Abstract

We have developed a new family of imaging spectrometer designs that combine the imaging power of two-element telescopes with the aberration control of first-generation holographic gratings. The resulting optical designs provide high spatial resolution over modest fields of view at selectable wavelengths. These all-reflective designs are particularly suited for narrow-band imaging below 1050 Å, the wavelength below which there are no transmitting materials in the UV. We have developed designs to efficiently map the spatial distribution of UV-emitting material. This mapping capability is absent in current and future astronomical instruments but is crucial to the understanding of the nature of a variety of astrophysical phenomena. Although our examples focus on UV wavelengths, the design concept is applicable to any wavelength.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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2000 (1)

1999 (3)

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. I. Larruquert, J. S. Gum, C. M. Fleetwood, “Optical coatings and materials for ultraviolet space applications,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 164, 406–419 (1999).

W. P. Blair, R. Sankrit, J. C. Raymond, K. S. Long, “Distance to the Cygnus Loop from the Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the primary shock front,” Astron. J. 118, 942–947 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Andersen, R. J. Knize, “Holographically corrected telescope for high-bandwidth optical communications,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6833–6835 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

B. C. Bush, S. Chakrabarti, “Analysis of Lyman α and He I 584Å airglow measurements using a spherical radiative transfer model,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 19609–19625 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. Palmer, W. R. McKinney, “Imaging theory of plane-symmetric varied line-space grating systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 820–829 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. S. Long, W. P. Blair, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, J. C. Raymond, “Spectroscopy of a Balmer-dominated filament in the Cygnus Loop with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 400, 214–221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

R. R. Meier, “Ultraviolet spectroscopy and remote sensing of the upper atmosphere,” Space Sci. Rev. 58, 1–185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Blair, K. S. Long, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. T. Durrance, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, R. C. Henry, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, J. W. Kruk, H. W. Moos, T. R. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. P. Cox, J. C. Raymond, “Preionization-dependent families of radiative shock waves,” Astrophys. J. 298, 651–659 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

S. Chakrabarti, R. Kimble, S. Bowyer, “Spectroscopy of the EUV (350–1400Å) nightglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5660–5664 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

J. C. Raymond, W. P. Blair, R. A. Fesen, T. R. Gull, “The structure and emission spectrum of a nonradiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 275, 636–644 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

J. C. Raymond, “Shock waves in the interstellar medium,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 39, 1–27 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

C. F. McKee, J. P. Ostriker, “A theory of the interstellar medium: three components regulated by supernova explosions in an inhomogeneous substrate,” Astrophys. J. 218, 148–169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1971 (1)

1965 (1)

Andersen, G.

Andrews, J. P.

J. A. Morse, J. C. Green, D. Ebbets, J. P. Andrews, S. R. Heap, C. Leitherer, J. Linsky, B. D. Savage, J. M. Shull, T. P. Snow, A. S. Stern, O. H. M. Siegmund, J. T. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. R. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aristov, A. K.

Bartko, F.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bely, P.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blair, W. P.

W. P. Blair, R. Sankrit, J. C. Raymond, K. S. Long, “Distance to the Cygnus Loop from the Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the primary shock front,” Astron. J. 118, 942–947 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Long, W. P. Blair, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, J. C. Raymond, “Spectroscopy of a Balmer-dominated filament in the Cygnus Loop with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 400, 214–221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Blair, K. S. Long, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. T. Durrance, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, R. C. Henry, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, J. W. Kruk, H. W. Moos, T. R. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Raymond, W. P. Blair, R. A. Fesen, T. R. Gull, “The structure and emission spectrum of a nonradiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 275, 636–644 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, C. W.

K. S. Long, W. P. Blair, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, J. C. Raymond, “Spectroscopy of a Balmer-dominated filament in the Cygnus Loop with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 400, 214–221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Blair, K. S. Long, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. T. Durrance, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, R. C. Henry, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, J. W. Kruk, H. W. Moos, T. R. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bowyer, S.

S. Chakrabarti, R. Kimble, S. Bowyer, “Spectroscopy of the EUV (350–1400Å) nightglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5660–5664 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Broadhurst, T.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brownsberger, K. R.

J. A. Morse, J. C. Green, D. Ebbets, J. P. Andrews, S. R. Heap, C. Leitherer, J. Linsky, B. D. Savage, J. M. Shull, T. P. Snow, A. S. Stern, O. H. M. Siegmund, J. T. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. R. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burmester, B.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, C.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bush, B. C.

B. C. Bush, S. Chakrabarti, “Analysis of Lyman α and He I 584Å airglow measurements using a spherical radiative transfer model,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 19609–19625 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chakrabarti, S.

B. C. Bush, S. Chakrabarti, “Analysis of Lyman α and He I 584Å airglow measurements using a spherical radiative transfer model,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 19609–19625 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Chakrabarti, R. Kimble, S. Bowyer, “Spectroscopy of the EUV (350–1400Å) nightglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5660–5664 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, E.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clampin, M.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cox, D. P.

D. P. Cox, J. C. Raymond, “Preionization-dependent families of radiative shock waves,” Astrophys. J. 298, 651–659 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Crocker, J.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davidsen, A. F.

K. S. Long, W. P. Blair, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, J. C. Raymond, “Spectroscopy of a Balmer-dominated filament in the Cygnus Loop with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 400, 214–221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Blair, K. S. Long, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. T. Durrance, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, R. C. Henry, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, J. W. Kruk, H. W. Moos, T. R. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, W. V. D.

W. P. Blair, K. S. Long, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. T. Durrance, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, R. C. Henry, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, J. W. Kruk, H. W. Moos, T. R. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Durrance, S. T.

W. P. Blair, K. S. Long, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. T. Durrance, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, R. C. Henry, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, J. W. Kruk, H. W. Moos, T. R. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ebbets, D.

J. A. Morse, J. C. Green, D. Ebbets, J. P. Andrews, S. R. Heap, C. Leitherer, J. Linsky, B. D. Savage, J. M. Shull, T. P. Snow, A. S. Stern, O. H. M. Siegmund, J. T. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. R. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edelstein, J.

J. Edelstein, “Reflection/suppression coatings for 900–1200 A radiation,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1160, 19–25 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, P.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, P. D.

W. P. Blair, K. S. Long, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. T. Durrance, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, R. C. Henry, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, J. W. Kruk, H. W. Moos, T. R. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, H. C.

W. P. Blair, K. S. Long, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. T. Durrance, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, R. C. Henry, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, J. W. Kruk, H. W. Moos, T. R. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fesen, R. A.

J. C. Raymond, W. P. Blair, R. A. Fesen, T. R. Gull, “The structure and emission spectrum of a nonradiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 275, 636–644 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fike, S.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), Chap. 10, pp. 402–406.

Fleetwood, C. M.

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. I. Larruquert, J. S. Gum, C. M. Fleetwood, “Optical coatings and materials for ultraviolet space applications,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 164, 406–419 (1999).

Ford, H.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, S. D.

J. C. Green, E. Wilkinson, S. D. Friedman, “Design of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer spectrograph,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2283, 12–19 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Golimowki, D.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
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W. P. Blair, K. S. Long, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. T. Durrance, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, R. C. Henry, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, J. W. Kruk, H. W. Moos, T. R. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
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R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. I. Larruquert, J. S. Gum, C. M. Fleetwood, “Optical coatings and materials for ultraviolet space applications,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 164, 406–419 (1999).

Hartig, G.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
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Heap, S. R.

J. A. Morse, J. C. Green, D. Ebbets, J. P. Andrews, S. R. Heap, C. Leitherer, J. Linsky, B. D. Savage, J. M. Shull, T. P. Snow, A. S. Stern, O. H. M. Siegmund, J. T. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. R. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
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W. P. Blair, K. S. Long, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. T. Durrance, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, R. C. Henry, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, J. W. Kruk, H. W. Moos, T. R. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
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Hunter, W. R.

Illingworth, G.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
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Johnson, R.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
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R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. I. Larruquert, J. S. Gum, C. M. Fleetwood, “Optical coatings and materials for ultraviolet space applications,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 164, 406–419 (1999).

Kimble, R.

S. Chakrabarti, R. Kimble, S. Bowyer, “Spectroscopy of the EUV (350–1400Å) nightglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5660–5664 (1984).
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H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
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Kimble, R. A.

W. P. Blair, K. S. Long, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. T. Durrance, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, R. C. Henry, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, J. W. Kruk, H. W. Moos, T. R. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
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Knize, R. J.

Krebs, C.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
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Kriss, G. A.

W. P. Blair, K. S. Long, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. T. Durrance, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, R. C. Henry, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, J. W. Kruk, H. W. Moos, T. R. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
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Kruk, J. W.

W. P. Blair, K. S. Long, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. T. Durrance, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, R. C. Henry, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, J. W. Kruk, H. W. Moos, T. R. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
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LaJeunesse, T.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
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Larruquert, J. I.

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. I. Larruquert, J. S. Gum, C. M. Fleetwood, “Optical coatings and materials for ultraviolet space applications,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 164, 406–419 (1999).

Laufer, A. H.

Leitherer, C.

J. A. Morse, J. C. Green, D. Ebbets, J. P. Andrews, S. R. Heap, C. Leitherer, J. Linsky, B. D. Savage, J. M. Shull, T. P. Snow, A. S. Stern, O. H. M. Siegmund, J. T. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. R. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
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H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
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H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
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J. A. Morse, J. C. Green, D. Ebbets, J. P. Andrews, S. R. Heap, C. Leitherer, J. Linsky, B. D. Savage, J. M. Shull, T. P. Snow, A. S. Stern, O. H. M. Siegmund, J. T. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. R. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
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W. P. Blair, R. Sankrit, J. C. Raymond, K. S. Long, “Distance to the Cygnus Loop from the Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the primary shock front,” Astron. J. 118, 942–947 (1999).
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K. S. Long, W. P. Blair, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, J. C. Raymond, “Spectroscopy of a Balmer-dominated filament in the Cygnus Loop with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 400, 214–221 (1992).
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W. P. Blair, K. S. Long, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. T. Durrance, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, R. C. Henry, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, J. W. Kruk, H. W. Moos, T. R. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
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C. F. McKee, J. P. Ostriker, “A theory of the interstellar medium: three components regulated by supernova explosions in an inhomogeneous substrate,” Astrophys. J. 218, 148–169 (1977).
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R. R. Meier, “Ultraviolet spectroscopy and remote sensing of the upper atmosphere,” Space Sci. Rev. 58, 1–185 (1991).
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H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
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Moos, H. W.

W. P. Blair, K. S. Long, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. T. Durrance, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, R. C. Henry, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, J. W. Kruk, H. W. Moos, T. R. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
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J. A. Morse, J. C. Green, D. Ebbets, J. P. Andrews, S. R. Heap, C. Leitherer, J. Linsky, B. D. Savage, J. M. Shull, T. P. Snow, A. S. Stern, O. H. M. Siegmund, J. T. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. R. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
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Namioka, T.

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H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
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Ostriker, J. P.

C. F. McKee, J. P. Ostriker, “A theory of the interstellar medium: three components regulated by supernova explosions in an inhomogeneous substrate,” Astrophys. J. 218, 148–169 (1977).
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Palmer, C.

C. Palmer, W. R. McKinney, “Imaging theory of plane-symmetric varied line-space grating systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 820–829 (1994).
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Postman, M.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
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Raymond, J. C.

W. P. Blair, R. Sankrit, J. C. Raymond, K. S. Long, “Distance to the Cygnus Loop from the Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the primary shock front,” Astron. J. 118, 942–947 (1999).
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K. S. Long, W. P. Blair, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, J. C. Raymond, “Spectroscopy of a Balmer-dominated filament in the Cygnus Loop with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 400, 214–221 (1992).
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D. P. Cox, J. C. Raymond, “Preionization-dependent families of radiative shock waves,” Astrophys. J. 298, 651–659 (1985).
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J. C. Raymond, W. P. Blair, R. A. Fesen, T. R. Gull, “The structure and emission spectrum of a nonradiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 275, 636–644 (1983).
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J. C. Raymond, “Shock waves in the interstellar medium,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 39, 1–27 (1979).
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Sankrit, R.

W. P. Blair, R. Sankrit, J. C. Raymond, K. S. Long, “Distance to the Cygnus Loop from the Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the primary shock front,” Astron. J. 118, 942–947 (1999).
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Savage, B. D.

J. A. Morse, J. C. Green, D. Ebbets, J. P. Andrews, S. R. Heap, C. Leitherer, J. Linsky, B. D. Savage, J. M. Shull, T. P. Snow, A. S. Stern, O. H. M. Siegmund, J. T. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. R. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
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D. Schroeder, Astronomical Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1987), Chap. 6.

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Seya, M.

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J. A. Morse, J. C. Green, D. Ebbets, J. P. Andrews, S. R. Heap, C. Leitherer, J. Linsky, B. D. Savage, J. M. Shull, T. P. Snow, A. S. Stern, O. H. M. Siegmund, J. T. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. R. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
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Siegmund, O. H. M.

J. A. Morse, J. C. Green, D. Ebbets, J. P. Andrews, S. R. Heap, C. Leitherer, J. Linsky, B. D. Savage, J. M. Shull, T. P. Snow, A. S. Stern, O. H. M. Siegmund, J. T. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. R. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
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Slusher, B.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
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Snow, T. P.

J. A. Morse, J. C. Green, D. Ebbets, J. P. Andrews, S. R. Heap, C. Leitherer, J. Linsky, B. D. Savage, J. M. Shull, T. P. Snow, A. S. Stern, O. H. M. Siegmund, J. T. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. R. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
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Sparks, W.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
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J. A. Morse, J. C. Green, D. Ebbets, J. P. Andrews, S. R. Heap, C. Leitherer, J. Linsky, B. D. Savage, J. M. Shull, T. P. Snow, A. S. Stern, O. H. M. Siegmund, J. T. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. R. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
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Stocke, J. T.

J. A. Morse, J. C. Green, D. Ebbets, J. P. Andrews, S. R. Heap, C. Leitherer, J. Linsky, B. D. Savage, J. M. Shull, T. P. Snow, A. S. Stern, O. H. M. Siegmund, J. T. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. R. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
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Sullivan, P.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
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W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), Chap. 10, pp. 402–406.

Tsvetanov, Z.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
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K. S. Long, W. P. Blair, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, J. C. Raymond, “Spectroscopy of a Balmer-dominated filament in the Cygnus Loop with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 400, 214–221 (1992).
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W. P. Blair, K. S. Long, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. T. Durrance, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, R. C. Henry, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, J. W. Kruk, H. W. Moos, T. R. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Veitch, P.

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), Chap. 10, pp. 402–406.

Volmer, P.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

White, R.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, E.

J. A. Morse, J. C. Green, D. Ebbets, J. P. Andrews, S. R. Heap, C. Leitherer, J. Linsky, B. D. Savage, J. M. Shull, T. P. Snow, A. S. Stern, O. H. M. Siegmund, J. T. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. R. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Green, E. Wilkinson, S. D. Friedman, “Design of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer spectrograph,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2283, 12–19 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Woodruff, B.

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Astron. J. (1)

W. P. Blair, R. Sankrit, J. C. Raymond, K. S. Long, “Distance to the Cygnus Loop from the Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the primary shock front,” Astron. J. 118, 942–947 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. (1)

R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, J. I. Larruquert, J. S. Gum, C. M. Fleetwood, “Optical coatings and materials for ultraviolet space applications,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 164, 406–419 (1999).

Astrophys. J. (4)

J. C. Raymond, W. P. Blair, R. A. Fesen, T. R. Gull, “The structure and emission spectrum of a nonradiative shock wave in the Cygnus Loop,” Astrophys. J. 275, 636–644 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Long, W. P. Blair, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, J. C. Raymond, “Spectroscopy of a Balmer-dominated filament in the Cygnus Loop with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. 400, 214–221 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Cox, J. C. Raymond, “Preionization-dependent families of radiative shock waves,” Astrophys. J. 298, 651–659 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. F. McKee, J. P. Ostriker, “A theory of the interstellar medium: three components regulated by supernova explosions in an inhomogeneous substrate,” Astrophys. J. 218, 148–169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. Lett. (1)

W. P. Blair, K. S. Long, O. Vancura, C. W. Bowers, A. F. Davidsen, W. V. D. Dixon, S. T. Durrance, P. D. Feldman, H. C. Ferguson, R. C. Henry, R. A. Kimble, G. A. Kriss, J. W. Kruk, H. W. Moos, T. R. Gull, “Discovery of a fast radiative shock in the Cygnus Loop using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 379, L33–L36 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. Suppl. (1)

J. C. Raymond, “Shock waves in the interstellar medium,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. 39, 1–27 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

S. Chakrabarti, R. Kimble, S. Bowyer, “Spectroscopy of the EUV (350–1400Å) nightglow,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5660–5664 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Bush, S. Chakrabarti, “Analysis of Lyman α and He I 584Å airglow measurements using a spherical radiative transfer model,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 19609–19625 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. Palmer, W. R. McKinney, “Imaging theory of plane-symmetric varied line-space grating systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 820–829 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

R. R. Meier, “Ultraviolet spectroscopy and remote sensing of the upper atmosphere,” Space Sci. Rev. 58, 1–185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

J. Edelstein, “Reflection/suppression coatings for 900–1200 A radiation,” in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, R. B. Hoover, ed., Proc. SPIE1160, 19–25 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Ford, F. Bartko, P. Bely, T. Broadhurst, C. Burrows, E. Cheng, M. Clampin, J. Crocker, P. Feldman, D. Golimowki, G. Hartig, G. Illingworth, R. Kimble, M. Lesser, G. Miley, S. Neff, M. Postman, W. Sparks, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, P. Sullivan, C. Krebs, D. Leviton, T. LaJeunesse, B. Burmester, S. Fike, R. Johnson, B. Slusher, P. Volmer, B. Woodruff, “The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 234–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), Chap. 10, pp. 402–406.

D. Schroeder, Astronomical Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1987), Chap. 6.

J. C. Green, E. Wilkinson, S. D. Friedman, “Design of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer spectrograph,” in X-Ray and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and Polarimetry, S. Fineschi, ed., Proc. SPIE2283, 12–19 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Morse, J. C. Green, D. Ebbets, J. P. Andrews, S. R. Heap, C. Leitherer, J. Linsky, B. D. Savage, J. M. Shull, T. P. Snow, A. S. Stern, O. H. M. Siegmund, J. T. Stocke, E. Wilkinson, K. R. Brownsberger, “Performance overview and science goals of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope,” in Space Telescopes and Instruments V, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE3356, 361–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two sketches depicting the concept of a diffractive element placed on either the (a) primary or (b) secondary of a two-element telescope. Note how the diffracted focus occurs well away from the traditional telescope focus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrograph and recording geometry. The object or source is represented by point A and the corresponding diffracted image by point B. The stigmatic recording sources are shown as points C and D. Point O is the coordinate system origin and point P is an arbitrary point on the grating surface from which light is diffracted.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of images formed by a parabolic substrate with parallel and aberration-corrected rulings. The optical parameters used for this simulation are those for the real algebraic solution shown in Table 2. The radial root mean square (σ r ) is 324 µm for the parallel rulings and 100 µm for the rulings formed with the real algebraic recording solution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the spot diagrams formed by the algebraic and optimized recording solutions for the parabolic telescope for both the real and the virtual recording solutions. Note the vast improvement in the imaging performance realized when optimized recording geometry is used.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Conceptual layout and recording geometry for the parabolic primary grating. (a) Depicts the basic parameters for a Cassegrain-type telescope and the location of the diffracted image. (b) Shows the recording geometry for real recording sources and coordinate system.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of images formed by a Cassegrain telescope with aberration-corrected rulings on the primary mirror. The recording solutions were derived algebraically and through computer-based optimization for both real and virtual recording solutions (see Table 4 for optical parameters and comparison of recording solutions).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Conceptual layout and recording geometry for the hyperbolic secondary grating. (a) Depicts the basic parameters for a Cassegrain-type telescope and the location of the diffracted image. (b) Shows the recording geometry for real recording sources and coordinate system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of spot diagrams for the Cassegrain telescope with the aberration-corrected rulings on the secondary mirror. The optical designs used in these simulations are shown in Table 5.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Off-axis spot diagrams for the Cassegrain and Ritchey–Chrétien telescopes described in Table 3 with holographic recording solutions presented in Tables 5 and 6, respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Off-axis spot diagrams for the aplanatic Gregorian telescope described in Table 3 with the holographic recording solution presented in Table 6.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Images at 1032 and 1038 Å of a bulls-eye pattern on the sky by use of the Gregorian design presented in Tables 2 and 6. Each ring is 1 arc sec wide and is separated by 1 arc sec. The entire image is 21 arc sec in diameter. In this example the field of view is limited by the spacing between the emission lines of the O5+ doublet at 1032 and 1038 Å.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Simulation of how the emissions from an interstellar shock would appear at the focal plane of the instrument. Upper panel: Ray-trace simulation of O5+ emission from an interstellar shock emitting simultaneously at 1032 and 1038 Å. Ray tracing an object on the sky with vertical bands 1 arc sec wide by 5 arc min tall simulates structure in the O5+ 1032 Å (diffracted to the left side) and 1038 Å (diffracted to the right side). Each band has either no photons or a decreasing number of photons to simulate intensity variations behind the shock. Intensity variations of O5+ behind the shock front are critical for the understanding of the physical processes responsible for ion–electron equilibration.21 Bottom panel: Identical simulation to the upper panel except that it includes geocoronal emission from Lyman α and Lyman β (the region of the upper panel is shown in the lower panel for reference). Note how the Lyman α is diffracted away from the region of interest. The Lyman β forms a low-level background on top of the image of the shock emission and can easily be subtracted during analysis. The relative intensities of the geocoronal lines and O5+ emission were adjusted for clarity of display and are not representative of the measured intensities.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Definition of Aberration Coefficients (in-plane case where z = z′ = z c = z d = 0)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parabolic Telescope Recording Solution

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Table 3 Telescope Designs

Tables Icon

Table 4 Cassegrain Recording Solutions for the Primary Optic

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Table 5 Cassegrain Recording Solutions for the Secondary Optic

Tables Icon

Table 6 Ritchey–Chrétien, Aplanatic Gregorian Telescope Recording Geometry Parameters

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Fijk=Mijk+nλ*λ0 Hijk.
x=i=0j=0 aijyizj.
rc=cos2 γ-cos2 δcos2 δλ0nλ1r-1r-A+B-λ0nλcos2 αr+cos2 βr-C,
rd=1rc+λ0λ1r+1r-A-B,
A=2a02cos α+cos β,
B=2a20cos γ-cos δ,
C=2a20cos α+cos β.
σ=λ0sin δ-sin γ.
θ=a tanΔλdf.

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