ramanathan, C. S.

P. Hariharan, C. S. Ramanathan, G. S. Kaushik, “Simplified processing technique for photographic phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 246–247 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Solymar, L.

L. Solymar, D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, London, 1981), pp. 315–326.

Syms, R. R. A.

R. R. A. Syms, Practical Volume Holography (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1990), pp. 54–64.

Appl. Opt. (7)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a fixation-free rehalogenating bleach for BB-640 holographic emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1671–1679 (2000).

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, M. Flores, I. Pascual, “High-efficiency silver-halide sensitized gelatin holograms with low absorption and scatter,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1985–1992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Photograph. Sci. Eng. (1)

P. Hariharan, “Basic processes involved in the production of bleached holograms,” J. Photograph. Sci. Eng. 38, 76–81 (1990).

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

G. Manivannan, R. Changkakoti, R. A. Lessard, G. Mailhot, M. Bolte, “Primary photoprocesses of Cr(IV) in real-time holographic recording material: dichromated poly(vinyl alcohol),” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 7228–7233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Hariharan, C. S. Ramanathan, G. S. Kaushik, “Simplified processing technique for photographic phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 246–247 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

A. Beléndez, C. Neipp, I. Pascual, “Analysis and elimination of boundary reflections in transmission holograms,” Opt. Laser Technol. 30, 555–556 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Optik (Stuttgart) (1)

H. T. Buschman, “Bleichprozesse zur Erzeugung rauscharmer, lichtstarker Phasenhologramme,” Optik (Stuttgart) 34, 240–253 (1971).

Other (6)

L. Solymar, D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, London, 1981), pp. 315–326.

R. Birenheide, “BB emulsions series: current standings and future developments,” in Sixth International Symposium on Display Holography, T. H. Jeong, ed., Proc. SPIE3358, 28–30 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. R. A. Syms, Practical Volume Holography (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1990), pp. 54–64.

K. Biedermann, “Silver halide photographic materials,” in Holographic Recording Materials, H. M. Smith, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 21–74.
[CrossRef]

D. Meyerhofer, “Dichromated gelatin,” in Holographic Recording Materials, H. M. Smith, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 75–100.
[CrossRef]

H. I. Bjelkhagen, Silver Halide Recording Materials for Holography and Their Processing (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), pp. 182–197.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction efficiency (DE) and Δnd versus exposure for transmission SHSG holograms recorded on BB-640 plates at the Bragg angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental measurements (circles) and theoretical fit (solid curves) of transmittance as a function of the reconstruction angle for SHSG transmission holograms recorded on BB-640 plates.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiency (DE) and Δnd versus exposure for transmission bleached holograms recorded on BB-640 plates at the Bragg angle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental measurements (circles) and theoretical fit (solid curves) of transmittance as a function of the reconstruction angle for fixation-free bleached transmission holograms recorded on BB-640 plates.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Refractive-index modulation versus exposure for phase transmission holograms recorded on BB-640 plates.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Processing Schedule

Tables Icon

Table 2 Developer and Bleach Formulas

Tables Icon

Table 3 Parameters d, Δn, and αd for SHSG Transmission Gratings Recorded on BB-640 Emulsion

Tables Icon

Table 4 Parameters d, Δn, and αd for Fixation-Free Rehalogenating Bleached Transmission Gratings Recorded on BB-640 Emulsion

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η=exp-αd/cos θsin2ν2+ξ21/21+ξ2/ν2,
ν=πΔndλ cos θ,
ξ=πdΛ cos θ|sinθ|-λ2nΛ.
τ=exp-αd/cos θ1-sin2ν2+ξ21/21+ξ2/ν2.
η+τ=exp-αd/cosθ;
ΔnE=Δn01-exp-βE,

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