Abstract

We report on the wavelength tuning and spectral properties of distributed feedback (DFB) diode lasers operated with a plane external cavity (XC) mirror positioned as close as possible to the diode-laser front facet. These lasers generate single-frequency near IR radiation at wavelengths of 1392, 1580, 1602, and 1653 nm. A piezoelectric variation of the XC length provided continuous single-frequency tuning to as high as 19 GHz. A further benefit of XC DFB lasers is a residual amplitude modulation per gigahertz tuning of less than 10-3. The XC feedback also suppresses residual side-mode oscillations to less than 60 dB. The laser’s total intensity noise is close to the shot noise limit. The laser linewidth (measured in a beat note experiment) is less than 90 kHz within an acquisition time of 40 ms. The advantageous properties of XC DFB lasers for molecular spectroscopy are demonstrated by recording R(3) 2ν 3 overtone spectra of methane by single-scan single-pass absorption or frequency-modulation spectroscopy.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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1999 (1)

1998 (8)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Becher, K.-J. Boller, “Intensity noise properties of Nd:YVO4 microchip lasers pumped with an amplitude squeezed diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 147, 366–374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Becher, E. Gehrig, K.-J. Boller, “Spectrally asymmetric mode correlation and intensity noise in pump-noise-suppressed laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 3952–3960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shevy, H. Deng, “Frequency-stable and ultra narrow-linewidth semiconductor laser locked directly to an atomic cesium transition,” Opt. Lett. 23, 472–474 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Bianchini, P. Cancio, F. Minardi, F. S. Pavone, F. Perrone, M. Prevedelli, M. Inguscio, “Wide-bandwidth frequency locking of a 1083-nm extended-cavity DBR diode laser to a high-finesse Fabry-Pérot resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 407–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Schäfer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65-µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser absorption measurements of CO2 near 2.0 µm at elevated temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8341–8347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochimica Acta A 54, 197–236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

1996 (3)

R. U. Martinelli, “Mid-infrared wavelengths enhance trace-gas sensing,” Laser Focus World 32(3), 77–81 (1996).

C. Corsi, M. Gabrysch, M. Inguscio, “Detection of molecular oxygen at high temperature using a DFB-diode-laser at 761 nm,” Opt. Commun. 128, 35–40 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Uenishi, K. Honma, S. Nagaoka, “Tunable laser diode using a nickel micromachined external mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1207–1209 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

F. S. Pavone, P. Cancio, C. Corsi, M. Inguscio, R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of a mirror-extended cavity distributed feedback 1.65-µm diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 249–253 (1995).

P. Werle, “Laser excess noise and interferometric effects in frequency-modulated diode-laser spectrometers,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 499–506 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

P. Werle, F. Slemr, M. Gehrtz, C. Bräuchle, “Quantum-limited FM spectroscopy with a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 99–108 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

K. Y. Liou, Y. K. Jhee, G. Einsetin, R. S. Tucker, R. T. Ku, T. M. Shen, U. K. Chkrabarti, P. J. Anthony, “Linewidth characteristics of fiber-extended-cavity distributed-feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1039–1041 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Chraplyvy, K. Y. Liou, R. W. Tkach, G. Eisenstein, Y. K. Jhee, T. L. Koch, P. J. Anthony, U. K. Chakrabarti, “Simple narrow-linewidth 1.5-µm InGaAsP DFB external-cavity laser,” Electron. Lett. 22, 88–89 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1966 (1)

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–300 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–300 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Allan, M. G.

Anthony, P. J.

K. Y. Liou, Y. K. Jhee, G. Einsetin, R. S. Tucker, R. T. Ku, T. M. Shen, U. K. Chkrabarti, P. J. Anthony, “Linewidth characteristics of fiber-extended-cavity distributed-feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1039–1041 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Chraplyvy, K. Y. Liou, R. W. Tkach, G. Eisenstein, Y. K. Jhee, T. L. Koch, P. J. Anthony, U. K. Chakrabarti, “Simple narrow-linewidth 1.5-µm InGaAsP DFB external-cavity laser,” Electron. Lett. 22, 88–89 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Baer, D. S.

Becher, C.

C. Becher, K.-J. Boller, “Low-intensity-noise operation of Nd:YVO4 microchip lasers by pump-noise suppression,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 286–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Becher, K.-J. Boller, “Intensity noise properties of Nd:YVO4 microchip lasers pumped with an amplitude squeezed diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 147, 366–374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Becher, E. Gehrig, K.-J. Boller, “Spectrally asymmetric mode correlation and intensity noise in pump-noise-suppressed laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 3952–3960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bianchini, G.

G. Bianchini, P. Cancio, F. Minardi, F. S. Pavone, F. Perrone, M. Prevedelli, M. Inguscio, “Wide-bandwidth frequency locking of a 1083-nm extended-cavity DBR diode laser to a high-finesse Fabry-Pérot resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 407–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boller, K.-J.

C. Becher, K.-J. Boller, “Low-intensity-noise operation of Nd:YVO4 microchip lasers by pump-noise suppression,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 286–297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Becher, E. Gehrig, K.-J. Boller, “Spectrally asymmetric mode correlation and intensity noise in pump-noise-suppressed laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 3952–3960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Becher, K.-J. Boller, “Intensity noise properties of Nd:YVO4 microchip lasers pumped with an amplitude squeezed diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 147, 366–374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bräuchle, C.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, M. Gehrtz, C. Bräuchle, “Quantum-limited FM spectroscopy with a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 99–108 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cancio, P.

G. Bianchini, P. Cancio, F. Minardi, F. S. Pavone, F. Perrone, M. Prevedelli, M. Inguscio, “Wide-bandwidth frequency locking of a 1083-nm extended-cavity DBR diode laser to a high-finesse Fabry-Pérot resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 407–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Pavone, P. Cancio, C. Corsi, M. Inguscio, R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of a mirror-extended cavity distributed feedback 1.65-µm diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 249–253 (1995).

Chakrabarti, U. K.

A. R. Chraplyvy, K. Y. Liou, R. W. Tkach, G. Eisenstein, Y. K. Jhee, T. L. Koch, P. J. Anthony, U. K. Chakrabarti, “Simple narrow-linewidth 1.5-µm InGaAsP DFB external-cavity laser,” Electron. Lett. 22, 88–89 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chan, V. W. S.

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chkrabarti, U. K.

K. Y. Liou, Y. K. Jhee, G. Einsetin, R. S. Tucker, R. T. Ku, T. M. Shen, U. K. Chkrabarti, P. J. Anthony, “Linewidth characteristics of fiber-extended-cavity distributed-feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1039–1041 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

A. R. Chraplyvy, K. Y. Liou, R. W. Tkach, G. Eisenstein, Y. K. Jhee, T. L. Koch, P. J. Anthony, U. K. Chakrabarti, “Simple narrow-linewidth 1.5-µm InGaAsP DFB external-cavity laser,” Electron. Lett. 22, 88–89 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Corsi, C.

L. Gianfrani, M. Gabrysch, C. Corsi, P. De Natale, “Detection of H2O and CO2 with distributed feedback diode lasers: measurement of broadening coefficients and assessment of the accuracy levels for volcanic monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9481–9486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Corsi, M. Gabrysch, M. Inguscio, “Detection of molecular oxygen at high temperature using a DFB-diode-laser at 761 nm,” Opt. Commun. 128, 35–40 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Pavone, P. Cancio, C. Corsi, M. Inguscio, R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of a mirror-extended cavity distributed feedback 1.65-µm diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 249–253 (1995).

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

Deng, H.

Ebert, V.

S. Schäfer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65-µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Ebert, K. U. Pleban, J. Wolfrum, “In situ oxygen-monitoring using near-infrared diode lasers and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 206.

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Einsetin, G.

K. Y. Liou, Y. K. Jhee, G. Einsetin, R. S. Tucker, R. T. Ku, T. M. Shen, U. K. Chkrabarti, P. J. Anthony, “Linewidth characteristics of fiber-extended-cavity distributed-feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1039–1041 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Eisenstein, G.

A. R. Chraplyvy, K. Y. Liou, R. W. Tkach, G. Eisenstein, Y. K. Jhee, T. L. Koch, P. J. Anthony, U. K. Chakrabarti, “Simple narrow-linewidth 1.5-µm InGaAsP DFB external-cavity laser,” Electron. Lett. 22, 88–89 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gabrysch, M.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gehrig, E.

C. Becher, E. Gehrig, K.-J. Boller, “Spectrally asymmetric mode correlation and intensity noise in pump-noise-suppressed laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 3952–3960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gehrtz, M.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, M. Gehrtz, C. Bräuchle, “Quantum-limited FM spectroscopy with a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 99–108 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gianfrani, L.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R. K.

Hess, P.

S. Schäfer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65-µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Honma, K.

Y. Uenishi, K. Honma, S. Nagaoka, “Tunable laser diode using a nickel micromachined external mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1207–1209 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

G. Bianchini, P. Cancio, F. Minardi, F. S. Pavone, F. Perrone, M. Prevedelli, M. Inguscio, “Wide-bandwidth frequency locking of a 1083-nm extended-cavity DBR diode laser to a high-finesse Fabry-Pérot resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 407–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Corsi, M. Gabrysch, M. Inguscio, “Detection of molecular oxygen at high temperature using a DFB-diode-laser at 761 nm,” Opt. Commun. 128, 35–40 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Pavone, P. Cancio, C. Corsi, M. Inguscio, R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of a mirror-extended cavity distributed feedback 1.65-µm diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 249–253 (1995).

Jhee, Y. K.

A. R. Chraplyvy, K. Y. Liou, R. W. Tkach, G. Eisenstein, Y. K. Jhee, T. L. Koch, P. J. Anthony, U. K. Chakrabarti, “Simple narrow-linewidth 1.5-µm InGaAsP DFB external-cavity laser,” Electron. Lett. 22, 88–89 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Liou, Y. K. Jhee, G. Einsetin, R. S. Tucker, R. T. Ku, T. M. Shen, U. K. Chkrabarti, P. J. Anthony, “Linewidth characteristics of fiber-extended-cavity distributed-feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1039–1041 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kasapi, S.

Koch, T. L.

A. R. Chraplyvy, K. Y. Liou, R. W. Tkach, G. Eisenstein, Y. K. Jhee, T. L. Koch, P. J. Anthony, U. K. Chakrabarti, “Simple narrow-linewidth 1.5-µm InGaAsP DFB external-cavity laser,” Electron. Lett. 22, 88–89 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ku, R. T.

K. Y. Liou, Y. K. Jhee, G. Einsetin, R. S. Tucker, R. T. Ku, T. M. Shen, U. K. Chkrabarti, P. J. Anthony, “Linewidth characteristics of fiber-extended-cavity distributed-feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1039–1041 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lathi, S.

Liou, K. Y.

A. R. Chraplyvy, K. Y. Liou, R. W. Tkach, G. Eisenstein, Y. K. Jhee, T. L. Koch, P. J. Anthony, U. K. Chakrabarti, “Simple narrow-linewidth 1.5-µm InGaAsP DFB external-cavity laser,” Electron. Lett. 22, 88–89 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Liou, Y. K. Jhee, G. Einsetin, R. S. Tucker, R. T. Ku, T. M. Shen, U. K. Chkrabarti, P. J. Anthony, “Linewidth characteristics of fiber-extended-cavity distributed-feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1039–1041 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, R. U.

R. U. Martinelli, “Mid-infrared wavelengths enhance trace-gas sensing,” Laser Focus World 32(3), 77–81 (1996).

F. S. Pavone, P. Cancio, C. Corsi, M. Inguscio, R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of a mirror-extended cavity distributed feedback 1.65-µm diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 249–253 (1995).

Mashni, M.

S. Schäfer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65-µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Menna, R. J.

F. S. Pavone, P. Cancio, C. Corsi, M. Inguscio, R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of a mirror-extended cavity distributed feedback 1.65-µm diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 249–253 (1995).

Mihalcea, R. M.

Miklós, A.

S. Schäfer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65-µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Minardi, F.

G. Bianchini, P. Cancio, F. Minardi, F. S. Pavone, F. Perrone, M. Prevedelli, M. Inguscio, “Wide-bandwidth frequency locking of a 1083-nm extended-cavity DBR diode laser to a high-finesse Fabry-Pérot resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 407–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mücke, R.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nagaoka, S.

Y. Uenishi, K. Honma, S. Nagaoka, “Tunable laser diode using a nickel micromachined external mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1207–1209 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pavone, F. S.

G. Bianchini, P. Cancio, F. Minardi, F. S. Pavone, F. Perrone, M. Prevedelli, M. Inguscio, “Wide-bandwidth frequency locking of a 1083-nm extended-cavity DBR diode laser to a high-finesse Fabry-Pérot resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 407–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Pavone, P. Cancio, C. Corsi, M. Inguscio, R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of a mirror-extended cavity distributed feedback 1.65-µm diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 249–253 (1995).

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perrone, F.

G. Bianchini, P. Cancio, F. Minardi, F. S. Pavone, F. Perrone, M. Prevedelli, M. Inguscio, “Wide-bandwidth frequency locking of a 1083-nm extended-cavity DBR diode laser to a high-finesse Fabry-Pérot resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 407–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991).

Pitz, H.

S. Schäfer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65-µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pleban, K. U.

V. Ebert, K. U. Pleban, J. Wolfrum, “In situ oxygen-monitoring using near-infrared diode lasers and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 206.

Pleban, K.-U.

S. Schäfer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65-µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prevedelli, M.

G. Bianchini, P. Cancio, F. Minardi, F. S. Pavone, F. Perrone, M. Prevedelli, M. Inguscio, “Wide-bandwidth frequency locking of a 1083-nm extended-cavity DBR diode laser to a high-finesse Fabry-Pérot resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 407–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, S.

S. Schäfer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65-µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, T. M.

K. Y. Liou, Y. K. Jhee, G. Einsetin, R. S. Tucker, R. T. Ku, T. M. Shen, U. K. Chkrabarti, P. J. Anthony, “Linewidth characteristics of fiber-extended-cavity distributed-feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1039–1041 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shevy, Y.

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, F. Slemr, M. Gehrtz, C. Bräuchle, “Quantum-limited FM spectroscopy with a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 99–108 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sneider, J.

S. Schäfer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65-µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

Tkach, R. W.

A. R. Chraplyvy, K. Y. Liou, R. W. Tkach, G. Eisenstein, Y. K. Jhee, T. L. Koch, P. J. Anthony, U. K. Chakrabarti, “Simple narrow-linewidth 1.5-µm InGaAsP DFB external-cavity laser,” Electron. Lett. 22, 88–89 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

K. Y. Liou, Y. K. Jhee, G. Einsetin, R. S. Tucker, R. T. Ku, T. M. Shen, U. K. Chkrabarti, P. J. Anthony, “Linewidth characteristics of fiber-extended-cavity distributed-feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1039–1041 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Uenishi, Y.

Y. Uenishi, K. Honma, S. Nagaoka, “Tunable laser diode using a nickel micromachined external mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1207–1209 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochimica Acta A 54, 197–236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, “Laser excess noise and interferometric effects in frequency-modulated diode-laser spectrometers,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 499–506 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, F. Slemr, M. Gehrtz, C. Bräuchle, “Quantum-limited FM spectroscopy with a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 99–108 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wolfrum, J.

V. Ebert, K. U. Pleban, J. Wolfrum, “In situ oxygen-monitoring using near-infrared diode lasers and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 206.

Yamamoto, Y.

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, H. P.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (6)

S. Schäfer, M. Mashni, J. Sneider, A. Miklós, P. Hess, H. Pitz, K.-U. Pleban, V. Ebert, “Sensitive detection of methane with a 1.65-µm diode laser by photoacoustic and absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 511–516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Bianchini, P. Cancio, F. Minardi, F. S. Pavone, F. Perrone, M. Prevedelli, M. Inguscio, “Wide-bandwidth frequency locking of a 1083-nm extended-cavity DBR diode laser to a high-finesse Fabry-Pérot resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 407–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Pavone, P. Cancio, C. Corsi, M. Inguscio, R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of a mirror-extended cavity distributed feedback 1.65-µm diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 249–253 (1995).

P. Werle, F. Slemr, M. Gehrtz, C. Bräuchle, “Quantum-limited FM spectroscopy with a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 99–108 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, “Laser excess noise and interferometric effects in frequency-modulated diode-laser spectrometers,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 499–506 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Y. Liou, Y. K. Jhee, G. Einsetin, R. S. Tucker, R. T. Ku, T. M. Shen, U. K. Chkrabarti, P. J. Anthony, “Linewidth characteristics of fiber-extended-cavity distributed-feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1039–1041 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. R. Chraplyvy, K. Y. Liou, R. W. Tkach, G. Eisenstein, Y. K. Jhee, T. L. Koch, P. J. Anthony, U. K. Chakrabarti, “Simple narrow-linewidth 1.5-µm InGaAsP DFB external-cavity laser,” Electron. Lett. 22, 88–89 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Uenishi, K. Honma, S. Nagaoka, “Tunable laser diode using a nickel micromachined external mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1207–1209 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus World (1)

R. U. Martinelli, “Mid-infrared wavelengths enhance trace-gas sensing,” Laser Focus World 32(3), 77–81 (1996).

Opt. Commun. (2)

C. Corsi, M. Gabrysch, M. Inguscio, “Detection of molecular oxygen at high temperature using a DFB-diode-laser at 761 nm,” Opt. Commun. 128, 35–40 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Becher, K.-J. Boller, “Intensity noise properties of Nd:YVO4 microchip lasers pumped with an amplitude squeezed diode laser,” Opt. Commun. 147, 366–374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. Becher, E. Gehrig, K.-J. Boller, “Spectrally asymmetric mode correlation and intensity noise in pump-noise-suppressed laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 3952–3960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–300 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochimica Acta A (1)

P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochimica Acta A 54, 197–236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991).

V. Ebert, K. U. Pleban, J. Wolfrum, “In situ oxygen-monitoring using near-infrared diode lasers and wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” in Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis, Vol. 3 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 206.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. The dashed box contains the XC DFB laser consisting of a DFB laser diode, a collimating lens, and a feedback mirror mounted on a piezotube. The laser radiation passes an optical isolator and is sent to two Fabry–Perot interferometers (FPI 1 and FPI 2) and to an absorption cell containing CH4 gas.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output power of the 1653-nm DFB laser depending on the diode current (a) with an external feedback mirror and (b) without such a mirror. The laser is operated at a temperature of 20 °C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission through the monitor, FPI 1 (FSR = 1 GHz), measured on piezotuning the 1653-nm short XC DFB laser for different XC lengths D: (a) 12.5 mm, (b) 7.5 mm, (c) 6 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured ranges of continuous frequency tuning for the various XC DFB lasers as a function of the optical length of the external cavity. The dashed curves connect the data points for each laser type, whereas the solid curve is the FSR of the optical cavity of the XC DFB lasers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Frequency tuning of the 1653-nm DFB laser (a) by changing the diode current or (b) by changing the length of the external cavity. The total ranges of continuous tunability are determined to be 22.5 and 13 GHz, respectively, by monitoring the laser power transmitted through the low-finesse interferometer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intensity noise of the 1580-nm DFB-laser as a function of noise frequency: trace (a), noise of the DFB laser without an external cavity; trace (b), noise for the laser with optical feedback from an XC mirror. The various sharp peaks in the traces are not reproducible, and therefore probably are due to rf pickup from the electronics. The line represents the SNL.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical spectrum of the free-running 1580-nm DFB laser, which indicates oscillation on a main mode and many weak side modes. The inset shows that with higher spectral resolution the spectrum, trace (a), of the free-running laser and, trace (b), of the laser with an XC mirror.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The rf beat note spectrum of two short XC DFB lasers on the logarithmic scale. The Lorentzian fit (solid curve) corresponds to a laser bandwidth of 90 ± 15 kHz.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Allan variance of the frequency of a DFB laser measured with respect to a 1653-nm CH4 resonance: curve (a), variance for the laser with XC feedback; curve (b), variance for the free-running laser; curve (c), electronic background noise.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Absorption line of CH4 recorded with a single scan of the XC DFB laser at 1653.7 nm and (b) simultaneously recorded transmission through monitor FPI 1 with a FSR of 1 GHz. For further details, see the text.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Signal of the absorption curve of Fig. 10, recorded with the 2f-lock-in technique. For further details, see the text.

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