Abstract

We implemented the spectral optimization algorithm [SOA; Appl. Opt. 37, 5560 (1998)] in an image-processing environment and tested it with Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) imagery from the Middle Atlantic Bight and the Sargasso Sea. We compared the SOA and the standard SeaWiFS algorithm on two days that had significantly different atmospheric turbidities but, because of the location and time of the year, nearly the same water properties. The SOA-derived pigment concentration showed excellent continuity over the two days, with the relative difference in pigments exceeding 10% only in regions that are characteristic of high advection. The continuity in the derived water-leaving radiances at 443 and 555 nm was also within ∼10%. There was no obvious correlation between the relative differences in pigments and the aerosol concentration. In contrast, standard processing showed poor continuity in derived pigments over the two days, with the relative differences correlating strongly with atmospheric turbidity. SOA-derived atmospheric parameters suggested that the retrieved ocean and atmospheric reflectances were decoupled on the more turbid day. On the clearer day, for which the aerosol concentration was so low that relatively large changes in aerosol properties resulted in only small changes in aerosol reflectance, water patterns were evident in the aerosol properties. This result implies that SOA-derived atmospheric parameters cannot be accurate in extremely clear atmospheres.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).
  5. V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. R. Gordon, “Removal of atmospheric effects from satellite imagery of the oceans,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1631–1636 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth observing system era,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 17,081–17,106 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. R. Gordon, T. Du, T. Zhang, “Remote sensing of ocean color and aerosol properties: resolving the issue of aerosol absorption,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8670–8684 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Moulin, H. R. Gordon, R. M. Chomko, V. F. Banzon, R. H. Evans, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery through thick layers of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 5–8 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Chomko, H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: use of the Junge power-law aerosol size distribution with variable refractive index to handle aerosol absorption,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5560–5572 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Moulin, H. R. Gordon, V. F. Banzon, R. H. Evans, “Assessment of Saharan dust absorption in the visible from SeaWiFS imagery,” J. Geophys. Res. D106 (2001) (to be published).
  15. J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on Their Optical Properties,” , (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).
  18. C. Junge, “Atmospheric chemistry,” Adv. Geophys. 4, 1–108 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments,” Bound. Layer Meteorol. 18, 299–313 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of the water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on the atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, “The calibration and validation of SeaWiFS data,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45, 427–465 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. J. Frouin, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (personal communication, 1999).
  24. J. T. Kiehl, B. P. Briegleb, “The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing,” Science 260, 311–314 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. C 102, 18,607–18,625 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Moulin, H. R. Gordon, R. M. Chomko, V. F. Banzon, R. H. Evans, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery through thick layers of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 5–8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, “The calibration and validation of SeaWiFS data,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45, 427–465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Chomko, H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: use of the Junge power-law aerosol size distribution with variable refractive index to handle aerosol absorption,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5560–5572 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, T. Zhang, “Remote sensing of ocean color and aerosol properties: resolving the issue of aerosol absorption,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8670–8684 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of the water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on the atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. C 102, 18,607–18,625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth observing system era,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 17,081–17,106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

J. T. Kiehl, B. P. Briegleb, “The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing,” Science 260, 311–314 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

1980 (3)

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments,” Bound. Layer Meteorol. 18, 299–313 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1974 (1)

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

C. Junge, “Atmospheric chemistry,” Adv. Geophys. 4, 1–108 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, F.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Austin, R. W.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, E. T.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ball, D.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banzon, V. F.

C. Moulin, H. R. Gordon, R. M. Chomko, V. F. Banzon, R. H. Evans, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery through thick layers of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 5–8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Moulin, H. R. Gordon, V. F. Banzon, R. H. Evans, “Assessment of Saharan dust absorption in the visible from SeaWiFS imagery,” J. Geophys. Res. D106 (2001) (to be published).

Barnes, W. L.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Briegleb, B. P.

J. T. Kiehl, B. P. Briegleb, “The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing,” Science 260, 311–314 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broenkow, W. W.

Brown, J. W.

Brown, O. B.

Carder, K. L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chomko, R.

Chomko, R. M.

C. Moulin, H. R. Gordon, R. M. Chomko, V. F. Banzon, R. H. Evans, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery through thick layers of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 5–8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments,” Bound. Layer Meteorol. 18, 299–313 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, T.

Esaias, W. E.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Evans, R. H.

C. Moulin, H. R. Gordon, R. M. Chomko, V. F. Banzon, R. H. Evans, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery through thick layers of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 5–8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Moulin, H. R. Gordon, V. F. Banzon, R. H. Evans, “Assessment of Saharan dust absorption in the visible from SeaWiFS imagery,” J. Geophys. Res. D106 (2001) (to be published).

Feldman, G. C.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on Their Optical Properties,” , (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Frouin, R. J.

R. J. Frouin, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (personal communication, 1999).

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. C 102, 18,607–18,625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

C. Moulin, H. R. Gordon, R. M. Chomko, V. F. Banzon, R. H. Evans, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery through thick layers of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 5–8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Chomko, H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: use of the Junge power-law aerosol size distribution with variable refractive index to handle aerosol absorption,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5560–5572 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth observing system era,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 17,081–17,106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, T. Zhang, “Remote sensing of ocean color and aerosol properties: resolving the issue of aerosol absorption,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8670–8684 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of the water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on the atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments,” Bound. Layer Meteorol. 18, 299–313 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Removal of atmospheric effects from satellite imagery of the oceans,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1631–1636 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Moulin, H. R. Gordon, V. F. Banzon, R. H. Evans, “Assessment of Saharan dust absorption in the visible from SeaWiFS imagery,” J. Geophys. Res. D106 (2001) (to be published).

Gregg, W. W.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, “The calibration and validation of SeaWiFS data,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45, 427–465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Hovis, W. A.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Junge, C.

C. Junge, “Atmospheric chemistry,” Adv. Geophys. 4, 1–108 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kiehl, J. T.

J. T. Kiehl, B. P. Briegleb, “The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing,” Science 260, 311–314 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maritorena, S.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maymon, P. W.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, “The calibration and validation of SeaWiFS data,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45, 427–465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, H. E.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A. Y.

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, C.

C. Moulin, H. R. Gordon, R. M. Chomko, V. F. Banzon, R. H. Evans, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery through thick layers of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 5–8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Moulin, H. R. Gordon, V. F. Banzon, R. H. Evans, “Assessment of Saharan dust absorption in the visible from SeaWiFS imagery,” J. Geophys. Res. D106 (2001) (to be published).

Mueller, J. L.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ostrow, H.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Salomonson, V. V.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sayed, S. Y. E.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on Their Optical Properties,” , (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Siegel, D. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. C 102, 18,607–18,625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Strum, B.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Travis, L. D.

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Wilson, W. H.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wrigley, R. C.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

Yentsch, C. S.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, T.

Adv. Geophys. (1)

C. Junge, “Atmospheric chemistry,” Adv. Geophys. 4, 1–108 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

H. R. Gordon, “Removal of atmospheric effects from satellite imagery of the oceans,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1631–1636 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and Coastal Zone Color Scanner estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20–36 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of the water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on the atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Chomko, H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: use of the Junge power-law aerosol size distribution with variable refractive index to handle aerosol absorption,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5560–5572 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, T. Zhang, “Remote sensing of ocean color and aerosol properties: resolving the issue of aerosol absorption,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8670–8684 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bound. Layer Meteorol. (1)

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments,” Bound. Layer Meteorol. 18, 299–313 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

C. Moulin, H. R. Gordon, R. M. Chomko, V. F. Banzon, R. H. Evans, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery through thick layers of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 5–8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. (1)

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. C (2)

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. C 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation. 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. C 102, 18,607–18,625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. D (2)

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth observing system era,” J. Geophys. Res. D 102, 17,081–17,106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semi-analytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. D 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Oceanogr. (1)

S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, “The calibration and validation of SeaWiFS data,” Prog. Oceanogr. 45, 427–465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

J. T. Kiehl, B. P. Briegleb, “The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing,” Science 260, 311–314 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

C. Moulin, H. R. Gordon, V. F. Banzon, R. H. Evans, “Assessment of Saharan dust absorption in the visible from SeaWiFS imagery,” J. Geophys. Res. D106 (2001) (to be published).

R. J. Frouin, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (personal communication, 1999).

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on Their Optical Properties,” , (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

True color rendition of the SeaWiFS imagery from 6 and 8 October 1997.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Aerosol reflectance at 865 nm [ρ A (865)] along with three lines from which processed data will be extracted. Note the significant difference in ρ A (865) on the two days.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pigment concentration retrieved for days 279 and 281 with the SOA and the STD algorithm. The image has been remapped to a Mercator grid. The color scale is logarithmic and runs from 0.05 to 1.5 mg/m3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the predicted relationship between the reflectance model of Gordon et al.11 and the OC2 algorithm of O’Reilly et al.20 (curves), along with the actual C SOA and C STD retrieved along the three lines in Figs. 2 and 3 (points).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative difference (%) of the pigment concentrations computed for the two days; e.g., Eq. (10).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Same as Fig. 5 but for the nLw (nm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SOA-retrieved b 0 (actually f). The color scale is linear and runs from f = 0.4 to f = 1.5.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SOA-retrieved ν and ω0 at 865 nm. Both color scales are linear and run from ν = 2.0 to 4.5 and ω0 = 0.5 to 1.0.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

SOA-retrieved τ a (865) and the SOA cost function S LSQ. Both color scales are linear and run from τ a = 0 to 0.4 and S LSQ = 0 to 50%.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparative Methodology of the SOA and the STD Algorithm

Equations (15)

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ρtλ=ρrλ+ρaλ+ρraλ+tλρwλ,
ρtλ-ρrλ=ρAλ+tλρwλ,
ελs, λlρAλsρAλl.
ελs, λlρasλsρasλl.
dNidD=Niloge102πσiDexp-12log10D/Diσi2,
dNdD=i=1MdNidD.
dNdD=K,  D0<DD1=KD1/Dν+1,  D1<DD2=0,  D>D2,
ρAλ=aλρasλ+bλρasλ2+cλρasλ3+dλρasλ4,
ρasMλ=εMλ, λlρasMλl,
C=1.34 Chl0.983,
ρAλ+tλρwλ=ρAλ; mr, mi, ν, τa+tλ; mr, mi, ν, τaρwλ; C, b0,
¯λs, λl, ν=1Nmr+Nmi+Nτar,i,k=1Nmr,Nmi,Nτa×ελs, λl; mrr, mii, τak, ν,
SLSQ2ν, mr, mi, τa, C, b0=1N-1j=1N1-ρAλj; mr, mi, ν, τa+tλj; mr, mi, ν, τaρwλj; C, b0ρtλj-ρrλj2,
ρAλ; mr, mi, ν, τa=aλ; mr, mi, ντaλ+bλ; mr, mi, ντaλ2+cλ; mr, mi, ντaλ3+dλ; mr, mi, ντaλ4
RD=100%|C279-C281|C281.

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