Abstract

In a practical three-dimensional (3-D) sensing system, the measurement of a large-scale object cannot be completed in only one operation. A relieflike object is generally divided into several subregions, an optical sensor positioned at each of these locations, and the shape of the whole object obtained by patching together all the 3-D data of the subregions. It is important to have accurate 3-D coordinates (x, y, z) for each subregion. We propose a new phase-to-height mapping algorithm and an accurate lateral coordinate calibration method with which to obtain the 3-D coordinates. After all the subregions are measured, it is necessary to transform the local coordinates into global world coordinates; here we present a new image data-patching method based on a flood algorithm. This method provides the optimal path along which to patch all the subregions into the shape of the entire object. We have measured and successfully patched a large sandy pool (9 m × 5 m), and the reliability and feasibility of our method have been demonstrated by experiment.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. Srinivasan, H. C. Liu, M. Halioua, “Automated phase-measuring profilometry of 3-D diffuse objects,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3105–3108 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. X.-Y. Su, W.-S. Zhou, G. von Bally, D. Vukicevic, “Automated phase-measuring profilometry using defocused projection of the Rochi grating,” Opt. Commun. 94, 561–573 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Takeda, K. Mutoh, “Fourier transform profilometry for the automatic measurement of 3-D object shapes,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3977–3982 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Li, X.-Y. Su, L.-R. Guo, “Improved Fourier transform profilometry of the automatic measurement of three-dimensional object shapes,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1439–1444 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Chen, G. M. Brown, M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39, 10–22 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Reich, R. Ritter, J. Thesing, “3-D shape measurement of complex objects by combining photogrammetry and fringe projection,” Opt. Eng. 39, 224–231 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Schreiber, G. Notni, “Theory and arrangements of self-calibrating whole-body three-dimensional measurement systems using fringe projection technique,” Opt. Eng. 39, 159–169 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X.-X. Cheng, X.-Y. Su, L.-R. Guo, “Automated measurement method for 360° profilometry of 3-D diffuse objects,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1274–1278 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Heipke, “A global approach for least squares image matching and surface recognition in object space,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 58, 317–323 (1992).
  10. A. W. Gruen, “Geometrically constrained multiphoto matching,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 54, 633–641 (1988).
  11. M. Lehmann, P. Jacquot, M. Facchini, “Shape measurement on large surface by fringe projection,” Exp. Tech. 23, 31–35 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Li, L. Su, X. Y. Su, “Phase-measuring profilometry in big scale measurement,” Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 792–796 (2000).
  13. W.-S. Zhou, X.-Y. Su, “A direct mapping algorithm for phase-measuring profilometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 89–94 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (4)

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39, 10–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Reich, R. Ritter, J. Thesing, “3-D shape measurement of complex objects by combining photogrammetry and fringe projection,” Opt. Eng. 39, 224–231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Schreiber, G. Notni, “Theory and arrangements of self-calibrating whole-body three-dimensional measurement systems using fringe projection technique,” Opt. Eng. 39, 159–169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, L. Su, X. Y. Su, “Phase-measuring profilometry in big scale measurement,” Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 792–796 (2000).

1999 (1)

M. Lehmann, P. Jacquot, M. Facchini, “Shape measurement on large surface by fringe projection,” Exp. Tech. 23, 31–35 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

W.-S. Zhou, X.-Y. Su, “A direct mapping algorithm for phase-measuring profilometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 89–94 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

X.-Y. Su, W.-S. Zhou, G. von Bally, D. Vukicevic, “Automated phase-measuring profilometry using defocused projection of the Rochi grating,” Opt. Commun. 94, 561–573 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Heipke, “A global approach for least squares image matching and surface recognition in object space,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 58, 317–323 (1992).

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

J. Li, X.-Y. Su, L.-R. Guo, “Improved Fourier transform profilometry of the automatic measurement of three-dimensional object shapes,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1439–1444 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. W. Gruen, “Geometrically constrained multiphoto matching,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 54, 633–641 (1988).

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

Brown, G. M.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39, 10–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39, 10–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, X.-X.

Facchini, M.

M. Lehmann, P. Jacquot, M. Facchini, “Shape measurement on large surface by fringe projection,” Exp. Tech. 23, 31–35 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gruen, A. W.

A. W. Gruen, “Geometrically constrained multiphoto matching,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 54, 633–641 (1988).

Guo, L.-R.

X.-X. Cheng, X.-Y. Su, L.-R. Guo, “Automated measurement method for 360° profilometry of 3-D diffuse objects,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1274–1278 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, X.-Y. Su, L.-R. Guo, “Improved Fourier transform profilometry of the automatic measurement of three-dimensional object shapes,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1439–1444 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Halioua, M.

Heipke, C.

C. Heipke, “A global approach for least squares image matching and surface recognition in object space,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 58, 317–323 (1992).

Jacquot, P.

M. Lehmann, P. Jacquot, M. Facchini, “Shape measurement on large surface by fringe projection,” Exp. Tech. 23, 31–35 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, M.

M. Lehmann, P. Jacquot, M. Facchini, “Shape measurement on large surface by fringe projection,” Exp. Tech. 23, 31–35 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, X.-Y. Su, L.-R. Guo, “Improved Fourier transform profilometry of the automatic measurement of three-dimensional object shapes,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1439–1444 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

W. Li, L. Su, X. Y. Su, “Phase-measuring profilometry in big scale measurement,” Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 792–796 (2000).

Liu, H. C.

Mutoh, K.

Notni, G.

W. Schreiber, G. Notni, “Theory and arrangements of self-calibrating whole-body three-dimensional measurement systems using fringe projection technique,” Opt. Eng. 39, 159–169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reich, C.

C. Reich, R. Ritter, J. Thesing, “3-D shape measurement of complex objects by combining photogrammetry and fringe projection,” Opt. Eng. 39, 224–231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, R.

C. Reich, R. Ritter, J. Thesing, “3-D shape measurement of complex objects by combining photogrammetry and fringe projection,” Opt. Eng. 39, 224–231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, W.

W. Schreiber, G. Notni, “Theory and arrangements of self-calibrating whole-body three-dimensional measurement systems using fringe projection technique,” Opt. Eng. 39, 159–169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Song, M.

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39, 10–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, V.

Su, L.

W. Li, L. Su, X. Y. Su, “Phase-measuring profilometry in big scale measurement,” Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 792–796 (2000).

Su, X. Y.

W. Li, L. Su, X. Y. Su, “Phase-measuring profilometry in big scale measurement,” Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 792–796 (2000).

Su, X.-Y.

W.-S. Zhou, X.-Y. Su, “A direct mapping algorithm for phase-measuring profilometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 89–94 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X.-Y. Su, W.-S. Zhou, G. von Bally, D. Vukicevic, “Automated phase-measuring profilometry using defocused projection of the Rochi grating,” Opt. Commun. 94, 561–573 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X.-X. Cheng, X.-Y. Su, L.-R. Guo, “Automated measurement method for 360° profilometry of 3-D diffuse objects,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1274–1278 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, X.-Y. Su, L.-R. Guo, “Improved Fourier transform profilometry of the automatic measurement of three-dimensional object shapes,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1439–1444 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

Thesing, J.

C. Reich, R. Ritter, J. Thesing, “3-D shape measurement of complex objects by combining photogrammetry and fringe projection,” Opt. Eng. 39, 224–231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

von Bally, G.

X.-Y. Su, W.-S. Zhou, G. von Bally, D. Vukicevic, “Automated phase-measuring profilometry using defocused projection of the Rochi grating,” Opt. Commun. 94, 561–573 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vukicevic, D.

X.-Y. Su, W.-S. Zhou, G. von Bally, D. Vukicevic, “Automated phase-measuring profilometry using defocused projection of the Rochi grating,” Opt. Commun. 94, 561–573 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.-S.

W.-S. Zhou, X.-Y. Su, “A direct mapping algorithm for phase-measuring profilometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 89–94 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X.-Y. Su, W.-S. Zhou, G. von Bally, D. Vukicevic, “Automated phase-measuring profilometry using defocused projection of the Rochi grating,” Opt. Commun. 94, 561–573 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Acta Opt. Sin. (1)

W. Li, L. Su, X. Y. Su, “Phase-measuring profilometry in big scale measurement,” Acta Opt. Sin. 20, 792–796 (2000).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Exp. Tech. (1)

M. Lehmann, P. Jacquot, M. Facchini, “Shape measurement on large surface by fringe projection,” Exp. Tech. 23, 31–35 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

W.-S. Zhou, X.-Y. Su, “A direct mapping algorithm for phase-measuring profilometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 89–94 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X.-Y. Su, W.-S. Zhou, G. von Bally, D. Vukicevic, “Automated phase-measuring profilometry using defocused projection of the Rochi grating,” Opt. Commun. 94, 561–573 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (4)

J. Li, X.-Y. Su, L.-R. Guo, “Improved Fourier transform profilometry of the automatic measurement of three-dimensional object shapes,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1439–1444 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, G. M. Brown, M. Song, “Overview of three-dimensional shape measurement using optical methods,” Opt. Eng. 39, 10–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Reich, R. Ritter, J. Thesing, “3-D shape measurement of complex objects by combining photogrammetry and fringe projection,” Opt. Eng. 39, 224–231 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Schreiber, G. Notni, “Theory and arrangements of self-calibrating whole-body three-dimensional measurement systems using fringe projection technique,” Opt. Eng. 39, 159–169 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. (2)

C. Heipke, “A global approach for least squares image matching and surface recognition in object space,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 58, 317–323 (1992).

A. W. Gruen, “Geometrically constrained multiphoto matching,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 54, 633–641 (1988).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical geometry of the phase-measuring profilometry system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of the lateral calibration rectangle placed (a) in plane 1 and (b) in plane 4.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Section of a plane object measured with the linear fit method: (a) Object placed at height 250 mm; rms, 1.04 mm. (b) Object placed at height 30 mm; rms, 1.05 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Section of a plane object measured with the nonlinear fit method: (a) Height, 250 mm, mapping with the single-direction method; RMS, 0.42 mm. (b) Height, 30 mm, mapping with the single-direction method; RMS, 1.05 mm. (c) Height, 30 mm, and mapping with the dual-direction method; RMS, 0.49 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Resampling of the CCD coordinates into uniform world coordinates.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) First step of patching. O is the starting subregion. We assume that cross-correlation coefficient R OB is the maximum of R OA , R OB , R OC , and R OD . Patch O and B together. (b) Second step of patching. We assume that the cross-correlation coefficient R BG is the maximum of R OA , R OC , R OD , R BE , R BF , and R BG . Patch OB and G together.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The shaded rectangles are the subregions of interest. All of the subregions must be connected with one another.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

3-D shape of the original riverbed.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) 3-D shape of the aggraded riverbed. (b) Photograph of the aggraded riverbed. (c) Gray-scale height map of the aggraded riverbed. The origin point is at the top right-hand corner. (d) Local 3-D display of the bank.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Section analysis. Solid curve, section of the aggraded riverbed; dashed curve, the original riverbed: (a) section at y = 5000 mm, (b) section at x = 3000 mm.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ix, y=Ax, y+Bx, ycos ϕx, y,
ϕx, y=arctann=1N Inx, ysin2nπ/Nn=1N Inx, ycos2nπ/N.
ϕhx, y=ϕx, y-ϕrx, y.
1hx, y=ax, y+bx, y1ϕhx, y,
Rx min=rlrlccd1,  Rx max=rlrlccd4,Ry min=rwrwccd1,  Ry max=rwrwccd4.
Xx, y=x-x0Rx min+hx, y/HRx max-Rx min,
Yx, y=y-y0Ry min+hx, y/HRy max-Ry min.
1hx, y=ax, y+bx, y1ϕhx, y+cx, y1ϕh2x, y,
Δhx, y=Δpx, ybx, yh2x, yϕh2x, y+cx, yh2x, yϕh3x, y,
ϕh=ϕxp, yp-ϕrxp, yp,
ϕih=ϕxp, yp-ϕirxp, yp.
hx, y=ax, y+bx, y1ϕhx, y+cx, y1ϕh2x, y-1.
hx, y=H-iax, y+ibx, y1ϕihx, y+icx, y1ϕih2x, y-1.

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