Abstract

The wavelength-dependent aerosol extinction in the 800–1250-cm-1 region has been derived from ATMOS (atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy) high-spectral-resolution IR transmission measurements. Using models of aerosol and cloud extinction, we have performed weighted nonlinear least-squares fitting to determine the aerosol-volume columns and vertical profiles of stratospheric sulfate aerosol and cirrus cloud volume. Modeled extinction by use of cold-temperature aerosol optical constants for a 70–80% sulfuric-acid–water solution shows good agreement with the measurements, and the derived aerosol volumes for a 1992 occultation are consistent with data from other experiments after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. The retrieved sulfuric acid aerosol-volume profiles are insensitive to the aerosol-size distribution and somewhat sensitive to the set of optical constants used. Data from the nonspherical cirrus extinction model agree well with a 1994 mid-latitude measurement indicating the presence of cirrus clouds at the tropopause.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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2000 (1)

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. King, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, T. Nakajima, “Remote sensing of tropospheric aerosols from space: past, present, and future,” AMS Bull. 80, 2229–2259 (1999).

1998 (7)

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, G. B. Osterman, J.-F. Blavier, J. J. Margitan, R. J. Salawitch, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 3571–3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Tisdale, D. L. Glandorf, M. A. Tolbert, O. B. Toon, “Infrared optical constants of low-temperature H2SO4 solutions representative of stratospheric sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25353–25370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Niedziela, M. L. Norman, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature- and composition-dependent infrared optical constants for sulfuric acid,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25(24), 4477–4480 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Niedziela, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature-dependent and frequency-dependent optical constants for nitric acid dihydrate from aerosol spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 6477–6484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, R. W. Bergstrom, “Modeling the radiative characteristics of airborne mineral aerosols at infrared wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8813–8826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Echle, T. von Clarmann, H. Oelhaf, “Optical and micrphysical parameters of the Mt. Pinatubo aerosol as determined from MIPAS-B mid-IR limb emission spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19193–19211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelson, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS-3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, T. Deshler, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density deduced from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements: 1984–1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8967–8976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, W. P. Arnott, “Extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo for laboratory and natural cirrus clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21825–21835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

F. J. Dentener, G. R. Carmichael, Y. Zhang, J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, “Role of mineral aerosol as a reactive surface in the global troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 22869–22889 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, E. L. Fleming, C. H. Jackman, “Balloon-borne observations of mid-latitude fluorine abundances,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9045–9054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Weis, G. E. Ewing, “Infrared spectroscopic signatures of (NH4)2SO4 aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18709–18720 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Finite-difference time domain method for light scattering by small ice crystals in three-dimensional space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2072–2085 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Frequency-dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area, and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16507–16518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Pinatubo aerosol near 19-km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. G. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H2O ice, amorphous nitric acid solutions, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25631–25654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52(3/4), 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, F. W. Taylor, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, M. Corney, B. J. Kerridge, “Infrared absorption by volcanic stratospheric aerosols observed by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1283–1286 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

G. D’Almeida, “On the variability of desert aerosol radiative characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 3017–3026 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

V. R. Oberbeck, E. F. Danielson, K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, W. Fong, D. M. Hayes, “Effect of the eruption of El Chichon on stratospheric aerosol size and composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1021–1024 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, “Effects of temperature and humidity on the growth and optical properties of sulfuric acid–water droplets in the stratosphere,” J. Aerosol Sci. 12, 517–528 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, “The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species: ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733–5748 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

K. F. Palmer, D. Williams, “Optical constants of sulfuric acid: application to the clouds of Venus?” Appl. Opt. 14, 208–219 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. D. Downing, D. Williams, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656–1661 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Abbas, M. M.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, M. C.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelson, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS-3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52(3/4), 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Allen, D. A.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arduini, R. F.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelson, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS-3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arnott, W. P.

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, W. P. Arnott, “Extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo for laboratory and natural cirrus clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21825–21835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baum, B. A.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelson, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS-3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bergstrom, R. W.

I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, R. W. Bergstrom, “Modeling the radiative characteristics of airborne mineral aerosols at infrared wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8813–8826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).

Biermann, U. M.

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blavier, J.-F.

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, G. B. Osterman, J.-F. Blavier, J. J. Margitan, R. J. Salawitch, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 3571–3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, E. L. Fleming, C. H. Jackman, “Balloon-borne observations of mid-latitude fluorine abundances,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9045–9054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere by high resolution infrared absorption spectroscopy,” in Spectroscopy of the Earth’s Atmosphere and Intersteller Medium, K. N. Rao, A. Webers, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992), pp. 97–143.

Brown, T. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carlotti, M.

Carmichael, G. R.

F. J. Dentener, G. R. Carmichael, Y. Zhang, J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, “Role of mineral aerosol as a reactive surface in the global troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 22869–22889 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, A. Y.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clapp, M. L.

M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Frequency-dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Corney, M.

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Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
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King, M. D.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
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M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
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A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
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C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelson, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS-3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
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O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. G. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H2O ice, amorphous nitric acid solutions, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25631–25654 (1994).
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M. King, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, T. Nakajima, “Remote sensing of tropospheric aerosols from space: past, present, and future,” AMS Bull. 80, 2229–2259 (1999).

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
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C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelson, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS-3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
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R. F. Niedziela, M. L. Norman, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature- and composition-dependent infrared optical constants for sulfuric acid,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25(24), 4477–4480 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Niedziela, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature-dependent and frequency-dependent optical constants for nitric acid dihydrate from aerosol spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 6477–6484 (1998).
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R. F. Niedziela, M. L. Norman, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature- and composition-dependent infrared optical constants for sulfuric acid,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25(24), 4477–4480 (1998).
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Oberbeck, V. R.

V. R. Oberbeck, E. F. Danielson, K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, W. Fong, D. M. Hayes, “Effect of the eruption of El Chichon on stratospheric aerosol size and composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1021–1024 (1983).
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G. Echle, T. von Clarmann, H. Oelhaf, “Optical and micrphysical parameters of the Mt. Pinatubo aerosol as determined from MIPAS-B mid-IR limb emission spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19193–19211 (1998).
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Osterman, G. B.

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, G. B. Osterman, J.-F. Blavier, J. J. Margitan, R. J. Salawitch, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 3571–3585 (1998).
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Palmer, K. F.

Pandis, S. N.

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U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, J. B.

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, “The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species: ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733–5748 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Poole, L. R.

L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, T. Deshler, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density deduced from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements: 1984–1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8967–8976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pueschel, R. F.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Pinatubo aerosol near 19-km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Remedios, J. J.

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, F. W. Taylor, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, M. Corney, B. J. Kerridge, “Infrared absorption by volcanic stratospheric aerosols observed by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1283–1286 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelson, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS-3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52(3/4), 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Norton, C. P. Rinsland, “ATMOS data processing and science analysis methods,” Appl. Opt. 30, 389–400 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere by high resolution infrared absorption spectroscopy,” in Spectroscopy of the Earth’s Atmosphere and Intersteller Medium, K. N. Rao, A. Webers, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992), pp. 97–143.

Rodgers, C. D.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area, and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16507–16518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, F. W. Taylor, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, M. Corney, B. J. Kerridge, “Infrared absorption by volcanic stratospheric aerosols observed by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1283–1286 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Salawich, R. J.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Salawitch, R. J.

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, G. B. Osterman, J.-F. Blavier, J. J. Margitan, R. J. Salawitch, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 3571–3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelson, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS-3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seinfeld, J. H.

J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Interscience, New York, 1998), pp. 429–440.

Sen, B.

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, G. B. Osterman, J.-F. Blavier, J. J. Margitan, R. J. Salawitch, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 3571–3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, E. L. Fleming, C. H. Jackman, “Balloon-borne observations of mid-latitude fluorine abundances,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9045–9054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snetsinger, K. G.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Pinatubo aerosol near 19-km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Oberbeck, E. F. Danielson, K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, W. Fong, D. M. Hayes, “Effect of the eruption of El Chichon on stratospheric aerosol size and composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1021–1024 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sokolik, I. N.

I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, R. W. Bergstrom, “Modeling the radiative characteristics of airborne mineral aerosols at infrared wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8813–8826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steele, H. M.

H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, “Effects of temperature and humidity on the growth and optical properties of sulfuric acid–water droplets in the stratosphere,” J. Aerosol Sci. 12, 517–528 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Stiller, G. P.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

M. King, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, T. Nakajima, “Remote sensing of tropospheric aerosols from space: past, present, and future,” AMS Bull. 80, 2229–2259 (1999).

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, F. W.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area, and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16507–16518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, F. W. Taylor, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, M. Corney, B. J. Kerridge, “Infrared absorption by volcanic stratospheric aerosols observed by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1283–1286 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Teillet, P. M.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomason, L. W.

L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, T. Deshler, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density deduced from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements: 1984–1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8967–8976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tisdale, R. T.

R. T. Tisdale, D. L. Glandorf, M. A. Tolbert, O. B. Toon, “Infrared optical constants of low-temperature H2SO4 solutions representative of stratospheric sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25353–25370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tolbert, M. A.

R. T. Tisdale, D. L. Glandorf, M. A. Tolbert, O. B. Toon, “Infrared optical constants of low-temperature H2SO4 solutions representative of stratospheric sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25353–25370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. G. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H2O ice, amorphous nitric acid solutions, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25631–25654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Toon, G. C.

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, G. B. Osterman, J.-F. Blavier, J. J. Margitan, R. J. Salawitch, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 3571–3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, E. L. Fleming, C. H. Jackman, “Balloon-borne observations of mid-latitude fluorine abundances,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9045–9054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Toon, “The MkIV interferometer,” Opt. Photon. News 2, 19–21 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

R. T. Tisdale, D. L. Glandorf, M. A. Tolbert, O. B. Toon, “Infrared optical constants of low-temperature H2SO4 solutions representative of stratospheric sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25353–25370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, R. W. Bergstrom, “Modeling the radiative characteristics of airborne mineral aerosols at infrared wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8813–8826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. G. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H2O ice, amorphous nitric acid solutions, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25631–25654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, “The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species: ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733–5748 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Verma, S.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Pinatubo aerosol near 19-km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

von Clarmann, T.

G. Echle, T. von Clarmann, H. Oelhaf, “Optical and micrphysical parameters of the Mt. Pinatubo aerosol as determined from MIPAS-B mid-IR limb emission spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19193–19211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.-H.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelson, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS-3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weis, D.

D. Weis, G. E. Ewing, “Infrared spectroscopic signatures of (NH4)2SO4 aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18709–18720 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D.

H. D. Downing, D. Williams, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656–1661 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Palmer, D. Williams, “Optical constants of sulfuric acid: application to the clouds of Venus?” Appl. Opt. 14, 208–219 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Worsnop, D. R.

R. F. Niedziela, M. L. Norman, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature- and composition-dependent infrared optical constants for sulfuric acid,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25(24), 4477–4480 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Niedziela, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature-dependent and frequency-dependent optical constants for nitric acid dihydrate from aerosol spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 6477–6484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Frequency-dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, W. P. Arnott, “Extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo for laboratory and natural cirrus clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21825–21835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Finite-difference time domain method for light scattering by small ice crystals in three-dimensional space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2072–2085 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yue, G. K.

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, G. B. Osterman, J.-F. Blavier, J. J. Margitan, R. J. Salawitch, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 3571–3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52(3/4), 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yung, Y. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zander, R.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelson, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS-3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52(3/4), 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere by high resolution infrared absorption spectroscopy,” in Spectroscopy of the Earth’s Atmosphere and Intersteller Medium, K. N. Rao, A. Webers, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992), pp. 97–143.

Zhang, Y.

F. J. Dentener, G. R. Carmichael, Y. Zhang, J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, “Role of mineral aerosol as a reactive surface in the global troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 22869–22889 (1996).
[CrossRef]

AMS Bull. (1)

M. King, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, T. Nakajima, “Remote sensing of tropospheric aerosols from space: past, present, and future,” AMS Bull. 80, 2229–2259 (1999).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (5)

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Pinatubo aerosol near 19-km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Oberbeck, E. F. Danielson, K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, W. Fong, D. M. Hayes, “Effect of the eruption of El Chichon on stratospheric aerosol size and composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1021–1024 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, F. W. Taylor, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, M. Corney, B. J. Kerridge, “Infrared absorption by volcanic stratospheric aerosols observed by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1283–1286 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Niedziela, M. L. Norman, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature- and composition-dependent infrared optical constants for sulfuric acid,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25(24), 4477–4480 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, “Effects of temperature and humidity on the growth and optical properties of sulfuric acid–water droplets in the stratosphere,” J. Aerosol Sci. 12, 517–528 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (17)

G. Echle, T. von Clarmann, H. Oelhaf, “Optical and micrphysical parameters of the Mt. Pinatubo aerosol as determined from MIPAS-B mid-IR limb emission spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19193–19211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, “The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species: ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733–5748 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. D’Almeida, “On the variability of desert aerosol radiative characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 3017–3026 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area, and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16507–16518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, T. Deshler, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density deduced from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements: 1984–1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8967–8976 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, W. P. Arnott, “Extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo for laboratory and natural cirrus clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21825–21835 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Tisdale, D. L. Glandorf, M. A. Tolbert, O. B. Toon, “Infrared optical constants of low-temperature H2SO4 solutions representative of stratospheric sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25353–25370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Downing, D. Williams, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656–1661 (1975).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, R. W. Bergstrom, “Modeling the radiative characteristics of airborne mineral aerosols at infrared wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8813–8826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Weis, G. E. Ewing, “Infrared spectroscopic signatures of (NH4)2SO4 aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18709–18720 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. G. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H2O ice, amorphous nitric acid solutions, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25631–25654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, E. L. Fleming, C. H. Jackman, “Balloon-borne observations of mid-latitude fluorine abundances,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9045–9054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Sen, G. C. Toon, G. B. Osterman, J.-F. Blavier, J. J. Margitan, R. J. Salawitch, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 3571–3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Dentener, G. R. Carmichael, Y. Zhang, J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, “Role of mineral aerosol as a reactive surface in the global troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 22869–22889 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Frequency-dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (2)

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission for equal particle number, surface area, and particle volume by using five different aerosol-size distributions for stratospheric sulfuric acid. The size distributions are described in more detail in Table 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission for an equal aerosol volume of SSAA with four different compositions. Optical constants from Ref. 16, which were measured at 215 K, are used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mass extinction coefficients per unit aerosol mixing ratio for four different aerosol materials, which are described in Table 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured IR transmission, calculated transmission resulting from the presence of only trace gases, and continuum spectra obtained by two methods, which are described in detail in the text.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Continuum spectra and best-fit aerosol models (for SSAA, Ref. 16 refractive indices are used, and the cold cirrus model is from Ref. 25). The locations of the measurements are 45S 41W (at1ss23), 27S 4W (at2ss59) and 41N 187W (at3ss107).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Volume slant columns (µm3 cm-3 km) and (b) retrieved vertical profiles for ATMOS occultation at1ss23. Vertical profiles that include significant cloud volumes from (c) a 1994 measurement and (d) another 1992 measurement are also shown. The cloud volumes and column have been multiplied by 0.01. The location of at1ss18 was 44S 95E, and at3ss95 was made at 16N 117E.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Continuum spectra and best-fit models for (a), (b), (e)–(h) a range of SSAA composition and (c), (d) size distribution. The refractive indices used are (a)–(d) from Palmer and Williams,15 (e), (f) from Tisdale et al.,16 and (g), (h) from Niedziela et al.17 The Palmer and Williams measurements were made at 300 K, Tisdale et al. at 215 K, and Niedziela et al. at 210–240 K. The size distributions used in (c) and (d) are described in Table 1 and use the refractive indices of Palmer and Williams. The left and right figures show two different wave-number regions. Note the change in the transmission scale. The measurement error is shown as gray bars on the continuum spectra.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Aerosol slant columns and χ2 of the slant columns for a variety of SSAA models. The refractive indices and size distributions are as in Fig. 7.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Vertical profiles of aerosol volume (volume of aerosol per volume of air) for the 28 March 1992 measurement where different sources of optical constant data are used. The refractive indices and size distributions are as described in Fig. 7.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Representative Size Distributions of Stratospheric Sulfuric Acid Aerosols Used in Fig. 1

Tables Icon

Table 2 Selection of Aerosol Descriptionsa

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Tv=Kmeasvexp-jx κjv, xgjxdx.
Ni=0dNidrdr,
Kmodelv=exp-ix biv, xNixdx.
biv=0 πr2QidNidrdr0dNidrdr.
aiv=034r QidVidrdr0dVidrdr,
dVidr=4πr33dNidr.
Kmodelv=exp-ix aiv, xVixdx.
LNi=x Nixdx,
LVi=x Vixdx.
Kmodelv=iexp-aivLVi=iexp-bivLNi.
χ2=k=1no. of spectral pointsKmeasvk-Kmodelvkσvk2.

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