Abstract

Rare-earth iron garnet films with in-plane magnetic anisotropy grown on [111]-oriented substrates are promising for the visualization of magnetic leakage fields in nondestructive evaluation. Such magneto-optical films have to be specifically engineered, and we give an example of this technology. To assess the validity and accuracy of finite-element calculations of a magnetization assembly combined with the physical modeling of the image formation, comparisons between calculated and experimentally obtained magneto-optical images of metal-loss defects have been made. A convincing quantitative agreement is demonstrated. It is shown that both physical and computer modeling techniques allow for a predictive engineering design of the prospective applications and provide greater insight into the method.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. C. McMaster, ed., Electromagnetic Testing: Nondestructive Testing Handbook, 2nd ed. (American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Columbus, Ohio, 1986), Vol. 4, p. 656.
  2. D. E. Bray, R. K. Stanley, Nondestructive Evaluation: A Tool for Design, Manufacturing and Service (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).
  3. K. Mandal, Th. Cramer, D. L. Atherton, “The study of a racetrack-shaped defect in ferromagnetic steel by magnetic Barkhausen noise and flux leakage measurements,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 212, 231–239 (2000), and references therein.
  4. G. L. Fitzpatrick, D. K. Thome, R. L. Skaugset, E. Y. C. Shih, W. C. L. Shih, “Magneto-optic/eddy-current imaging of aging aircraft: a new NDI technique,” Mater. Eval. 51, 1402–1407 (1993).
  5. W. Andrä, K.-H. Geier, R. Hergt, J. Taubert, “Magnetooptik für die Materialcharakterisierung,” Materialprüfung 36, 294–297 (1994) (in German).
  6. G. L. Fitzpatrick, D. K. Thome, R. L. Skaugset, W. C. L. Shih, “Nondestructive inspection of tagged composites using real-time magneto-optic imaging,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Material, and Composites, S. R. Doctor, C. A. Lebowitz, G. Y. Baaklini, eds., Proc. SPIE2944, 217–230 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Maass, H.-A. Crostack, U. Radtke, A. Grafe, “Laseroptische Wirbelstromsensoren: Entwicklung neuer Sensoren für die Wirbelstromprüfung, Teil 3,” Materialprüfung 39, 477–482 (1997) (in German).
  8. J. Eisenmenger, S. Kambach, S. Saleh, A. Tihi, P. Leiderer, M. Wallenhorst, H. Dötsch, “Structures in superconducting YBaCuO thin films investigated by magneto-optic technique,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 105, 1123–1128 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. V. Valeiko, P. M. Vetoshko, R. I. Kononov, A. Ya. Perlov, M.Yu. Sharonov, A.Yu. Toporov, “Magneto-optical visualizer-magnetometer of high magnetic fields,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-31, 4293–4296 (1995).
  10. J. Lee, H. Lee, T. Shoji, D. Minkov, “Application of magneto-optical method for inspection of the internal surface of a tube,” in Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation (II), R. Albanese, G. Rubinacci, T. Takagi, S. S. Udpa, eds. (IOS Press, Amsterdam, 1998), pp. 49–57.
  11. T. Numata, T. Okatani, M. Ishihara, K. Onishi, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, S. Matsushita, “Magneto-optical leakage flux testing of steel,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-25, 4213–4215 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Hubert, A. P. Malozemoff, J. C. DeLuca, “Effect of cubic, tilted uniaxial, and orthorombic anisotropies on homogeneous nucleation in a garnet bubble film,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3562–3571 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. A. Cape, G. W. Lehman, “Magnetic domain structures in thin uniaxial plates with perpendicular easy axis,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5732–5756 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. A. Dorosinskii, M. V. Indenbom, V. I. Nikitenko, Yu.A. Ossip’yan, A. A. Polyanskii, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, “Studies of HTSC crystal magnetization features using indicator magnetooptic films with in-plane anisotropy,” Physica C 203, 149–156 (1992).
  15. S. Nath, B. Sun, M. Chan, S. Mandayam, W. Lord, “Image processing for enhanced detectability of corrosion in aircraft structures using the magneto-optic imager,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, and Aerospace Hardware, R. D. Rempt, A. L. Broz, eds., Proc. SPIE2945, 96–103 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. S. Arrott, B. Heinrich, T. L. Templeton, “Phenomenology of ferromagnetism. 1. Effects of magnetostatics of susceptibility,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-25, 4364–4373 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Shamonin, T. Beuker, P. Rosen, M. Klank, O. Hagedorn, H. Dötsch, “Feasibility of magneto-optic flow visualization using thin garnet films,” NDT & E Int. 33, 547–553 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. C. Charlton, K. E. Donne, “Computer modelling of magnetic flux leakage methods,” Br. J. NDT 36, 128–133 (1994).
  19. W. Lord, J. H. Hwang, “Defect characterization from magnetic leakage fields,” Br. J. NDT 19, 14–18 (1977).
  20. W. Lord, J. M. Bridges, W. Yen, R. Palanisamy, “Residual and active leakage fields around defects in ferromagnetic materials,” Mater. Eval. 36, 47–54 (1978).
  21. N. Ida, W. Lord, “3-D finite element predictions of magnetostatic leakage fields,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-19, 2260–2265 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. L. Atherton, M. G. Daily, “Finite element calculation of magnetic flux leakage detector signals,” NDT & E Int. 20, 235–238 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. Hammond, “Use of potentials in calculation of electromagnetic fields,” IEEE Proc. Part A 129, 106–112 (1982).
  24. Vector Fields Ltd., 24 Bankside, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1JE, UK, http://www.vectorfields.co.uk .
  25. H. J. M. Jansen, P. B. J. van de Camp, M. Geerdink, “Magnetisation as a key parameter of magnetic flux leakage pigs for pipeline inspection,” Insight 36, 672–677 (1994).

2000 (2)

K. Mandal, Th. Cramer, D. L. Atherton, “The study of a racetrack-shaped defect in ferromagnetic steel by magnetic Barkhausen noise and flux leakage measurements,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 212, 231–239 (2000), and references therein.

M. Shamonin, T. Beuker, P. Rosen, M. Klank, O. Hagedorn, H. Dötsch, “Feasibility of magneto-optic flow visualization using thin garnet films,” NDT & E Int. 33, 547–553 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Maass, H.-A. Crostack, U. Radtke, A. Grafe, “Laseroptische Wirbelstromsensoren: Entwicklung neuer Sensoren für die Wirbelstromprüfung, Teil 3,” Materialprüfung 39, 477–482 (1997) (in German).

1996 (1)

J. Eisenmenger, S. Kambach, S. Saleh, A. Tihi, P. Leiderer, M. Wallenhorst, H. Dötsch, “Structures in superconducting YBaCuO thin films investigated by magneto-optic technique,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 105, 1123–1128 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. V. Valeiko, P. M. Vetoshko, R. I. Kononov, A. Ya. Perlov, M.Yu. Sharonov, A.Yu. Toporov, “Magneto-optical visualizer-magnetometer of high magnetic fields,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-31, 4293–4296 (1995).

1994 (3)

P. C. Charlton, K. E. Donne, “Computer modelling of magnetic flux leakage methods,” Br. J. NDT 36, 128–133 (1994).

W. Andrä, K.-H. Geier, R. Hergt, J. Taubert, “Magnetooptik für die Materialcharakterisierung,” Materialprüfung 36, 294–297 (1994) (in German).

H. J. M. Jansen, P. B. J. van de Camp, M. Geerdink, “Magnetisation as a key parameter of magnetic flux leakage pigs for pipeline inspection,” Insight 36, 672–677 (1994).

1993 (1)

G. L. Fitzpatrick, D. K. Thome, R. L. Skaugset, E. Y. C. Shih, W. C. L. Shih, “Magneto-optic/eddy-current imaging of aging aircraft: a new NDI technique,” Mater. Eval. 51, 1402–1407 (1993).

1992 (1)

L. A. Dorosinskii, M. V. Indenbom, V. I. Nikitenko, Yu.A. Ossip’yan, A. A. Polyanskii, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, “Studies of HTSC crystal magnetization features using indicator magnetooptic films with in-plane anisotropy,” Physica C 203, 149–156 (1992).

1989 (2)

A. S. Arrott, B. Heinrich, T. L. Templeton, “Phenomenology of ferromagnetism. 1. Effects of magnetostatics of susceptibility,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-25, 4364–4373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Numata, T. Okatani, M. Ishihara, K. Onishi, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, S. Matsushita, “Magneto-optical leakage flux testing of steel,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-25, 4213–4215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

D. L. Atherton, M. G. Daily, “Finite element calculation of magnetic flux leakage detector signals,” NDT & E Int. 20, 235–238 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

N. Ida, W. Lord, “3-D finite element predictions of magnetostatic leakage fields,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-19, 2260–2265 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

P. Hammond, “Use of potentials in calculation of electromagnetic fields,” IEEE Proc. Part A 129, 106–112 (1982).

1978 (1)

W. Lord, J. M. Bridges, W. Yen, R. Palanisamy, “Residual and active leakage fields around defects in ferromagnetic materials,” Mater. Eval. 36, 47–54 (1978).

1977 (1)

W. Lord, J. H. Hwang, “Defect characterization from magnetic leakage fields,” Br. J. NDT 19, 14–18 (1977).

1974 (1)

A. Hubert, A. P. Malozemoff, J. C. DeLuca, “Effect of cubic, tilted uniaxial, and orthorombic anisotropies on homogeneous nucleation in a garnet bubble film,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3562–3571 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. A. Cape, G. W. Lehman, “Magnetic domain structures in thin uniaxial plates with perpendicular easy axis,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5732–5756 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Andrä, W.

W. Andrä, K.-H. Geier, R. Hergt, J. Taubert, “Magnetooptik für die Materialcharakterisierung,” Materialprüfung 36, 294–297 (1994) (in German).

Arrott, A. S.

A. S. Arrott, B. Heinrich, T. L. Templeton, “Phenomenology of ferromagnetism. 1. Effects of magnetostatics of susceptibility,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-25, 4364–4373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Atherton, D. L.

K. Mandal, Th. Cramer, D. L. Atherton, “The study of a racetrack-shaped defect in ferromagnetic steel by magnetic Barkhausen noise and flux leakage measurements,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 212, 231–239 (2000), and references therein.

D. L. Atherton, M. G. Daily, “Finite element calculation of magnetic flux leakage detector signals,” NDT & E Int. 20, 235–238 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Beuker, T.

M. Shamonin, T. Beuker, P. Rosen, M. Klank, O. Hagedorn, H. Dötsch, “Feasibility of magneto-optic flow visualization using thin garnet films,” NDT & E Int. 33, 547–553 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bray, D. E.

D. E. Bray, R. K. Stanley, Nondestructive Evaluation: A Tool for Design, Manufacturing and Service (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

Bridges, J. M.

W. Lord, J. M. Bridges, W. Yen, R. Palanisamy, “Residual and active leakage fields around defects in ferromagnetic materials,” Mater. Eval. 36, 47–54 (1978).

Cape, J. A.

J. A. Cape, G. W. Lehman, “Magnetic domain structures in thin uniaxial plates with perpendicular easy axis,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5732–5756 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Chan, M.

S. Nath, B. Sun, M. Chan, S. Mandayam, W. Lord, “Image processing for enhanced detectability of corrosion in aircraft structures using the magneto-optic imager,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, and Aerospace Hardware, R. D. Rempt, A. L. Broz, eds., Proc. SPIE2945, 96–103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, P. C.

P. C. Charlton, K. E. Donne, “Computer modelling of magnetic flux leakage methods,” Br. J. NDT 36, 128–133 (1994).

Cramer, Th.

K. Mandal, Th. Cramer, D. L. Atherton, “The study of a racetrack-shaped defect in ferromagnetic steel by magnetic Barkhausen noise and flux leakage measurements,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 212, 231–239 (2000), and references therein.

Crostack, H.-A.

M. Maass, H.-A. Crostack, U. Radtke, A. Grafe, “Laseroptische Wirbelstromsensoren: Entwicklung neuer Sensoren für die Wirbelstromprüfung, Teil 3,” Materialprüfung 39, 477–482 (1997) (in German).

Daily, M. G.

D. L. Atherton, M. G. Daily, “Finite element calculation of magnetic flux leakage detector signals,” NDT & E Int. 20, 235–238 (1987).
[CrossRef]

DeLuca, J. C.

A. Hubert, A. P. Malozemoff, J. C. DeLuca, “Effect of cubic, tilted uniaxial, and orthorombic anisotropies on homogeneous nucleation in a garnet bubble film,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3562–3571 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Donne, K. E.

P. C. Charlton, K. E. Donne, “Computer modelling of magnetic flux leakage methods,” Br. J. NDT 36, 128–133 (1994).

Dorosinskii, L. A.

L. A. Dorosinskii, M. V. Indenbom, V. I. Nikitenko, Yu.A. Ossip’yan, A. A. Polyanskii, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, “Studies of HTSC crystal magnetization features using indicator magnetooptic films with in-plane anisotropy,” Physica C 203, 149–156 (1992).

Dötsch, H.

M. Shamonin, T. Beuker, P. Rosen, M. Klank, O. Hagedorn, H. Dötsch, “Feasibility of magneto-optic flow visualization using thin garnet films,” NDT & E Int. 33, 547–553 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Eisenmenger, S. Kambach, S. Saleh, A. Tihi, P. Leiderer, M. Wallenhorst, H. Dötsch, “Structures in superconducting YBaCuO thin films investigated by magneto-optic technique,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 105, 1123–1128 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eisenmenger, J.

J. Eisenmenger, S. Kambach, S. Saleh, A. Tihi, P. Leiderer, M. Wallenhorst, H. Dötsch, “Structures in superconducting YBaCuO thin films investigated by magneto-optic technique,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 105, 1123–1128 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fitzpatrick, G. L.

G. L. Fitzpatrick, D. K. Thome, R. L. Skaugset, E. Y. C. Shih, W. C. L. Shih, “Magneto-optic/eddy-current imaging of aging aircraft: a new NDI technique,” Mater. Eval. 51, 1402–1407 (1993).

G. L. Fitzpatrick, D. K. Thome, R. L. Skaugset, W. C. L. Shih, “Nondestructive inspection of tagged composites using real-time magneto-optic imaging,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Material, and Composites, S. R. Doctor, C. A. Lebowitz, G. Y. Baaklini, eds., Proc. SPIE2944, 217–230 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Geerdink, M.

H. J. M. Jansen, P. B. J. van de Camp, M. Geerdink, “Magnetisation as a key parameter of magnetic flux leakage pigs for pipeline inspection,” Insight 36, 672–677 (1994).

Geier, K.-H.

W. Andrä, K.-H. Geier, R. Hergt, J. Taubert, “Magnetooptik für die Materialcharakterisierung,” Materialprüfung 36, 294–297 (1994) (in German).

Grafe, A.

M. Maass, H.-A. Crostack, U. Radtke, A. Grafe, “Laseroptische Wirbelstromsensoren: Entwicklung neuer Sensoren für die Wirbelstromprüfung, Teil 3,” Materialprüfung 39, 477–482 (1997) (in German).

Hagedorn, O.

M. Shamonin, T. Beuker, P. Rosen, M. Klank, O. Hagedorn, H. Dötsch, “Feasibility of magneto-optic flow visualization using thin garnet films,” NDT & E Int. 33, 547–553 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, P.

P. Hammond, “Use of potentials in calculation of electromagnetic fields,” IEEE Proc. Part A 129, 106–112 (1982).

Heinrich, B.

A. S. Arrott, B. Heinrich, T. L. Templeton, “Phenomenology of ferromagnetism. 1. Effects of magnetostatics of susceptibility,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-25, 4364–4373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hergt, R.

W. Andrä, K.-H. Geier, R. Hergt, J. Taubert, “Magnetooptik für die Materialcharakterisierung,” Materialprüfung 36, 294–297 (1994) (in German).

Hubert, A.

A. Hubert, A. P. Malozemoff, J. C. DeLuca, “Effect of cubic, tilted uniaxial, and orthorombic anisotropies on homogeneous nucleation in a garnet bubble film,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3562–3571 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J. H.

W. Lord, J. H. Hwang, “Defect characterization from magnetic leakage fields,” Br. J. NDT 19, 14–18 (1977).

Ida, N.

N. Ida, W. Lord, “3-D finite element predictions of magnetostatic leakage fields,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-19, 2260–2265 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Indenbom, M. V.

L. A. Dorosinskii, M. V. Indenbom, V. I. Nikitenko, Yu.A. Ossip’yan, A. A. Polyanskii, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, “Studies of HTSC crystal magnetization features using indicator magnetooptic films with in-plane anisotropy,” Physica C 203, 149–156 (1992).

Inokuchi, S.

T. Numata, T. Okatani, M. Ishihara, K. Onishi, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, S. Matsushita, “Magneto-optical leakage flux testing of steel,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-25, 4213–4215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, M.

T. Numata, T. Okatani, M. Ishihara, K. Onishi, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, S. Matsushita, “Magneto-optical leakage flux testing of steel,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-25, 4213–4215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, H. J. M.

H. J. M. Jansen, P. B. J. van de Camp, M. Geerdink, “Magnetisation as a key parameter of magnetic flux leakage pigs for pipeline inspection,” Insight 36, 672–677 (1994).

Kambach, S.

J. Eisenmenger, S. Kambach, S. Saleh, A. Tihi, P. Leiderer, M. Wallenhorst, H. Dötsch, “Structures in superconducting YBaCuO thin films investigated by magneto-optic technique,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 105, 1123–1128 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Klank, M.

M. Shamonin, T. Beuker, P. Rosen, M. Klank, O. Hagedorn, H. Dötsch, “Feasibility of magneto-optic flow visualization using thin garnet films,” NDT & E Int. 33, 547–553 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kononov, R. I.

M. V. Valeiko, P. M. Vetoshko, R. I. Kononov, A. Ya. Perlov, M.Yu. Sharonov, A.Yu. Toporov, “Magneto-optical visualizer-magnetometer of high magnetic fields,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-31, 4293–4296 (1995).

Lee, H.

J. Lee, H. Lee, T. Shoji, D. Minkov, “Application of magneto-optical method for inspection of the internal surface of a tube,” in Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation (II), R. Albanese, G. Rubinacci, T. Takagi, S. S. Udpa, eds. (IOS Press, Amsterdam, 1998), pp. 49–57.

Lee, J.

J. Lee, H. Lee, T. Shoji, D. Minkov, “Application of magneto-optical method for inspection of the internal surface of a tube,” in Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation (II), R. Albanese, G. Rubinacci, T. Takagi, S. S. Udpa, eds. (IOS Press, Amsterdam, 1998), pp. 49–57.

Lehman, G. W.

J. A. Cape, G. W. Lehman, “Magnetic domain structures in thin uniaxial plates with perpendicular easy axis,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5732–5756 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Leiderer, P.

J. Eisenmenger, S. Kambach, S. Saleh, A. Tihi, P. Leiderer, M. Wallenhorst, H. Dötsch, “Structures in superconducting YBaCuO thin films investigated by magneto-optic technique,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 105, 1123–1128 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lord, W.

N. Ida, W. Lord, “3-D finite element predictions of magnetostatic leakage fields,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-19, 2260–2265 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. Lord, J. M. Bridges, W. Yen, R. Palanisamy, “Residual and active leakage fields around defects in ferromagnetic materials,” Mater. Eval. 36, 47–54 (1978).

W. Lord, J. H. Hwang, “Defect characterization from magnetic leakage fields,” Br. J. NDT 19, 14–18 (1977).

S. Nath, B. Sun, M. Chan, S. Mandayam, W. Lord, “Image processing for enhanced detectability of corrosion in aircraft structures using the magneto-optic imager,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, and Aerospace Hardware, R. D. Rempt, A. L. Broz, eds., Proc. SPIE2945, 96–103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maass, M.

M. Maass, H.-A. Crostack, U. Radtke, A. Grafe, “Laseroptische Wirbelstromsensoren: Entwicklung neuer Sensoren für die Wirbelstromprüfung, Teil 3,” Materialprüfung 39, 477–482 (1997) (in German).

Malozemoff, A. P.

A. Hubert, A. P. Malozemoff, J. C. DeLuca, “Effect of cubic, tilted uniaxial, and orthorombic anisotropies on homogeneous nucleation in a garnet bubble film,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3562–3571 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mandal, K.

K. Mandal, Th. Cramer, D. L. Atherton, “The study of a racetrack-shaped defect in ferromagnetic steel by magnetic Barkhausen noise and flux leakage measurements,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 212, 231–239 (2000), and references therein.

Mandayam, S.

S. Nath, B. Sun, M. Chan, S. Mandayam, W. Lord, “Image processing for enhanced detectability of corrosion in aircraft structures using the magneto-optic imager,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, and Aerospace Hardware, R. D. Rempt, A. L. Broz, eds., Proc. SPIE2945, 96–103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, S.

T. Numata, T. Okatani, M. Ishihara, K. Onishi, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, S. Matsushita, “Magneto-optical leakage flux testing of steel,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-25, 4213–4215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Minkov, D.

J. Lee, H. Lee, T. Shoji, D. Minkov, “Application of magneto-optical method for inspection of the internal surface of a tube,” in Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation (II), R. Albanese, G. Rubinacci, T. Takagi, S. S. Udpa, eds. (IOS Press, Amsterdam, 1998), pp. 49–57.

Nath, S.

S. Nath, B. Sun, M. Chan, S. Mandayam, W. Lord, “Image processing for enhanced detectability of corrosion in aircraft structures using the magneto-optic imager,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, and Aerospace Hardware, R. D. Rempt, A. L. Broz, eds., Proc. SPIE2945, 96–103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nikitenko, V. I.

L. A. Dorosinskii, M. V. Indenbom, V. I. Nikitenko, Yu.A. Ossip’yan, A. A. Polyanskii, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, “Studies of HTSC crystal magnetization features using indicator magnetooptic films with in-plane anisotropy,” Physica C 203, 149–156 (1992).

Numata, T.

T. Numata, T. Okatani, M. Ishihara, K. Onishi, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, S. Matsushita, “Magneto-optical leakage flux testing of steel,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-25, 4213–4215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Okatani, T.

T. Numata, T. Okatani, M. Ishihara, K. Onishi, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, S. Matsushita, “Magneto-optical leakage flux testing of steel,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-25, 4213–4215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Onishi, K.

T. Numata, T. Okatani, M. Ishihara, K. Onishi, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, S. Matsushita, “Magneto-optical leakage flux testing of steel,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-25, 4213–4215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ossip’yan, Yu.A.

L. A. Dorosinskii, M. V. Indenbom, V. I. Nikitenko, Yu.A. Ossip’yan, A. A. Polyanskii, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, “Studies of HTSC crystal magnetization features using indicator magnetooptic films with in-plane anisotropy,” Physica C 203, 149–156 (1992).

Palanisamy, R.

W. Lord, J. M. Bridges, W. Yen, R. Palanisamy, “Residual and active leakage fields around defects in ferromagnetic materials,” Mater. Eval. 36, 47–54 (1978).

Perlov, A. Ya.

M. V. Valeiko, P. M. Vetoshko, R. I. Kononov, A. Ya. Perlov, M.Yu. Sharonov, A.Yu. Toporov, “Magneto-optical visualizer-magnetometer of high magnetic fields,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-31, 4293–4296 (1995).

Polyanskii, A. A.

L. A. Dorosinskii, M. V. Indenbom, V. I. Nikitenko, Yu.A. Ossip’yan, A. A. Polyanskii, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, “Studies of HTSC crystal magnetization features using indicator magnetooptic films with in-plane anisotropy,” Physica C 203, 149–156 (1992).

Radtke, U.

M. Maass, H.-A. Crostack, U. Radtke, A. Grafe, “Laseroptische Wirbelstromsensoren: Entwicklung neuer Sensoren für die Wirbelstromprüfung, Teil 3,” Materialprüfung 39, 477–482 (1997) (in German).

Rosen, P.

M. Shamonin, T. Beuker, P. Rosen, M. Klank, O. Hagedorn, H. Dötsch, “Feasibility of magneto-optic flow visualization using thin garnet films,” NDT & E Int. 33, 547–553 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, Y.

T. Numata, T. Okatani, M. Ishihara, K. Onishi, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, S. Matsushita, “Magneto-optical leakage flux testing of steel,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-25, 4213–4215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, S.

J. Eisenmenger, S. Kambach, S. Saleh, A. Tihi, P. Leiderer, M. Wallenhorst, H. Dötsch, “Structures in superconducting YBaCuO thin films investigated by magneto-optic technique,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 105, 1123–1128 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shamonin, M.

M. Shamonin, T. Beuker, P. Rosen, M. Klank, O. Hagedorn, H. Dötsch, “Feasibility of magneto-optic flow visualization using thin garnet films,” NDT & E Int. 33, 547–553 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sharonov, M.Yu.

M. V. Valeiko, P. M. Vetoshko, R. I. Kononov, A. Ya. Perlov, M.Yu. Sharonov, A.Yu. Toporov, “Magneto-optical visualizer-magnetometer of high magnetic fields,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-31, 4293–4296 (1995).

Shih, E. Y. C.

G. L. Fitzpatrick, D. K. Thome, R. L. Skaugset, E. Y. C. Shih, W. C. L. Shih, “Magneto-optic/eddy-current imaging of aging aircraft: a new NDI technique,” Mater. Eval. 51, 1402–1407 (1993).

Shih, W. C. L.

G. L. Fitzpatrick, D. K. Thome, R. L. Skaugset, E. Y. C. Shih, W. C. L. Shih, “Magneto-optic/eddy-current imaging of aging aircraft: a new NDI technique,” Mater. Eval. 51, 1402–1407 (1993).

G. L. Fitzpatrick, D. K. Thome, R. L. Skaugset, W. C. L. Shih, “Nondestructive inspection of tagged composites using real-time magneto-optic imaging,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Material, and Composites, S. R. Doctor, C. A. Lebowitz, G. Y. Baaklini, eds., Proc. SPIE2944, 217–230 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, T.

J. Lee, H. Lee, T. Shoji, D. Minkov, “Application of magneto-optical method for inspection of the internal surface of a tube,” in Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation (II), R. Albanese, G. Rubinacci, T. Takagi, S. S. Udpa, eds. (IOS Press, Amsterdam, 1998), pp. 49–57.

Skaugset, R. L.

G. L. Fitzpatrick, D. K. Thome, R. L. Skaugset, E. Y. C. Shih, W. C. L. Shih, “Magneto-optic/eddy-current imaging of aging aircraft: a new NDI technique,” Mater. Eval. 51, 1402–1407 (1993).

G. L. Fitzpatrick, D. K. Thome, R. L. Skaugset, W. C. L. Shih, “Nondestructive inspection of tagged composites using real-time magneto-optic imaging,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Material, and Composites, S. R. Doctor, C. A. Lebowitz, G. Y. Baaklini, eds., Proc. SPIE2944, 217–230 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, R. K.

D. E. Bray, R. K. Stanley, Nondestructive Evaluation: A Tool for Design, Manufacturing and Service (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

Sun, B.

S. Nath, B. Sun, M. Chan, S. Mandayam, W. Lord, “Image processing for enhanced detectability of corrosion in aircraft structures using the magneto-optic imager,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, and Aerospace Hardware, R. D. Rempt, A. L. Broz, eds., Proc. SPIE2945, 96–103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taubert, J.

W. Andrä, K.-H. Geier, R. Hergt, J. Taubert, “Magnetooptik für die Materialcharakterisierung,” Materialprüfung 36, 294–297 (1994) (in German).

Templeton, T. L.

A. S. Arrott, B. Heinrich, T. L. Templeton, “Phenomenology of ferromagnetism. 1. Effects of magnetostatics of susceptibility,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-25, 4364–4373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thome, D. K.

G. L. Fitzpatrick, D. K. Thome, R. L. Skaugset, E. Y. C. Shih, W. C. L. Shih, “Magneto-optic/eddy-current imaging of aging aircraft: a new NDI technique,” Mater. Eval. 51, 1402–1407 (1993).

G. L. Fitzpatrick, D. K. Thome, R. L. Skaugset, W. C. L. Shih, “Nondestructive inspection of tagged composites using real-time magneto-optic imaging,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Material, and Composites, S. R. Doctor, C. A. Lebowitz, G. Y. Baaklini, eds., Proc. SPIE2944, 217–230 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tihi, A.

J. Eisenmenger, S. Kambach, S. Saleh, A. Tihi, P. Leiderer, M. Wallenhorst, H. Dötsch, “Structures in superconducting YBaCuO thin films investigated by magneto-optic technique,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 105, 1123–1128 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Toporov, A.Yu.

M. V. Valeiko, P. M. Vetoshko, R. I. Kononov, A. Ya. Perlov, M.Yu. Sharonov, A.Yu. Toporov, “Magneto-optical visualizer-magnetometer of high magnetic fields,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-31, 4293–4296 (1995).

Valeiko, M. V.

M. V. Valeiko, P. M. Vetoshko, R. I. Kononov, A. Ya. Perlov, M.Yu. Sharonov, A.Yu. Toporov, “Magneto-optical visualizer-magnetometer of high magnetic fields,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-31, 4293–4296 (1995).

van de Camp, P. B. J.

H. J. M. Jansen, P. B. J. van de Camp, M. Geerdink, “Magnetisation as a key parameter of magnetic flux leakage pigs for pipeline inspection,” Insight 36, 672–677 (1994).

Vetoshko, P. M.

M. V. Valeiko, P. M. Vetoshko, R. I. Kononov, A. Ya. Perlov, M.Yu. Sharonov, A.Yu. Toporov, “Magneto-optical visualizer-magnetometer of high magnetic fields,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-31, 4293–4296 (1995).

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. A. Dorosinskii, M. V. Indenbom, V. I. Nikitenko, Yu.A. Ossip’yan, A. A. Polyanskii, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, “Studies of HTSC crystal magnetization features using indicator magnetooptic films with in-plane anisotropy,” Physica C 203, 149–156 (1992).

Wallenhorst, M.

J. Eisenmenger, S. Kambach, S. Saleh, A. Tihi, P. Leiderer, M. Wallenhorst, H. Dötsch, “Structures in superconducting YBaCuO thin films investigated by magneto-optic technique,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 105, 1123–1128 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yen, W.

W. Lord, J. M. Bridges, W. Yen, R. Palanisamy, “Residual and active leakage fields around defects in ferromagnetic materials,” Mater. Eval. 36, 47–54 (1978).

Br. J. NDT (2)

P. C. Charlton, K. E. Donne, “Computer modelling of magnetic flux leakage methods,” Br. J. NDT 36, 128–133 (1994).

W. Lord, J. H. Hwang, “Defect characterization from magnetic leakage fields,” Br. J. NDT 19, 14–18 (1977).

IEEE Proc. Part A (1)

P. Hammond, “Use of potentials in calculation of electromagnetic fields,” IEEE Proc. Part A 129, 106–112 (1982).

IEEE Trans. Magn. (4)

N. Ida, W. Lord, “3-D finite element predictions of magnetostatic leakage fields,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-19, 2260–2265 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Numata, T. Okatani, M. Ishihara, K. Onishi, S. Inokuchi, Y. Sakurai, S. Matsushita, “Magneto-optical leakage flux testing of steel,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-25, 4213–4215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Valeiko, P. M. Vetoshko, R. I. Kononov, A. Ya. Perlov, M.Yu. Sharonov, A.Yu. Toporov, “Magneto-optical visualizer-magnetometer of high magnetic fields,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-31, 4293–4296 (1995).

A. S. Arrott, B. Heinrich, T. L. Templeton, “Phenomenology of ferromagnetism. 1. Effects of magnetostatics of susceptibility,” IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-25, 4364–4373 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Insight (1)

H. J. M. Jansen, P. B. J. van de Camp, M. Geerdink, “Magnetisation as a key parameter of magnetic flux leakage pigs for pipeline inspection,” Insight 36, 672–677 (1994).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Hubert, A. P. Malozemoff, J. C. DeLuca, “Effect of cubic, tilted uniaxial, and orthorombic anisotropies on homogeneous nucleation in a garnet bubble film,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3562–3571 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Cape, G. W. Lehman, “Magnetic domain structures in thin uniaxial plates with perpendicular easy axis,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 5732–5756 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Low Temp. Phys. (1)

J. Eisenmenger, S. Kambach, S. Saleh, A. Tihi, P. Leiderer, M. Wallenhorst, H. Dötsch, “Structures in superconducting YBaCuO thin films investigated by magneto-optic technique,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 105, 1123–1128 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Magn. Mater. (1)

K. Mandal, Th. Cramer, D. L. Atherton, “The study of a racetrack-shaped defect in ferromagnetic steel by magnetic Barkhausen noise and flux leakage measurements,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 212, 231–239 (2000), and references therein.

Mater. Eval. (2)

G. L. Fitzpatrick, D. K. Thome, R. L. Skaugset, E. Y. C. Shih, W. C. L. Shih, “Magneto-optic/eddy-current imaging of aging aircraft: a new NDI technique,” Mater. Eval. 51, 1402–1407 (1993).

W. Lord, J. M. Bridges, W. Yen, R. Palanisamy, “Residual and active leakage fields around defects in ferromagnetic materials,” Mater. Eval. 36, 47–54 (1978).

Materialprüfung (2)

W. Andrä, K.-H. Geier, R. Hergt, J. Taubert, “Magnetooptik für die Materialcharakterisierung,” Materialprüfung 36, 294–297 (1994) (in German).

M. Maass, H.-A. Crostack, U. Radtke, A. Grafe, “Laseroptische Wirbelstromsensoren: Entwicklung neuer Sensoren für die Wirbelstromprüfung, Teil 3,” Materialprüfung 39, 477–482 (1997) (in German).

NDT & E Int. (2)

M. Shamonin, T. Beuker, P. Rosen, M. Klank, O. Hagedorn, H. Dötsch, “Feasibility of magneto-optic flow visualization using thin garnet films,” NDT & E Int. 33, 547–553 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Atherton, M. G. Daily, “Finite element calculation of magnetic flux leakage detector signals,” NDT & E Int. 20, 235–238 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Physica C (1)

L. A. Dorosinskii, M. V. Indenbom, V. I. Nikitenko, Yu.A. Ossip’yan, A. A. Polyanskii, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, “Studies of HTSC crystal magnetization features using indicator magnetooptic films with in-plane anisotropy,” Physica C 203, 149–156 (1992).

Other (6)

S. Nath, B. Sun, M. Chan, S. Mandayam, W. Lord, “Image processing for enhanced detectability of corrosion in aircraft structures using the magneto-optic imager,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, and Aerospace Hardware, R. D. Rempt, A. L. Broz, eds., Proc. SPIE2945, 96–103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, H. Lee, T. Shoji, D. Minkov, “Application of magneto-optical method for inspection of the internal surface of a tube,” in Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation (II), R. Albanese, G. Rubinacci, T. Takagi, S. S. Udpa, eds. (IOS Press, Amsterdam, 1998), pp. 49–57.

R. C. McMaster, ed., Electromagnetic Testing: Nondestructive Testing Handbook, 2nd ed. (American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Columbus, Ohio, 1986), Vol. 4, p. 656.

D. E. Bray, R. K. Stanley, Nondestructive Evaluation: A Tool for Design, Manufacturing and Service (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

G. L. Fitzpatrick, D. K. Thome, R. L. Skaugset, W. C. L. Shih, “Nondestructive inspection of tagged composites using real-time magneto-optic imaging,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Material, and Composites, S. R. Doctor, C. A. Lebowitz, G. Y. Baaklini, eds., Proc. SPIE2944, 217–230 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vector Fields Ltd., 24 Bankside, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1JE, UK, http://www.vectorfields.co.uk .

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of a magneto-optical visualization setup with a magnetization assembly. Note the liftoff h between the sensor film and the ferromagnetic plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Magnetization assembly including a ferromagnetic plate with a metal-loss defect. All dimensions are given in millimeters. The corresponding coordinate system is shown. Material descriptions and defect dimensions are described in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the effective uniaxial anisotropy field H A on the concentration of neodymium [Nd] in the garnet films of interest. Compare this figure with Fig. 12 of Ref. 17.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of FEM calculations of a magnetization system together with the ferromagnetic plate with a circular defect: (a) overview, (b) region with a circular defect (shown enlarged). The distribution of the relative magnetic permeability μ r in the materials is shown. Note the finite elements clearly seen in the picture (b). (c) Variation of μ r along the x axis at different depths z from the near side of the ferromagnetic plate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated (left-hand column) and experimental (right-hand column) magneto-optical images of leakage fields from a circular defect for different values of liftoff between the magneto-optical indicator film and a ferromagnetic plate h = 0.1 (upper row), 0.3 (center row), 0.5 mm (lower row). Defect parameters and measurement conditions are given in the text. The area of a single image is 4 mm × 4 mm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated (left-hand column) and experimental (right-hand column) magneto-optical images of leakage fields from a quadratic defect for different values of liftoff between the magneto-optical indicator film and a ferromagnetic plate h = 0.1 (upper row), 0.3 (center row), 0.5 mm (lower row). Defect parameters and measurement conditions are given in the text. The area of a single image is 4 mm × 4 mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulated (smooth curves) and experimentally obtained (zigzag curves) photoresponse traced across the center of (a) circular and (b) quadratic defects along the magnetization direction z for different values of sensor lift-off h = 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mm.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

IA=I01+cos 2α-Θmax cos θ/2,
F/μ0Ms|HA|=-a cos θ-b sin θ cosϕ-ϕH-0.5 sin2 θ,
cos θ=a-b cot θ.
S=dIA/I0/dHZ|HZ=0.
S=Θmax/|HA|1+b.

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