Abstract

Laser ablation is widely used in micromachining, manufacturing, thin-film formation, and bioengineering applications. During laser ablation the removal of material and quality of the features depend strongly on the optical breakdown region induced by the laser irradiance. The recent advent of amplified ultrafast lasers with pulse durations of less than 1 ps has generated considerable interest because of the ability of the lasers to process virtually all materials with high precision and minimal thermal damage. With ultrashort pulse widths, however, traditional breakdown models no longer accurately capture the laser–material interaction that leads to breakdown. A femtosecond breakdown model for dielectric solids and liquids is presented that characterizes the pulse behavior and predicts the time- and position-dependent breakdown region. The model includes the pulse propagation and small spatial extent of ultrashort laser pulses. Model results are presented and compared with classical breakdown models for 1-ns, 1-ps, and 150-fs pulses. The results show that the revised model is able to model breakdown accurately in the focal region for pulse durations of less than 10 ps. The model can also be of use in estimating the time- and position-resolved electron density in the interaction volume, the breakdown threshold of the material, shielding effects, and temperature distributions during ultrafast processing.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Noack, A. Vogel, “Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156–1167 (1999).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, E. M. Wright, K. Cook, P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, C. R. Thompson, “Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 33, 127–137 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  38. D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  39. D. J. Stolarski, J. Hardman, C. M. Bramlette, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Integrated light spectroscopy of laser induced breakdown in aqueous media,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 100–109 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  40. R. J. Thomas, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of laser induced breakdown in water,” Laser–Tissue Interaction VII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2681, 402–410 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Sun, J. P. Longtin, P. M. Norris, “Ultrafast laser micromachining of silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281, 39–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

J. P. Longtin, “Using multiphoton absorption with high-intensity lasers to heat transparent liquids,” Chem. Eng. Technol. 22, 77–80 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulsed laser micromachining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Noack, A. Vogel, “Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Shirk, P. A. Molian, “A review of ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of materials,” J. Laser Appl. 10, 18–28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Zergioti, M. Stuke, “Short pulse UV laser ablation of solid and liquid gallium,” Appl. Phys. A 67, 391–395 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (6)

D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, C. E. Clary, B. A. Rockwell, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, “Intraocular laser surgical probe for membrane disruption by laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1684–1693 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, “Laser-induced breakdown in aqueous media,” Prog. Quantum. Electron. 21, 155–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, D. Du, G. Mourou, “Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706–1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Longtin, C. L. Tien, “Efficient laser heating of transparent liquids using multiphoton absorption,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 40, 951–959 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, E. M. Wright, K. Cook, P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, C. R. Thompson, “Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 33, 127–137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, E. D. Jansen, M. Frenz, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, A. J. Welch, “Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water for pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5630–5640 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (8)

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, W. P. Roach, “Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 32, 670–677 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, J. Noack, “Plasma formation in water by picosecond and nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. I. Optical breakdown at threshold and superthreshold irradiance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 847–859 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Esenaliev, A. Oraevsky, S. Rastegar, C. Frederickson, M. Motamedi, “Mechanism of dye-enhanced pulsed laser ablation of hard tissues: implications for dentistry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 836–846 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Jandeleit, G. Urbasch, H. D. Hoffmann, H. G. Treusch, E. W. Kreutz, “Picosecond laser ablation of thin copper films,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 117–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

S. Preuss, A. Demchuk, M. Stuke, “Sub-picosecond UV laser ablation of metals,” Appl. Phys. A 61, 33–37 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kennedy, “A first-order model for computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media. I. Theory,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 31, 2241–2249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Ihlemann, A. Scholl, H. Schmidt, B. Wolff-Rottke, “Nanosecond and femtosecond excimer-laser ablation of oxide ceramics,” Appl. Phys. A 60, 411–417 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

J. R. Bettis, “Correlation among the laser-induced breakdown thresholds in solids, liquids, and gases,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3448–3452 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ihlemann, B. Wolff, P. Simon, “Nanosecond and femtosecond excimer laser ablation of fused silica,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 363–368 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

S. Küper, M. Stuke, “Ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) with femtosecond UV excimer laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 4–6 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, P. Kelly, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).

1988 (2)

1981 (1)

M. Sparks, D. L. Mills, R. Warren, T. Holstein, A. A. Maradudin, L. J. Sham, E. Loh, D. F. King, “Theory of electron-avalanche breakdown in solids,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 3519–3536 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

A. Penzkofer, “Parametrically generated spectra and optical breakdown in H2O and NaCl,” Opt. Commun. 11, 265–269 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

Y. P. Raizer, “Breakdown and heating of gases under the influence of a laser beam,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 8, 650–673 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, P.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Perry, M. D. Feit, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Nev Rubenchik, S. Herman, H. Nguyen, P. Armstrong, “Femtosecond laser processing,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 159–160.

Banks, P. S.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulsed laser micromachining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bettis, J. R.

Bramlette, C. M.

D. J. Stolarski, J. Hardman, C. M. Bramlette, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Integrated light spectroscopy of laser induced breakdown in aqueous media,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Braunlich, P.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, P. Kelly, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).

Capon, M. R. C.

Casper, R. T.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, P. Kelly, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).

Chichkov, B. N.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clary, C. E.

Cook, K.

Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, E. M. Wright, K. Cook, P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, C. R. Thompson, “Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 33, 127–137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Da Silva, L. B.

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Perry, M. D. Feit, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Nev Rubenchik, S. Herman, H. Nguyen, P. Armstrong, “Femtosecond laser processing,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 159–160.

Demchuk, A.

S. Preuss, A. Demchuk, M. Stuke, “Sub-picosecond UV laser ablation of metals,” Appl. Phys. A 61, 33–37 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Docchio, F.

Du, D.

X. Liu, D. Du, G. Mourou, “Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706–1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Esenaliev, R.

R. Esenaliev, A. Oraevsky, S. Rastegar, C. Frederickson, M. Motamedi, “Mechanism of dye-enhanced pulsed laser ablation of hard tissues: implications for dentistry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 836–846 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulsed laser micromachining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Perry, M. D. Feit, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Nev Rubenchik, S. Herman, H. Nguyen, P. Armstrong, “Femtosecond laser processing,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 159–160.

Feng, Q.

Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, E. M. Wright, K. Cook, P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, C. R. Thompson, “Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 33, 127–137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frederickson, C.

R. Esenaliev, A. Oraevsky, S. Rastegar, C. Frederickson, M. Motamedi, “Mechanism of dye-enhanced pulsed laser ablation of hard tissues: implications for dentistry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 836–846 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frenz, M.

Glinsky, M. E.

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, D. X.

P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, “Laser-induced breakdown in aqueous media,” Prog. Quantum. Electron. 21, 155–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, E. M. Wright, K. Cook, P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, C. R. Thompson, “Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 33, 127–137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, E. D. Jansen, M. Frenz, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, A. J. Welch, “Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water for pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5630–5640 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, C. E. Clary, B. A. Rockwell, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, “Intraocular laser surgical probe for membrane disruption by laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1684–1693 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, W. P. Roach, “Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 32, 670–677 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Thomas, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of laser induced breakdown in water,” Laser–Tissue Interaction VII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2681, 402–410 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hardman, J.

D. J. Stolarski, J. Hardman, C. M. Bramlette, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Integrated light spectroscopy of laser induced breakdown in aqueous media,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Herbst, G.

G. Herbst, M. Steiner, G. Marowsky, E. Matthias, “Ablation of Si and Ge using UV photoablation,” in Advanced Laser Processing of Materials–Fundamentals and Applications, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.397, 69–74 (1996).

Herman, S.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Perry, M. D. Feit, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Nev Rubenchik, S. Herman, H. Nguyen, P. Armstrong, “Femtosecond laser processing,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 159–160.

Hoffmann, H. D.

J. Jandeleit, G. Urbasch, H. D. Hoffmann, H. G. Treusch, E. W. Kreutz, “Picosecond laser ablation of thin copper films,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 117–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holstein, T.

M. Sparks, D. L. Mills, R. Warren, T. Holstein, A. A. Maradudin, L. J. Sham, E. Loh, D. F. King, “Theory of electron-avalanche breakdown in solids,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 3519–3536 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, T. R.

T. R. Hsu, MEMS: Design, Manufacture and Processing (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001), Chap. 4.

Ihlemann, J.

J. Ihlemann, A. Scholl, H. Schmidt, B. Wolff-Rottke, “Nanosecond and femtosecond excimer-laser ablation of oxide ceramics,” Appl. Phys. A 60, 411–417 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Ihlemann, B. Wolff, P. Simon, “Nanosecond and femtosecond excimer laser ablation of fused silica,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 363–368 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jandeleit, J.

J. Jandeleit, G. Urbasch, H. D. Hoffmann, H. G. Treusch, E. W. Kreutz, “Picosecond laser ablation of thin copper films,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 117–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, E. D.

Jones, S. C.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, P. Kelly, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).

Kelly, P.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, P. Kelly, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).

Kennedy, P. K.

Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, E. M. Wright, K. Cook, P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, C. R. Thompson, “Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 33, 127–137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, “Laser-induced breakdown in aqueous media,” Prog. Quantum. Electron. 21, 155–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, W. P. Roach, “Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 32, 670–677 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kennedy, “A first-order model for computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media. I. Theory,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 31, 2241–2249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

King, D. F.

M. Sparks, D. L. Mills, R. Warren, T. Holstein, A. A. Maradudin, L. J. Sham, E. Loh, D. F. King, “Theory of electron-avalanche breakdown in solids,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 3519–3536 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kreutz, E. W.

J. Jandeleit, G. Urbasch, H. D. Hoffmann, H. G. Treusch, E. W. Kreutz, “Picosecond laser ablation of thin copper films,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 117–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Küper, S.

S. Küper, M. Stuke, “Ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) with femtosecond UV excimer laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 4–6 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, D. Du, G. Mourou, “Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706–1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Loh, E.

M. Sparks, D. L. Mills, R. Warren, T. Holstein, A. A. Maradudin, L. J. Sham, E. Loh, D. F. King, “Theory of electron-avalanche breakdown in solids,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 3519–3536 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Longtin, J. P.

J. Sun, J. P. Longtin, P. M. Norris, “Ultrafast laser micromachining of silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281, 39–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Longtin, “Using multiphoton absorption with high-intensity lasers to heat transparent liquids,” Chem. Eng. Technol. 22, 77–80 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Longtin, C. L. Tien, “Efficient laser heating of transparent liquids using multiphoton absorption,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 40, 951–959 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mammini, B. M.

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maradudin, A. A.

M. Sparks, D. L. Mills, R. Warren, T. Holstein, A. A. Maradudin, L. J. Sham, E. Loh, D. F. King, “Theory of electron-avalanche breakdown in solids,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 3519–3536 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Marowsky, G.

G. Herbst, M. Steiner, G. Marowsky, E. Matthias, “Ablation of Si and Ge using UV photoablation,” in Advanced Laser Processing of Materials–Fundamentals and Applications, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.397, 69–74 (1996).

Matthias, E.

G. Herbst, M. Steiner, G. Marowsky, E. Matthias, “Ablation of Si and Ge using UV photoablation,” in Advanced Laser Processing of Materials–Fundamentals and Applications, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.397, 69–74 (1996).

Mellerio, J.

Mills, D. L.

M. Sparks, D. L. Mills, R. Warren, T. Holstein, A. A. Maradudin, L. J. Sham, E. Loh, D. F. King, “Theory of electron-avalanche breakdown in solids,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 3519–3536 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Molian, P. A.

M. Shirk, P. A. Molian, “A review of ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of materials,” J. Laser Appl. 10, 18–28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, E. M. Wright, K. Cook, P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, C. R. Thompson, “Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 33, 127–137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Momma, C.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Motamedi, M.

R. Esenaliev, A. Oraevsky, S. Rastegar, C. Frederickson, M. Motamedi, “Mechanism of dye-enhanced pulsed laser ablation of hard tissues: implications for dentistry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 836–846 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

X. Liu, D. Du, G. Mourou, “Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706–1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nahen, K.

A. Vogel, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, J. Noack, “Plasma formation in water by picosecond and nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. I. Optical breakdown at threshold and superthreshold irradiance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 847–859 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nev Rubenchik, A. M.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Perry, M. D. Feit, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Nev Rubenchik, S. Herman, H. Nguyen, P. Armstrong, “Femtosecond laser processing,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 159–160.

Newell, A. C.

Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, E. M. Wright, K. Cook, P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, C. R. Thompson, “Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 33, 127–137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Perry, M. D. Feit, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Nev Rubenchik, S. Herman, H. Nguyen, P. Armstrong, “Femtosecond laser processing,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 159–160.

Noack, J.

J. Noack, A. Vogel, “Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, E. D. Jansen, M. Frenz, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, A. J. Welch, “Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water for pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5630–5640 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, J. Noack, “Plasma formation in water by picosecond and nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. I. Optical breakdown at threshold and superthreshold irradiance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 847–859 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Noojin, G. D.

D. X. Hammer, E. D. Jansen, M. Frenz, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, A. J. Welch, “Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water for pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5630–5640 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, C. E. Clary, B. A. Rockwell, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, “Intraocular laser surgical probe for membrane disruption by laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1684–1693 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, W. P. Roach, “Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 32, 670–677 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Stolarski, J. Hardman, C. M. Bramlette, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Integrated light spectroscopy of laser induced breakdown in aqueous media,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Thomas, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of laser induced breakdown in water,” Laser–Tissue Interaction VII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2681, 402–410 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Norris, P. M.

J. Sun, J. P. Longtin, P. M. Norris, “Ultrafast laser micromachining of silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281, 39–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oraevsky, A.

R. Esenaliev, A. Oraevsky, S. Rastegar, C. Frederickson, M. Motamedi, “Mechanism of dye-enhanced pulsed laser ablation of hard tissues: implications for dentistry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 836–846 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oraevsky, A. A.

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Penzkofer, A.

A. Penzkofer, “Parametrically generated spectra and optical breakdown in H2O and NaCl,” Opt. Commun. 11, 265–269 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulsed laser micromachining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Perry, M. D. Feit, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Nev Rubenchik, S. Herman, H. Nguyen, P. Armstrong, “Femtosecond laser processing,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 159–160.

Preuss, S.

S. Preuss, A. Demchuk, M. Stuke, “Sub-picosecond UV laser ablation of metals,” Appl. Phys. A 61, 33–37 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Raizer, Y. P.

Y. P. Raizer, “Breakdown and heating of gases under the influence of a laser beam,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 8, 650–673 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Rastegar, S.

R. Esenaliev, A. Oraevsky, S. Rastegar, C. Frederickson, M. Motamedi, “Mechanism of dye-enhanced pulsed laser ablation of hard tissues: implications for dentistry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 836–846 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Regondi, P.

Roach, W. P.

D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, C. E. Clary, B. A. Rockwell, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, “Intraocular laser surgical probe for membrane disruption by laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1684–1693 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, W. P. Roach, “Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 32, 670–677 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Stolarski, J. Hardman, C. M. Bramlette, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Integrated light spectroscopy of laser induced breakdown in aqueous media,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Thomas, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of laser induced breakdown in water,” Laser–Tissue Interaction VII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2681, 402–410 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rockwell, B. A.

D. X. Hammer, E. D. Jansen, M. Frenz, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, A. J. Welch, “Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water for pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5630–5640 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, E. M. Wright, K. Cook, P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, C. R. Thompson, “Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 33, 127–137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, “Laser-induced breakdown in aqueous media,” Prog. Quantum. Electron. 21, 155–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, C. E. Clary, B. A. Rockwell, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, “Intraocular laser surgical probe for membrane disruption by laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1684–1693 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, W. P. Roach, “Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 32, 670–677 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Stolarski, J. Hardman, C. M. Bramlette, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Integrated light spectroscopy of laser induced breakdown in aqueous media,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Thomas, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of laser induced breakdown in water,” Laser–Tissue Interaction VII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2681, 402–410 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulsed laser micromachining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, H.

J. Ihlemann, A. Scholl, H. Schmidt, B. Wolff-Rottke, “Nanosecond and femtosecond excimer-laser ablation of oxide ceramics,” Appl. Phys. A 60, 411–417 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scholl, A.

J. Ihlemann, A. Scholl, H. Schmidt, B. Wolff-Rottke, “Nanosecond and femtosecond excimer-laser ablation of oxide ceramics,” Appl. Phys. A 60, 411–417 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sham, L. J.

M. Sparks, D. L. Mills, R. Warren, T. Holstein, A. A. Maradudin, L. J. Sham, E. Loh, D. F. King, “Theory of electron-avalanche breakdown in solids,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 3519–3536 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X. A.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, P. Kelly, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 27.

Shirk, M.

M. Shirk, P. A. Molian, “A review of ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of materials,” J. Laser Appl. 10, 18–28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 17.

Simon, P.

J. Ihlemann, B. Wolff, P. Simon, “Nanosecond and femtosecond excimer laser ablation of fused silica,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 363–368 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Small, W.

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sparks, M.

M. Sparks, D. L. Mills, R. Warren, T. Holstein, A. A. Maradudin, L. J. Sham, E. Loh, D. F. King, “Theory of electron-avalanche breakdown in solids,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 3519–3536 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Steiner, M.

G. Herbst, M. Steiner, G. Marowsky, E. Matthias, “Ablation of Si and Ge using UV photoablation,” in Advanced Laser Processing of Materials–Fundamentals and Applications, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.397, 69–74 (1996).

Stolarski, D. J.

D. J. Stolarski, J. Hardman, C. M. Bramlette, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Integrated light spectroscopy of laser induced breakdown in aqueous media,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Thomas, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of laser induced breakdown in water,” Laser–Tissue Interaction VII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2681, 402–410 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulsed laser micromachining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459–468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Perry, M. D. Feit, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Nev Rubenchik, S. Herman, H. Nguyen, P. Armstrong, “Femtosecond laser processing,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 159–160.

Stuke, M.

I. Zergioti, M. Stuke, “Short pulse UV laser ablation of solid and liquid gallium,” Appl. Phys. A 67, 391–395 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Preuss, A. Demchuk, M. Stuke, “Sub-picosecond UV laser ablation of metals,” Appl. Phys. A 61, 33–37 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Küper, M. Stuke, “Ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) with femtosecond UV excimer laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 4–6 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

J. Sun, J. P. Longtin, P. M. Norris, “Ultrafast laser micromachining of silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281, 39–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Theisen, D.

A. Vogel, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, J. Noack, “Plasma formation in water by picosecond and nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. I. Optical breakdown at threshold and superthreshold irradiance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 847–859 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, R. J.

D. X. Hammer, E. D. Jansen, M. Frenz, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, A. J. Welch, “Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water for pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5630–5640 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, C. E. Clary, B. A. Rockwell, C. A. Toth, W. P. Roach, “Intraocular laser surgical probe for membrane disruption by laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1684–1693 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, W. P. Roach, “Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 32, 670–677 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Stolarski, J. Hardman, C. M. Bramlette, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Integrated light spectroscopy of laser induced breakdown in aqueous media,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Thomas, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of laser induced breakdown in water,” Laser–Tissue Interaction VII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2681, 402–410 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, C. R.

Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, E. M. Wright, K. Cook, P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, C. R. Thompson, “Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 33, 127–137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tien, C. L.

J. P. Longtin, C. L. Tien, “Efficient laser heating of transparent liquids using multiphoton absorption,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 40, 951–959 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Toth, C. A.

Treusch, H. G.

J. Jandeleit, G. Urbasch, H. D. Hoffmann, H. G. Treusch, E. W. Kreutz, “Picosecond laser ablation of thin copper films,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 117–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Urbasch, G.

J. Jandeleit, G. Urbasch, H. D. Hoffmann, H. G. Treusch, E. W. Kreutz, “Picosecond laser ablation of thin copper films,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 117–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, A.

J. Noack, A. Vogel, “Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, E. D. Jansen, M. Frenz, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, A. J. Welch, “Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water for pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5630–5640 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, J. Noack, “Plasma formation in water by picosecond and nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. I. Optical breakdown at threshold and superthreshold irradiance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 847–859 (1996).
[CrossRef]

von Alvensleben, F.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Warren, R.

M. Sparks, D. L. Mills, R. Warren, T. Holstein, A. A. Maradudin, L. J. Sham, E. Loh, D. F. King, “Theory of electron-avalanche breakdown in solids,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 3519–3536 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

Wolff, B.

J. Ihlemann, B. Wolff, P. Simon, “Nanosecond and femtosecond excimer laser ablation of fused silica,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 363–368 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wolff-Rottke, B.

J. Ihlemann, A. Scholl, H. Schmidt, B. Wolff-Rottke, “Nanosecond and femtosecond excimer-laser ablation of oxide ceramics,” Appl. Phys. A 60, 411–417 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, E. M. Wright, K. Cook, P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, C. R. Thompson, “Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 33, 127–137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yanovsky, V.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulsed laser micromachining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zergioti, I.

I. Zergioti, M. Stuke, “Short pulse UV laser ablation of solid and liquid gallium,” Appl. Phys. A 67, 391–395 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. A (6)

J. Ihlemann, A. Scholl, H. Schmidt, B. Wolff-Rottke, “Nanosecond and femtosecond excimer-laser ablation of oxide ceramics,” Appl. Phys. A 60, 411–417 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Ihlemann, B. Wolff, P. Simon, “Nanosecond and femtosecond excimer laser ablation of fused silica,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 363–368 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Preuss, A. Demchuk, M. Stuke, “Sub-picosecond UV laser ablation of metals,” Appl. Phys. A 61, 33–37 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Jandeleit, G. Urbasch, H. D. Hoffmann, H. G. Treusch, E. W. Kreutz, “Picosecond laser ablation of thin copper films,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 117–121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. Zergioti, M. Stuke, “Short pulse UV laser ablation of solid and liquid gallium,” Appl. Phys. A 67, 391–395 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Küper, M. Stuke, “Ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) with femtosecond UV excimer laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 4–6 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071–3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Eng. Technol. (1)

J. P. Longtin, “Using multiphoton absorption with high-intensity lasers to heat transparent liquids,” Chem. Eng. Technol. 22, 77–80 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J Quantum Electron. (3)

Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, E. M. Wright, K. Cook, P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, C. R. Thompson, “Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 33, 127–137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kennedy, “A first-order model for computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media. I. Theory,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 31, 2241–2249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, W. P. Roach, “Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 32, 670–677 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. Noack, A. Vogel, “Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, D. Du, G. Mourou, “Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706–1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, B. C. Stuart, “Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser pulses: relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801–809 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Esenaliev, A. Oraevsky, S. Rastegar, C. Frederickson, M. Motamedi, “Mechanism of dye-enhanced pulsed laser ablation of hard tissues: implications for dentistry,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 836–846 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, J. Noack, “Plasma formation in water by picosecond and nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. I. Optical breakdown at threshold and superthreshold irradiance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 847–859 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (1)

J. P. Longtin, C. L. Tien, “Efficient laser heating of transparent liquids using multiphoton absorption,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 40, 951–959 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulsed laser micromachining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Laser Appl. (1)

M. Shirk, P. A. Molian, “A review of ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of materials,” J. Laser Appl. 10, 18–28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

J. Sun, J. P. Longtin, P. M. Norris, “Ultrafast laser micromachining of silica aerogels,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281, 39–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Penzkofer, “Parametrically generated spectra and optical breakdown in H2O and NaCl,” Opt. Commun. 11, 265–269 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, P. Kelly, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. Sparks, D. L. Mills, R. Warren, T. Holstein, A. A. Maradudin, L. J. Sham, E. Loh, D. F. King, “Theory of electron-avalanche breakdown in solids,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 3519–3536 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749–1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum. Electron. (1)

P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, “Laser-induced breakdown in aqueous media,” Prog. Quantum. Electron. 21, 155–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

Y. P. Raizer, “Breakdown and heating of gases under the influence of a laser beam,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 8, 650–673 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 17.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Perry, M. D. Feit, L. B. Da Silva, A. M. Nev Rubenchik, S. Herman, H. Nguyen, P. Armstrong, “Femtosecond laser processing,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 159–160.

T. R. Hsu, MEMS: Design, Manufacture and Processing (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001), Chap. 4.

D. J. Stolarski, J. Hardman, C. M. Bramlette, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Integrated light spectroscopy of laser induced breakdown in aqueous media,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction VI, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2391, 100–109 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Thomas, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, D. J. Stolarski, B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of laser induced breakdown in water,” Laser–Tissue Interaction VII, S. L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2681, 402–410 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 27.

G. Herbst, M. Steiner, G. Marowsky, E. Matthias, “Ablation of Si and Ge using UV photoablation,” in Advanced Laser Processing of Materials–Fundamentals and Applications, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.397, 69–74 (1996).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of focal region and laser pulse length (not to scale): (a) length of the focal region (Rayleigh range), (b) 1-ns pulse, (c) 150-fs pulse.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-dependent intensity in the focal region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-dependent breakdown region.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Time- and position-dependent intensity of a 1-ps pulse. (b) Time- and position-dependent breakdown region.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Time- and position-dependent intensity of a 150-fs pulse. (b) Time- and position-dependent breakdown region.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Regime map: femtosecond breakdown model versus classical model.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Pt=Pmax exp-4 ln 2tτp2,
Ep=Pmax-exp-4 ln 2tτp2dt=1.064Pmaxτp.
wz=w01+z2zR21/2,
zR=nπw02λ,
It, z=Pmaxπw2zexp-4 ln 2tτp2,
Nz=lpzR=cτpzR.
It, z=Pmaxπw2zexp-4 ln 2t-z/cτp2.
β=PmaxPth=ImaxIth.
tBzτp=±14 ln 2lnβ1+z2zR2-11/2.
zBtzR=±β exp-4 ln 2tτp2-11/2.
zmax=zRβ-1.
tBz=zc±τp14 ln 2lnβ1+z2zR2-11/2.

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