Abstract

We propose a novel approach to realizing massively parallel optical interconnects based on commercially available multifiber ribbons with MT-type connectors and custom-designed planar-integrated free-space components. It combines the advantages of fiber optics, that is, a long range and convenient and flexible installation, with those of (planar-integrated) free-space optics, that is, a wide range of implementable functions and a high potential for integration and parallelization. For the interface between fibers and free-space optical systems a low-cost practical solution is presented. It consists of using a metal connector plate that was manufactured on a computer-controlled milling machine. Channel densities are of the order of 100/mm2 between optoelectronic VLSI chips and the free-space optical systems and 1/mm2 between the free-space optical systems and MT-type fiber connectors. Experiments in combination with specially designed planar-integrated test systems prove that multiple one-to-one and one-to-many interconnects can be established with not more than 10% uniformity error.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  6. M. Jöhnck, B. Wittmann, A. Neyer, “64-channel two-dimensional POF-based optical array interchip interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 1998, P. Chavel, D. A. B. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 285–288 (1998).
  7. E. Griese, “Optical interconnections on printed circuit boards,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 60–71 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Suyal, F. Tooley, A. Fritze, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, A. McCarthy, A. Walker, F. Bresson, “Multimode planar lightwave circuits using direct write of polymers,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 54–59 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2000

1999

P. Lukowicz, S. Sinzinger, K. Dunkel, H.-D. Bauer, “Design of an opto-electronic VLSI/parallel fibre bus,” J. Opt. A 1, 367–370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

P. F. van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, M. R. Douglas, “ A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Dunkel, H.-D. Bauer, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, L. Weber, G. Hörchert, G. Müller, “Injection-moulded fibre ribbon connectors for parallel optical links fabricated by the LIGA technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 301–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

1994

J. Jahns, “Planar packaging of free-space optical interconnections,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1623–1631 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “Evolution of the SEED technology: bistable logic gates to optoelectronic smart pixels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655–669 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

1989

J. Jahns, A. Huang, “Planar integration of free-space optical components,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1602–1605 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1982

1972

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase form image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237–246 (1972).

Arrizon, V.

Baets, R.

R. Baets, B. Dhoedt, P. Heremans, S. Paineau, S. Mennerat, “Technologies for optical interconnects between CMOS IC’s,” in Optics in Computing 1998, P. Chavel, D. A. B. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 546–549 (1998).

Bähr, J.

Bartelt, H.

D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, S. Sinzinger, “Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures,” Proc. IEEE 88, 838–848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, H.-D.

P. Lukowicz, S. Sinzinger, K. Dunkel, H.-D. Bauer, “Design of an opto-electronic VLSI/parallel fibre bus,” J. Opt. A 1, 367–370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Dunkel, H.-D. Bauer, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, L. Weber, G. Hörchert, G. Müller, “Injection-moulded fibre ribbon connectors for parallel optical links fabricated by the LIGA technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 301–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, K.-H.

Bresson, F.

N. Suyal, F. Tooley, A. Fritze, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, A. McCarthy, A. Walker, F. Bresson, “Multimode planar lightwave circuits using direct write of polymers,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 54–59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bryngdahl, O.

Collet, J. H.

Desmulliez, M.

Dhoedt, B.

R. Baets, B. Dhoedt, P. Heremans, S. Paineau, S. Mennerat, “Technologies for optical interconnects between CMOS IC’s,” in Optics in Computing 1998, P. Chavel, D. A. B. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 546–549 (1998).

Dines, J.

N. Suyal, F. Tooley, A. Fritze, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, A. McCarthy, A. Walker, F. Bresson, “Multimode planar lightwave circuits using direct write of polymers,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 54–59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Douglas, M. R.

P. F. van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, M. R. Douglas, “ A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dunkel, K.

P. Lukowicz, S. Sinzinger, K. Dunkel, H.-D. Bauer, “Design of an opto-electronic VLSI/parallel fibre bus,” J. Opt. A 1, 367–370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Dunkel, H.-D. Bauer, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, L. Weber, G. Hörchert, G. Müller, “Injection-moulded fibre ribbon connectors for parallel optical links fabricated by the LIGA technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 301–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eckert, W.

W. Eckert, V. Arrizon, S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, “Compact planar-integrated optical correlator for spatially incoherent signals,” Appl. Opt. 39, 759–765 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Gruber, W. Eckert, D. Hagedorn, “Ausrichtung fotolithografischer Masken relativ zu Wafern,” German patent pending (15April2000).

Ehrfeld, W.

K. Dunkel, H.-D. Bauer, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, L. Weber, G. Hörchert, G. Müller, “Injection-moulded fibre ribbon connectors for parallel optical links fabricated by the LIGA technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 301–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erhard, W.

D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, S. Sinzinger, “Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures,” Proc. IEEE 88, 838–848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fey, D.

D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, S. Sinzinger, “Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures,” Proc. IEEE 88, 838–848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fritze, A.

N. Suyal, F. Tooley, A. Fritze, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, A. McCarthy, A. Walker, F. Bresson, “Multimode planar lightwave circuits using direct write of polymers,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 54–59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gale, M.

M. Gale, “Direct writing of continuous-relief micro-optics,” Micro-Optics, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London1997), pp. 87–126.

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase form image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237–246 (1972).

Goodman, J.

Gourlay, J.

N. Suyal, F. Tooley, A. Fritze, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, A. McCarthy, A. Walker, F. Bresson, “Multimode planar lightwave circuits using direct write of polymers,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 54–59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Griese, E.

E. Griese, “Optical interconnections on printed circuit boards,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 60–71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, G.

D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, S. Sinzinger, “Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures,” Proc. IEEE 88, 838–848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, M.

D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, S. Sinzinger, “Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures,” Proc. IEEE 88, 838–848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Gruber, S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, “Planar-integrated optical vector-matrix multiplier,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5367–5373 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Gruber, W. Eckert, D. Hagedorn, “Ausrichtung fotolithografischer Masken relativ zu Wafern,” German patent pending (15April2000).

Hagedorn, D.

M. Gruber, W. Eckert, D. Hagedorn, “Ausrichtung fotolithografischer Masken relativ zu Wafern,” German patent pending (15April2000).

Heremans, P.

R. Baets, B. Dhoedt, P. Heremans, S. Paineau, S. Mennerat, “Technologies for optical interconnects between CMOS IC’s,” in Optics in Computing 1998, P. Chavel, D. A. B. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 546–549 (1998).

Hoppe, L.

D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, S. Sinzinger, “Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures,” Proc. IEEE 88, 838–848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hörchert, G.

K. Dunkel, H.-D. Bauer, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, L. Weber, G. Hörchert, G. Müller, “Injection-moulded fibre ribbon connectors for parallel optical links fabricated by the LIGA technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 301–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hornbeck, L. J.

P. F. van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, M. R. Douglas, “ A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hossfeld, J.

K. Dunkel, H.-D. Bauer, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, L. Weber, G. Hörchert, G. Müller, “Injection-moulded fibre ribbon connectors for parallel optical links fabricated by the LIGA technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 301–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, A.

Iga, K.

Jahns, J.

Jesshope, C.

Jöhnck, M.

M. Jöhnck, B. Wittmann, A. Neyer, “64-channel two-dimensional POF-based optical array interchip interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 1998, P. Chavel, D. A. B. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 285–288 (1998).

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “Evolution of the SEED technology: bistable logic gates to optoelectronic smart pixels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655–669 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Litaize, D.

Louri, A.

Lukowicz, P.

P. Lukowicz, S. Sinzinger, K. Dunkel, H.-D. Bauer, “Design of an opto-electronic VLSI/parallel fibre bus,” J. Opt. A 1, 367–370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, A.

N. Suyal, F. Tooley, A. Fritze, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, A. McCarthy, A. Walker, F. Bresson, “Multimode planar lightwave circuits using direct write of polymers,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 54–59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meier, R. E.

P. F. van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, M. R. Douglas, “ A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mennerat, S.

R. Baets, B. Dhoedt, P. Heremans, S. Paineau, S. Mennerat, “Technologies for optical interconnects between CMOS IC’s,” in Optics in Computing 1998, P. Chavel, D. A. B. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 546–549 (1998).

Miller, D. A. B.

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “Evolution of the SEED technology: bistable logic gates to optoelectronic smart pixels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655–669 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Müller, G.

K. Dunkel, H.-D. Bauer, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, L. Weber, G. Hörchert, G. Müller, “Injection-moulded fibre ribbon connectors for parallel optical links fabricated by the LIGA technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 301–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neyer, A.

M. Jöhnck, B. Wittmann, A. Neyer, “64-channel two-dimensional POF-based optical array interchip interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 1998, P. Chavel, D. A. B. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 285–288 (1998).

Oikawa, M.

Paineau, S.

R. Baets, B. Dhoedt, P. Heremans, S. Paineau, S. Mennerat, “Technologies for optical interconnects between CMOS IC’s,” in Optics in Computing 1998, P. Chavel, D. A. B. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 546–549 (1998).

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase form image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237–246 (1972).

Sinzinger, S.

W. Eckert, V. Arrizon, S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, “Compact planar-integrated optical correlator for spatially incoherent signals,” Appl. Opt. 39, 759–765 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Gruber, S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, “Planar-integrated optical vector-matrix multiplier,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5367–5373 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, S. Sinzinger, “Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures,” Proc. IEEE 88, 838–848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Lukowicz, S. Sinzinger, K. Dunkel, H.-D. Bauer, “Design of an opto-electronic VLSI/parallel fibre bus,” J. Opt. A 1, 367–370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, “Integrated micro-optical imaging system with a high interconnection capacity fabricated in planar optics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4729–4735 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, Microoptics (Wiley VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1999).

Stern, M. B.

M. B. Stern, “Binary optics fabrication,” in Micro-Optics, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London1997), pp. 53–85.

Streibl, N.

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Suyal, N.

N. Suyal, F. Tooley, A. Fritze, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, A. McCarthy, A. Walker, F. Bresson, “Multimode planar lightwave circuits using direct write of polymers,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 54–59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

Tooley, F.

N. Suyal, F. Tooley, A. Fritze, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, A. McCarthy, A. Walker, F. Bresson, “Multimode planar lightwave circuits using direct write of polymers,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 54–59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Tooley, “Optical interconnects do not require improved optoelectronic devices,” in Optics in Computing 1998, P. Chavel, D. A. B. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 14–17 (1998).

Van Campenhout, J.

van Kessel, P. F.

P. F. van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, M. R. Douglas, “ A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walker, A.

N. Suyal, F. Tooley, A. Fritze, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, A. McCarthy, A. Walker, F. Bresson, “Multimode planar lightwave circuits using direct write of polymers,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 54–59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S.

Weber, L.

K. Dunkel, H.-D. Bauer, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, L. Weber, G. Hörchert, G. Müller, “Injection-moulded fibre ribbon connectors for parallel optical links fabricated by the LIGA technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 301–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, B.

M. Jöhnck, B. Wittmann, A. Neyer, “64-channel two-dimensional POF-based optical array interchip interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 1998, P. Chavel, D. A. B. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 285–288 (1998).

Wyrowski, F.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “Evolution of the SEED technology: bistable logic gates to optoelectronic smart pixels,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 655–669 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng.

K. Dunkel, H.-D. Bauer, W. Ehrfeld, J. Hossfeld, L. Weber, G. Hörchert, G. Müller, “Injection-moulded fibre ribbon connectors for parallel optical links fabricated by the LIGA technique,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 301–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

P. Lukowicz, S. Sinzinger, K. Dunkel, H.-D. Bauer, “Design of an opto-electronic VLSI/parallel fibre bus,” J. Opt. A 1, 367–370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Optik (Stuttgart)

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase form image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237–246 (1972).

Proc. IEEE

J. Jahns, “Planar packaging of free-space optical interconnections,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1623–1631 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Fey, W. Erhard, M. Gruber, J. Jahns, H. Bartelt, G. Grimm, L. Hoppe, S. Sinzinger, “Optical interconnects for neural and reconfigurable VLSI architectures,” Proc. IEEE 88, 838–848 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. F. van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, M. R. Douglas, “ A MEMS-based projection display,” Proc. IEEE 86, 1687–1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. B. Stern, “Binary optics fabrication,” in Micro-Optics, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London1997), pp. 53–85.

M. Gale, “Direct writing of continuous-relief micro-optics,” Micro-Optics, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London1997), pp. 87–126.

See the URL http://www.ntt.co.jp .

See the URL http://www.iec.ch .

F. Tooley, “Optical interconnects do not require improved optoelectronic devices,” in Optics in Computing 1998, P. Chavel, D. A. B. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 14–17 (1998).

See the URL http://www.infineon.com .

European Commission, Technology Roadmap, Optoelectronic Interconnects for Integrated Circuits, 2nd ed., Sept.1999, http://www.cordis.lu/esprit/src/melop-rm.htm .

R. Baets, B. Dhoedt, P. Heremans, S. Paineau, S. Mennerat, “Technologies for optical interconnects between CMOS IC’s,” in Optics in Computing 1998, P. Chavel, D. A. B. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 546–549 (1998).

M. Jöhnck, B. Wittmann, A. Neyer, “64-channel two-dimensional POF-based optical array interchip interconnect,” in Optics in Computing 1998, P. Chavel, D. A. B. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 285–288 (1998).

E. Griese, “Optical interconnections on printed circuit boards,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 60–71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Suyal, F. Tooley, A. Fritze, J. Gourlay, J. Dines, A. McCarthy, A. Walker, F. Bresson, “Multimode planar lightwave circuits using direct write of polymers,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 54–59 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Sinzinger, J. Jahns, Microoptics (Wiley VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1999).

M. Gruber, W. Eckert, D. Hagedorn, “Ausrichtung fotolithografischer Masken relativ zu Wafern,” German patent pending (15April2000).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical communication network with massively parallel fiber–free-space optical interconnects.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MT connector with a 0.7-mm steel rod inserted into one of the guiding holes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Aperture and 0.7-mm docking rods milled from a 3-mm-thick metal plate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fiber–free-space optical interface with eight MT connectors attached.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Autocollimation-type setup for aligning the planar-optical substrate and the metal plate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic cross section of planar-integrated optical test system I.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic cross section of planar-integrated optical test system II.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup with test systems I (left) and II (right). See Figs. 6 and 7 for schematic cross sections.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

CCD image of window B with signal spots.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Evaluation of Fig. 9: Signal intensity integrated over square windows of 40-µm length centered at the target positions.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Closeups of window B showing signal spots obtained with single-mode (top) and multimode (bottom) fiber ribbons.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

CCD image showing the docking position for connector C4a in test system II and the 10 replicated signals.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Intensity of the signals before they are coupled into the fibers of connector C4a (top) and after being coupled out of connector C4b (bottom).

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