Abstract

We studied forward-scattered laser light that is produced when the light strikes an abrupt interface (air bubble in water) and when it passes unimpeded through diffused water layers caused by temperature gradients. Measured intensities of the scattered light indicated patterns that are due to both geometrical and physical optics. Distribution of intensities within the scattered beam changed with the average vertical temperature gradient. Shifts in locations of intensities indicated small changes in the index of refraction in the diffused scattering case.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Adamovsky, D. K. Johnson, “Optical techniques for shock visualization and detection,” in Optical Techniques in Fluid, Thermal, and Combustion Flow, S. S. Cha, J. D. Trolinger, eds., SPIE2546, 348–357 (1995).
  2. J. Panda, G. Adamovsky, “Laser light scattering by shock waves,” Phys. Fluids 7, 2271–2279 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Rashidnia, “Instabilities around a bubble due to combined Marangoni and buoyancy effects,” AIChE Symp. Ser. 92, 110–118 (1996).
  4. R. S. Subramanian, “The motion of bubbles and drops in reduced gravity,” in Transport Processes in Drops, Bubbles, and Particles, R. Chhabra, D. Dekee, eds. (Hemisphere, New York, 1992), pp. 1–42.
  5. G. Adamovsky, S. Giles, “Laser pencil beam based techniques for visualization and analysis of interfaces between media,” NASA Tech. Memo 206635 (Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, 1998), pp. 1–6.
  6. P. Massoli, F. Beretta, A. D’Alessio, M. Lazzaro, “Temperature and size of single transparent droplets by light scattering in the forward and rainbow regions,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3295–3301 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. Scott, P. H. Bigg, “Density and specific volume of water,” in International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics, Chemistry and Technology, C. J. West, N. E. Dorsey, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1928), Vol. 3, pp. 24–26.
  8. D. S. Langley, P. L. Marston, “Forward glory scattering from bubbles,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3452–3458 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. R. Pollock, Fundamentals of Optoelectronics (Irwin, Chicago, Ill., 1995), p. 108.
  10. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969), pp. 487–498.
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Eisenberg, “Equation of the refractive index of water,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3887–3892 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981), p. 173.

1996 (1)

N. Rashidnia, “Instabilities around a bubble due to combined Marangoni and buoyancy effects,” AIChE Symp. Ser. 92, 110–118 (1996).

1995 (1)

J. Panda, G. Adamovsky, “Laser light scattering by shock waves,” Phys. Fluids 7, 2271–2279 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1965 (1)

H. Eisenberg, “Equation of the refractive index of water,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3887–3892 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Adamovsky, G.

J. Panda, G. Adamovsky, “Laser light scattering by shock waves,” Phys. Fluids 7, 2271–2279 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Adamovsky, D. K. Johnson, “Optical techniques for shock visualization and detection,” in Optical Techniques in Fluid, Thermal, and Combustion Flow, S. S. Cha, J. D. Trolinger, eds., SPIE2546, 348–357 (1995).

G. Adamovsky, S. Giles, “Laser pencil beam based techniques for visualization and analysis of interfaces between media,” NASA Tech. Memo 206635 (Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, 1998), pp. 1–6.

Beretta, F.

Bigg, P. H.

V. Scott, P. H. Bigg, “Density and specific volume of water,” in International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics, Chemistry and Technology, C. J. West, N. E. Dorsey, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1928), Vol. 3, pp. 24–26.

D’Alessio, A.

Eisenberg, H.

H. Eisenberg, “Equation of the refractive index of water,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3887–3892 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Giles, S.

G. Adamovsky, S. Giles, “Laser pencil beam based techniques for visualization and analysis of interfaces between media,” NASA Tech. Memo 206635 (Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, 1998), pp. 1–6.

Johnson, D. K.

G. Adamovsky, D. K. Johnson, “Optical techniques for shock visualization and detection,” in Optical Techniques in Fluid, Thermal, and Combustion Flow, S. S. Cha, J. D. Trolinger, eds., SPIE2546, 348–357 (1995).

Kerker, M.

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969), pp. 487–498.
[CrossRef]

Langley, D. S.

Lazzaro, M.

Marston, P. L.

Massoli, P.

Panda, J.

J. Panda, G. Adamovsky, “Laser light scattering by shock waves,” Phys. Fluids 7, 2271–2279 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pollock, C. R.

C. R. Pollock, Fundamentals of Optoelectronics (Irwin, Chicago, Ill., 1995), p. 108.

Rashidnia, N.

N. Rashidnia, “Instabilities around a bubble due to combined Marangoni and buoyancy effects,” AIChE Symp. Ser. 92, 110–118 (1996).

Scott, V.

V. Scott, P. H. Bigg, “Density and specific volume of water,” in International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics, Chemistry and Technology, C. J. West, N. E. Dorsey, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1928), Vol. 3, pp. 24–26.

Subramanian, R. S.

R. S. Subramanian, “The motion of bubbles and drops in reduced gravity,” in Transport Processes in Drops, Bubbles, and Particles, R. Chhabra, D. Dekee, eds. (Hemisphere, New York, 1992), pp. 1–42.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981), p. 173.

AIChE Symp. Ser. (1)

N. Rashidnia, “Instabilities around a bubble due to combined Marangoni and buoyancy effects,” AIChE Symp. Ser. 92, 110–118 (1996).

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

H. Eisenberg, “Equation of the refractive index of water,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3887–3892 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Fluids (1)

J. Panda, G. Adamovsky, “Laser light scattering by shock waves,” Phys. Fluids 7, 2271–2279 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

G. Adamovsky, D. K. Johnson, “Optical techniques for shock visualization and detection,” in Optical Techniques in Fluid, Thermal, and Combustion Flow, S. S. Cha, J. D. Trolinger, eds., SPIE2546, 348–357 (1995).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981), p. 173.

V. Scott, P. H. Bigg, “Density and specific volume of water,” in International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics, Chemistry and Technology, C. J. West, N. E. Dorsey, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1928), Vol. 3, pp. 24–26.

R. S. Subramanian, “The motion of bubbles and drops in reduced gravity,” in Transport Processes in Drops, Bubbles, and Particles, R. Chhabra, D. Dekee, eds. (Hemisphere, New York, 1992), pp. 1–42.

G. Adamovsky, S. Giles, “Laser pencil beam based techniques for visualization and analysis of interfaces between media,” NASA Tech. Memo 206635 (Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, 1998), pp. 1–6.

C. R. Pollock, Fundamentals of Optoelectronics (Irwin, Chicago, Ill., 1995), p. 108.

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969), pp. 487–498.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plot of ideal ray paths for three temperature gradients in test chamber H2O (20/20, 40/40, and 60/20).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of beam intensities at three locations for the cases of light striking and not striking the bubble. The chamber bottom was at 20 °C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflected and refracted ray paths produced by an incident ray.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Forward-scattered light from a beam striking a bubble.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

CCD-measured beam intensity at a 20/20 gradient striking a bubble in the (a) near field and (b) far field.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

CCD-measured beam intensity at a 20/20 gradient not striking a bubble in the (a) near field and (b) far field.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

CCD-measured beam intensity at a 60/20 gradient striking a bubble in the (a) near field and (b) far field.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

CCD-measured beam intensity at a 60/20 gradient not striking a bubble in the (a) near field and (b) far field.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

CCD-measured beam intensity at a 16/30 gradient striking a bubble in the (a) near field and (b) far field.

Equations (3)

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d2x/dz2=m-1xdm/dx.
m2=1+2f/1-f,
 dx/2 ln m1/2=z.

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