Abstract

A novel three-dimensional display based on a volume-scanning method that uses an inclined light-source array and a mirror scanner is proposed. With this technique it is possible to display three-dimensional images that satisfy all factors for human stereoscopic vision. Three-dimensional images of 8 × 8 × 8 pixels, 40 mm × 40 mm × 40 mm in size, with a frame rate of 12.7 Hz were obtained as real images through an experimental system that uses a galvanometer mirror and a LED array.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, “Cause of fatigue and its improvement in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 31, 249–254 (1990).
  2. P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, J. Underkoffler, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1212, 174–182 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Hashimoto, S. Morokawa, K. Kitamura, “Real-time holography using the high-/resolution LCTV-SLM,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1461, 291–302 (1991).
  4. A. C. Traub, “Stereoscopic display using varifocal mirror oscillations,” Appl. Opt. 6, 1085–1087 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. G. Rawson, “Three-D computer-generated movies using a varifocal mirror,” Appl. Opt. 7, 1505–1511 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Suyama, M. Date, H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C.-C. Tsao, J. Chen, “Volumetric display by moving screen projection with a fast-switching spatial light modulator,” in Projection Displays IV, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3296, 191–197 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Soltan, M. Lasher, W. Dahlke, N. Acantilado, M. McDonald, “Laser-projected 3-D volumetric displays,” in Cockpit Displays IV: Flat Panel Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE3057, 496–506 (1997).
  9. D. G. Jansson, R. P. Kosowsky, “Display of moving volumetric image,” in Processing and Display of Three-Dimensional Data II, J. J. Pearson, ed., Proc. SPIE507, 82–92 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. F. Budinger, “An analysis of 3-D display strategies,” in Processing and Display of Three-Dimensional Data II, J. J. Pearson, ed., Proc. SPIE507, 2–8 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Kameyama, K. Ohtomi, Y. Fukui, “Interactive volume scanning 3D display with an optical relay system and multidimensional input devices,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications IV, J. O. Merritt, S. S. Fisher, eds., Proc. SPIE1915, 12–20 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Suyama, M. Date, H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, “Cause of fatigue and its improvement in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 31, 249–254 (1990).

1968 (1)

1967 (1)

Acantilado, N.

P. Soltan, M. Lasher, W. Dahlke, N. Acantilado, M. McDonald, “Laser-projected 3-D volumetric displays,” in Cockpit Displays IV: Flat Panel Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE3057, 496–506 (1997).

Benton, S. A.

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, J. Underkoffler, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1212, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Budinger, T. F.

T. F. Budinger, “An analysis of 3-D display strategies,” in Processing and Display of Three-Dimensional Data II, J. J. Pearson, ed., Proc. SPIE507, 2–8 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

C.-C. Tsao, J. Chen, “Volumetric display by moving screen projection with a fast-switching spatial light modulator,” in Projection Displays IV, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3296, 191–197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dahlke, W.

P. Soltan, M. Lasher, W. Dahlke, N. Acantilado, M. McDonald, “Laser-projected 3-D volumetric displays,” in Cockpit Displays IV: Flat Panel Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE3057, 496–506 (1997).

Date, M.

S. Suyama, M. Date, H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, Y.

K. Kameyama, K. Ohtomi, Y. Fukui, “Interactive volume scanning 3D display with an optical relay system and multidimensional input devices,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications IV, J. O. Merritt, S. S. Fisher, eds., Proc. SPIE1915, 12–20 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, N.

N. Hashimoto, S. Morokawa, K. Kitamura, “Real-time holography using the high-/resolution LCTV-SLM,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1461, 291–302 (1991).

Jansson, D. G.

D. G. Jansson, R. P. Kosowsky, “Display of moving volumetric image,” in Processing and Display of Three-Dimensional Data II, J. J. Pearson, ed., Proc. SPIE507, 82–92 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, M. L.

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, J. Underkoffler, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1212, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kameyama, K.

K. Kameyama, K. Ohtomi, Y. Fukui, “Interactive volume scanning 3D display with an optical relay system and multidimensional input devices,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications IV, J. O. Merritt, S. S. Fisher, eds., Proc. SPIE1915, 12–20 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, K.

N. Hashimoto, S. Morokawa, K. Kitamura, “Real-time holography using the high-/resolution LCTV-SLM,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1461, 291–302 (1991).

Kollin, J.

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, J. Underkoffler, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1212, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kosowsky, R. P.

D. G. Jansson, R. P. Kosowsky, “Display of moving volumetric image,” in Processing and Display of Three-Dimensional Data II, J. J. Pearson, ed., Proc. SPIE507, 82–92 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lasher, M.

P. Soltan, M. Lasher, W. Dahlke, N. Acantilado, M. McDonald, “Laser-projected 3-D volumetric displays,” in Cockpit Displays IV: Flat Panel Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE3057, 496–506 (1997).

Lucente, M.

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, J. Underkoffler, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1212, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, M.

P. Soltan, M. Lasher, W. Dahlke, N. Acantilado, M. McDonald, “Laser-projected 3-D volumetric displays,” in Cockpit Displays IV: Flat Panel Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE3057, 496–506 (1997).

Miyashita, T.

T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, “Cause of fatigue and its improvement in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 31, 249–254 (1990).

Morokawa, S.

N. Hashimoto, S. Morokawa, K. Kitamura, “Real-time holography using the high-/resolution LCTV-SLM,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1461, 291–302 (1991).

Ohtomi, K.

K. Kameyama, K. Ohtomi, Y. Fukui, “Interactive volume scanning 3D display with an optical relay system and multidimensional input devices,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications IV, J. O. Merritt, S. S. Fisher, eds., Proc. SPIE1915, 12–20 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rawson, E. G.

Soltan, P.

P. Soltan, M. Lasher, W. Dahlke, N. Acantilado, M. McDonald, “Laser-projected 3-D volumetric displays,” in Cockpit Displays IV: Flat Panel Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE3057, 496–506 (1997).

St. Hilaire, P.

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, J. Underkoffler, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1212, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Suyama, S.

S. Suyama, M. Date, H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takada, H.

S. Suyama, M. Date, H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Traub, A. C.

Tsao, C.-C.

C.-C. Tsao, J. Chen, “Volumetric display by moving screen projection with a fast-switching spatial light modulator,” in Projection Displays IV, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3296, 191–197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, “Cause of fatigue and its improvement in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 31, 249–254 (1990).

Underkoffler, J.

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, J. Underkoffler, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1212, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, H.

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, J. Underkoffler, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1212, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Suyama, M. Date, H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Inf. Display (1)

T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, “Cause of fatigue and its improvement in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Display 31, 249–254 (1990).

Other (7)

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, J. Underkoffler, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1212, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. Hashimoto, S. Morokawa, K. Kitamura, “Real-time holography using the high-/resolution LCTV-SLM,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1461, 291–302 (1991).

C.-C. Tsao, J. Chen, “Volumetric display by moving screen projection with a fast-switching spatial light modulator,” in Projection Displays IV, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3296, 191–197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Soltan, M. Lasher, W. Dahlke, N. Acantilado, M. McDonald, “Laser-projected 3-D volumetric displays,” in Cockpit Displays IV: Flat Panel Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE3057, 496–506 (1997).

D. G. Jansson, R. P. Kosowsky, “Display of moving volumetric image,” in Processing and Display of Three-Dimensional Data II, J. J. Pearson, ed., Proc. SPIE507, 82–92 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Budinger, “An analysis of 3-D display strategies,” in Processing and Display of Three-Dimensional Data II, J. J. Pearson, ed., Proc. SPIE507, 2–8 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. Kameyama, K. Ohtomi, Y. Fukui, “Interactive volume scanning 3D display with an optical relay system and multidimensional input devices,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications IV, J. O. Merritt, S. S. Fisher, eds., Proc. SPIE1915, 12–20 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the volume-scanning 3-D display system with an inclined 2-D display and a mirror scanner.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variations of scanning optical systems: (a) lensless system, (b) telecentric system in image space, (c) telecentric system in object space, (d) telecentric system in both image space and object space.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observation region: (a) l i + l m < D and (b) l i + l m > D.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Block diagram of the experimental system; D/A, digital to analog.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental results for 3-D images for system 1: (a), (b) cube images as the angle of each LED array changes; (c) a 3-D image of stairs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental results for system 2: (a), (b) 3-D rectangle images as the angle of each LED array changes; (c) 3-D image of stairs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Moving 3-D image of a rotating rectangle.

Equations (2)

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lo=slmf-li.
lo=sD-lif-li.

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