Abstract

Holographic experiments are performed on a series of dual-use chromophore molecules wherein both irreversible photochromic and erasable photorefractive holographic gratings can be written in the same storage volume. At 675 nm, the chromophore undergoes a photochemical reaction leading to the creation of irreversible holographic gratings. Alternatively, at longer wavelengths, application of an electric field during grating formation allows the storage of erasable photorefractive holograms in the same location as previously stored permanent photochemical holograms. Photochemical gratings (η > 60%) can be written in less than 1 min, whereas photorefractive gratings (η > 50%) can be written in less than 1 s. The photochemical gratings have a diffusion-limited dark half-life of as long as two weeks depending on the glass transition temperature of the composite.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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2000 (1)

D. Van Steenwinckel, E. Hendrickx, A. Persoons, K. Van den Broeck, C. Samyn, “Influence of the chromophore ionization potential on speed and magnitude of photorefractive effects in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) based polymer composites,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 11030–11037 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

S. J. Strutz, L. M. Hayden, “Quasipermanent photochemical gratings in a dual use photorefractive polymer composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2749–2751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Diaz-Garcia, D. Wright, J. D. Casperson, B. Smith, E. Glazer, W. E. Moerner, L. I. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive properties of poly(N-vinyl carbazole)-based composites for high-speed applications,” Chem. Mater. 11, 1784–1791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Klein, G. D. Bacher, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, D. Wright, W. E. Moerner, “Homodyne detection of ultrasonic surface displacements using two-wave mixing in photorefractive polymers,” Opt. Commun. 162, 79–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Wortmann, C. Glania, P. Krämer, K. Lukaszuk, R. Matschiner, R. J. Twieg, F. You, “Highly transparent and birefringent chromophores for organic photorefractive materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 107–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science 279, 54–57 (1998).

1997 (8)

F. Würthner, R. Wortmann, R. Matschiner, K. Lukaszuk, K. Meerholz, Y. DeNardin, R. Bittner, C. Bräuchle, R. Sens, “Merocyanine dyes in the cyanine limit: a new class of chromophores for photorefractive materials,” Agnew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 36, 2765–2768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, W. E. Moerner, “Spontaneous oscillation and self-pumped phase conjugation in a photorefractive polymer optical amplifier,” Science 277, 549–552 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Marder, B. Kippelen, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Design and synthesis of chromophores and polymers for electro-optic and photorefractive applications,” Nature (London) 388, 845–851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hayden, S. C. Brower, S. J. Strutz, “Pressure dependence of the depoling temperature in nonlinear optical polymers,” Macromolecules 30, 2734–2737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Hall, A. Dhinojwala, J. M. Torkelson, “Translation-rotation paradox for diffusion in glass-forming polymers: the role of the temperature dependence of the relaxation time distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 103–106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Akella, S. L. Sochava, L. Hesselink, “Synthesis and characterization of photochromic organic films for holographic recording,” Opt. Lett. 22, 919–921 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, D. S. Leung, H. Warren, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, “Synthesis and nonlinearity of triene chromophores containing the cyclohexene ring structure,” Chem. Mater. 9, 1437–1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Cicerone, P. A. Wagner, M. D. Ediger, “Translational diffusion on heterogeneous lattices: a model for dynamics in glass forming materials,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 8727–8734 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

P. M. Lundquist, C. Poga, R. G. DeVoe, Y. Jia, W. E. Moerner, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic digital data storage in a photorefractive polymer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 890–892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “A novel sensitized photochromic organic glass for holographic optical storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

D. Kokron, S. M. Evanko, L. M. Hayden, “Launching of guided waves in a photorefractive polymer by two-beam coupling,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2297–2299 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Horiuchi, K. Kuroda, “Photorefractive and photochromic effects in undoped GaP at high temperature,” Opt. Commun. 113, 487–492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

1993 (2)

P. M. Jeffrey, S. L. Clapham, R. W. Eason, D. A. Eason, D. A. Fish, A. K. Powell, T. J. Hall, N. A. Vainos, “Mechanism of photorefractive enhancement of photochromic gratings in BSO-experimental results and phenomenological modelling,” Opt. Commun. 98, 357–365 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Fish, A. K. Powell, T. J. Hall, P. M. Jeffrey, R. W. Eason, “Theoretical analysis of mechanism of photorefractive enhancement of photochromic gratings in BSO,” Opt. Commun. 98, 349–356 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. Frejlich, P. M. Garcia, “Quasipermanent hole-photorefractive and photochromic effects in Bi12TiO20 crystals,” Appl. Phys. A 55, 49–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1980 (1)

C. P. Lindsey, G. D. Patterson, “Detailed comparison of the Williams-Watts and Cole-Davidson functions,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3348–3357 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

R. Lemke, “Solvatochromiie von 80 mμ in verschiedenen Alkoholen bei Arylidenisophoron-Abkommlingen,” Chem. Ber. 103, 1894–1895 (1970).
[CrossRef]

G. Williams, D. C. Watts, “Non-symmetrical dielectric relaxation behaviour arising from a simple empirical decay function,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 80–85 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Akella, A.

Bacher, G. D.

M. B. Klein, G. D. Bacher, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, D. Wright, W. E. Moerner, “Homodyne detection of ultrasonic surface displacements using two-wave mixing in photorefractive polymers,” Opt. Commun. 162, 79–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bernal, M.-P.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “A novel sensitized photochromic organic glass for holographic optical storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Lundquist, C. Poga, R. G. DeVoe, Y. Jia, W. E. Moerner, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic digital data storage in a photorefractive polymer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 890–892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bittner, R.

F. Würthner, R. Wortmann, R. Matschiner, K. Lukaszuk, K. Meerholz, Y. DeNardin, R. Bittner, C. Bräuchle, R. Sens, “Merocyanine dyes in the cyanine limit: a new class of chromophores for photorefractive materials,” Agnew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 36, 2765–2768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

Bräuchle, C.

F. Würthner, R. Wortmann, R. Matschiner, K. Lukaszuk, K. Meerholz, Y. DeNardin, R. Bittner, C. Bräuchle, R. Sens, “Merocyanine dyes in the cyanine limit: a new class of chromophores for photorefractive materials,” Agnew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 36, 2765–2768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brower, S. C.

L. M. Hayden, S. C. Brower, S. J. Strutz, “Pressure dependence of the depoling temperature in nonlinear optical polymers,” Macromolecules 30, 2734–2737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burland, D. M.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “A novel sensitized photochromic organic glass for holographic optical storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Casperson, J. D.

M. A. Diaz-Garcia, D. Wright, J. D. Casperson, B. Smith, E. Glazer, W. E. Moerner, L. I. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive properties of poly(N-vinyl carbazole)-based composites for high-speed applications,” Chem. Mater. 11, 1784–1791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

Cicerone, M. T.

M. T. Cicerone, P. A. Wagner, M. D. Ediger, “Translational diffusion on heterogeneous lattices: a model for dynamics in glass forming materials,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 8727–8734 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clapham, S. L.

P. M. Jeffrey, S. L. Clapham, R. W. Eason, D. A. Eason, D. A. Fish, A. K. Powell, T. J. Hall, N. A. Vainos, “Mechanism of photorefractive enhancement of photochromic gratings in BSO-experimental results and phenomenological modelling,” Opt. Commun. 98, 357–365 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Vainos, S. L. Clapham, R. W. Eason, “Applications of multiplexed real time and permanent holographic recording in photorefractive BSO,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4386–4392 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coufal, H.

P. M. Lundquist, C. Poga, R. G. DeVoe, Y. Jia, W. E. Moerner, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic digital data storage in a photorefractive polymer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 890–892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “A novel sensitized photochromic organic glass for holographic optical storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DeNardin, Y.

F. Würthner, R. Wortmann, R. Matschiner, K. Lukaszuk, K. Meerholz, Y. DeNardin, R. Bittner, C. Bräuchle, R. Sens, “Merocyanine dyes in the cyanine limit: a new class of chromophores for photorefractive materials,” Agnew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 36, 2765–2768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DeVoe, R. G.

P. M. Lundquist, C. Poga, R. G. DeVoe, Y. Jia, W. E. Moerner, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic digital data storage in a photorefractive polymer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 890–892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “A novel sensitized photochromic organic glass for holographic optical storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dhinojwala, A.

D. B. Hall, A. Dhinojwala, J. M. Torkelson, “Translation-rotation paradox for diffusion in glass-forming polymers: the role of the temperature dependence of the relaxation time distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 103–106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Diaz-Garcia, M. A.

M. A. Diaz-Garcia, D. Wright, J. D. Casperson, B. Smith, E. Glazer, W. E. Moerner, L. I. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive properties of poly(N-vinyl carbazole)-based composites for high-speed applications,” Chem. Mater. 11, 1784–1791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ding, H.

Eason, D. A.

P. M. Jeffrey, S. L. Clapham, R. W. Eason, D. A. Eason, D. A. Fish, A. K. Powell, T. J. Hall, N. A. Vainos, “Mechanism of photorefractive enhancement of photochromic gratings in BSO-experimental results and phenomenological modelling,” Opt. Commun. 98, 357–365 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eason, R. W.

P. M. Jeffrey, S. L. Clapham, R. W. Eason, D. A. Eason, D. A. Fish, A. K. Powell, T. J. Hall, N. A. Vainos, “Mechanism of photorefractive enhancement of photochromic gratings in BSO-experimental results and phenomenological modelling,” Opt. Commun. 98, 357–365 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Fish, A. K. Powell, T. J. Hall, P. M. Jeffrey, R. W. Eason, “Theoretical analysis of mechanism of photorefractive enhancement of photochromic gratings in BSO,” Opt. Commun. 98, 349–356 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Vainos, S. L. Clapham, R. W. Eason, “Applications of multiplexed real time and permanent holographic recording in photorefractive BSO,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4386–4392 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ediger, M. D.

M. T. Cicerone, P. A. Wagner, M. D. Ediger, “Translational diffusion on heterogeneous lattices: a model for dynamics in glass forming materials,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 8727–8734 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Enami, Y.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science 279, 54–57 (1998).

Ermer, S.

S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, D. S. Leung, H. Warren, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, “Synthesis and nonlinearity of triene chromophores containing the cyclohexene ring structure,” Chem. Mater. 9, 1437–1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Erskine, L.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science 279, 54–57 (1998).

Evanko, S. M.

Fan, S.

Fish, D. A.

D. A. Fish, A. K. Powell, T. J. Hall, P. M. Jeffrey, R. W. Eason, “Theoretical analysis of mechanism of photorefractive enhancement of photochromic gratings in BSO,” Opt. Commun. 98, 349–356 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Jeffrey, S. L. Clapham, R. W. Eason, D. A. Eason, D. A. Fish, A. K. Powell, T. J. Hall, N. A. Vainos, “Mechanism of photorefractive enhancement of photochromic gratings in BSO-experimental results and phenomenological modelling,” Opt. Commun. 98, 357–365 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Frejlich, J.

J. Frejlich, P. M. Garcia, “Quasipermanent hole-photorefractive and photochromic effects in Bi12TiO20 crystals,” Appl. Phys. A 55, 49–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, P. M.

J. Frejlich, P. M. Garcia, “Quasipermanent hole-photorefractive and photochromic effects in Bi12TiO20 crystals,” Appl. Phys. A 55, 49–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Geletneky, C.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “A novel sensitized photochromic organic glass for holographic optical storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Glania, C.

R. Wortmann, C. Glania, P. Krämer, K. Lukaszuk, R. Matschiner, R. J. Twieg, F. You, “Highly transparent and birefringent chromophores for organic photorefractive materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 107–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Glazer, E.

M. A. Diaz-Garcia, D. Wright, J. D. Casperson, B. Smith, E. Glazer, W. E. Moerner, L. I. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive properties of poly(N-vinyl carbazole)-based composites for high-speed applications,” Chem. Mater. 11, 1784–1791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grunnet-Jepsen, A.

M. B. Klein, G. D. Bacher, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, D. Wright, W. E. Moerner, “Homodyne detection of ultrasonic surface displacements using two-wave mixing in photorefractive polymers,” Opt. Commun. 162, 79–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, W. E. Moerner, “Spontaneous oscillation and self-pumped phase conjugation in a photorefractive polymer optical amplifier,” Science 277, 549–552 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grygier, R. K.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “A novel sensitized photochromic organic glass for holographic optical storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Lundquist, C. Poga, R. G. DeVoe, Y. Jia, W. E. Moerner, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic digital data storage in a photorefractive polymer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 890–892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guillemet, G.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science 279, 54–57 (1998).

Hache, F.

Hall, D. B.

D. B. Hall, A. Dhinojwala, J. M. Torkelson, “Translation-rotation paradox for diffusion in glass-forming polymers: the role of the temperature dependence of the relaxation time distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 103–106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hall, T. J.

D. A. Fish, A. K. Powell, T. J. Hall, P. M. Jeffrey, R. W. Eason, “Theoretical analysis of mechanism of photorefractive enhancement of photochromic gratings in BSO,” Opt. Commun. 98, 349–356 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Jeffrey, S. L. Clapham, R. W. Eason, D. A. Eason, D. A. Fish, A. K. Powell, T. J. Hall, N. A. Vainos, “Mechanism of photorefractive enhancement of photochromic gratings in BSO-experimental results and phenomenological modelling,” Opt. Commun. 98, 357–365 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, L. M.

S. J. Strutz, L. M. Hayden, “Quasipermanent photochemical gratings in a dual use photorefractive polymer composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2749–2751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hayden, S. C. Brower, S. J. Strutz, “Pressure dependence of the depoling temperature in nonlinear optical polymers,” Macromolecules 30, 2734–2737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Kokron, S. M. Evanko, L. M. Hayden, “Launching of guided waves in a photorefractive polymer by two-beam coupling,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2297–2299 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendrickx, E.

D. Van Steenwinckel, E. Hendrickx, A. Persoons, K. Van den Broeck, C. Samyn, “Influence of the chromophore ionization potential on speed and magnitude of photorefractive effects in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) based polymer composites,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 11030–11037 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science 279, 54–57 (1998).

Hesselink, L.

Hoffnagle, J. A.

P. M. Lundquist, C. Poga, R. G. DeVoe, Y. Jia, W. E. Moerner, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic digital data storage in a photorefractive polymer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 890–892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “A novel sensitized photochromic organic glass for holographic optical storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Horiuchi, K.

K. Horiuchi, K. Kuroda, “Photorefractive and photochromic effects in undoped GaP at high temperature,” Opt. Commun. 113, 487–492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jefferson, C. M.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “A novel sensitized photochromic organic glass for holographic optical storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Lundquist, C. Poga, R. G. DeVoe, Y. Jia, W. E. Moerner, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic digital data storage in a photorefractive polymer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 890–892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeffrey, P. M.

D. A. Fish, A. K. Powell, T. J. Hall, P. M. Jeffrey, R. W. Eason, “Theoretical analysis of mechanism of photorefractive enhancement of photochromic gratings in BSO,” Opt. Commun. 98, 349–356 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Jeffrey, S. L. Clapham, R. W. Eason, D. A. Eason, D. A. Fish, A. K. Powell, T. J. Hall, N. A. Vainos, “Mechanism of photorefractive enhancement of photochromic gratings in BSO-experimental results and phenomenological modelling,” Opt. Commun. 98, 357–365 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

S. R. Marder, B. Kippelen, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Design and synthesis of chromophores and polymers for electro-optic and photorefractive applications,” Nature (London) 388, 845–851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Y.

P. M. Lundquist, C. Poga, R. G. DeVoe, Y. Jia, W. E. Moerner, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic digital data storage in a photorefractive polymer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 890–892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “A novel sensitized photochromic organic glass for holographic optical storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kippelen, B.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science 279, 54–57 (1998).

S. R. Marder, B. Kippelen, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Design and synthesis of chromophores and polymers for electro-optic and photorefractive applications,” Nature (London) 388, 845–851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).

Klein, M. B.

M. B. Klein, G. D. Bacher, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, D. Wright, W. E. Moerner, “Homodyne detection of ultrasonic surface displacements using two-wave mixing in photorefractive polymers,” Opt. Commun. 162, 79–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kokron, D.

Krämer, P.

R. Wortmann, C. Glania, P. Krämer, K. Lukaszuk, R. Matschiner, R. J. Twieg, F. You, “Highly transparent and birefringent chromophores for organic photorefractive materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 107–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, K.

K. Horiuchi, K. Kuroda, “Photorefractive and photochromic effects in undoped GaP at high temperature,” Opt. Commun. 113, 487–492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, R.

R. Lemke, “Solvatochromiie von 80 mμ in verschiedenen Alkoholen bei Arylidenisophoron-Abkommlingen,” Chem. Ber. 103, 1894–1895 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Leung, D. S.

S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, D. S. Leung, H. Warren, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, “Synthesis and nonlinearity of triene chromophores containing the cyclohexene ring structure,” Chem. Mater. 9, 1437–1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lindsey, C. P.

C. P. Lindsey, G. D. Patterson, “Detailed comparison of the Williams-Watts and Cole-Davidson functions,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3348–3357 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lovejoy, S. M.

S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, D. S. Leung, H. Warren, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, “Synthesis and nonlinearity of triene chromophores containing the cyclohexene ring structure,” Chem. Mater. 9, 1437–1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lukaszuk, K.

R. Wortmann, C. Glania, P. Krämer, K. Lukaszuk, R. Matschiner, R. J. Twieg, F. You, “Highly transparent and birefringent chromophores for organic photorefractive materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 107–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Würthner, R. Wortmann, R. Matschiner, K. Lukaszuk, K. Meerholz, Y. DeNardin, R. Bittner, C. Bräuchle, R. Sens, “Merocyanine dyes in the cyanine limit: a new class of chromophores for photorefractive materials,” Agnew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 36, 2765–2768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lundquist, P. M.

P. M. Lundquist, C. Poga, R. G. DeVoe, Y. Jia, W. E. Moerner, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic digital data storage in a photorefractive polymer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 890–892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “A novel sensitized photochromic organic glass for holographic optical storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, R. M.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “A novel sensitized photochromic organic glass for holographic optical storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Lundquist, C. Poga, R. G. DeVoe, Y. Jia, W. E. Moerner, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic digital data storage in a photorefractive polymer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 890–892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maldonado, J. L.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science 279, 54–57 (1998).

Marder, S. R.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science 279, 54–57 (1998).

S. R. Marder, B. Kippelen, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Design and synthesis of chromophores and polymers for electro-optic and photorefractive applications,” Nature (London) 388, 845–851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matschiner, R.

R. Wortmann, C. Glania, P. Krämer, K. Lukaszuk, R. Matschiner, R. J. Twieg, F. You, “Highly transparent and birefringent chromophores for organic photorefractive materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 107–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Würthner, R. Wortmann, R. Matschiner, K. Lukaszuk, K. Meerholz, Y. DeNardin, R. Bittner, C. Bräuchle, R. Sens, “Merocyanine dyes in the cyanine limit: a new class of chromophores for photorefractive materials,” Agnew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 36, 2765–2768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McCrum, N. E.

N. E. McCrum, B. E. Read, G. Williams, Anelastic and Dielectric Effects in Polymeric Solids (Dover, New York, 1967).

Meerholz, K.

F. Würthner, R. Wortmann, R. Matschiner, K. Lukaszuk, K. Meerholz, Y. DeNardin, R. Bittner, C. Bräuchle, R. Sens, “Merocyanine dyes in the cyanine limit: a new class of chromophores for photorefractive materials,” Agnew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 36, 2765–2768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).

Moerner, W. E.

M. B. Klein, G. D. Bacher, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, D. Wright, W. E. Moerner, “Homodyne detection of ultrasonic surface displacements using two-wave mixing in photorefractive polymers,” Opt. Commun. 162, 79–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Diaz-Garcia, D. Wright, J. D. Casperson, B. Smith, E. Glazer, W. E. Moerner, L. I. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive properties of poly(N-vinyl carbazole)-based composites for high-speed applications,” Chem. Mater. 11, 1784–1791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, W. E. Moerner, “Spontaneous oscillation and self-pumped phase conjugation in a photorefractive polymer optical amplifier,” Science 277, 549–552 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Lundquist, C. Poga, R. G. DeVoe, Y. Jia, W. E. Moerner, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic digital data storage in a photorefractive polymer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 890–892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, “Orientationally enhanced photorefractive effect in polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 320–330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moylan, C. R.

S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, D. S. Leung, H. Warren, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, “Synthesis and nonlinearity of triene chromophores containing the cyclohexene ring structure,” Chem. Mater. 9, 1437–1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “A novel sensitized photochromic organic glass for holographic optical storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, G. D.

C. P. Lindsey, G. D. Patterson, “Detailed comparison of the Williams-Watts and Cole-Davidson functions,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3348–3357 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Persoons, A.

D. Van Steenwinckel, E. Hendrickx, A. Persoons, K. Van den Broeck, C. Samyn, “Influence of the chromophore ionization potential on speed and magnitude of photorefractive effects in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) based polymer composites,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 11030–11037 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science 279, 54–57 (1998).

S. R. Marder, B. Kippelen, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Design and synthesis of chromophores and polymers for electro-optic and photorefractive applications,” Nature (London) 388, 845–851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).

Poga, C.

Powell, A. K.

D. A. Fish, A. K. Powell, T. J. Hall, P. M. Jeffrey, R. W. Eason, “Theoretical analysis of mechanism of photorefractive enhancement of photochromic gratings in BSO,” Opt. Commun. 98, 349–356 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Jeffrey, S. L. Clapham, R. W. Eason, D. A. Eason, D. A. Fish, A. K. Powell, T. J. Hall, N. A. Vainos, “Mechanism of photorefractive enhancement of photochromic gratings in BSO-experimental results and phenomenological modelling,” Opt. Commun. 98, 357–365 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Read, B. E.

N. E. McCrum, B. E. Read, G. Williams, Anelastic and Dielectric Effects in Polymeric Solids (Dover, New York, 1967).

Röckel, H.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science 279, 54–57 (1998).

Samyn, C.

D. Van Steenwinckel, E. Hendrickx, A. Persoons, K. Van den Broeck, C. Samyn, “Influence of the chromophore ionization potential on speed and magnitude of photorefractive effects in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) based polymer composites,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 11030–11037 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sandalphon,

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science 279, 54–57 (1998).

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).

Sens, R.

F. Würthner, R. Wortmann, R. Matschiner, K. Lukaszuk, K. Meerholz, Y. DeNardin, R. Bittner, C. Bräuchle, R. Sens, “Merocyanine dyes in the cyanine limit: a new class of chromophores for photorefractive materials,” Agnew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 36, 2765–2768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. M.

P. M. Lundquist, C. Poga, R. G. DeVoe, Y. Jia, W. E. Moerner, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic digital data storage in a photorefractive polymer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 890–892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “A novel sensitized photochromic organic glass for holographic optical storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Silence, S. M.

Sincerbox, G. T.

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “A novel sensitized photochromic organic glass for holographic optical storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Lundquist, C. Poga, R. G. DeVoe, Y. Jia, W. E. Moerner, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “Holographic digital data storage in a photorefractive polymer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 890–892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, B.

M. A. Diaz-Garcia, D. Wright, J. D. Casperson, B. Smith, E. Glazer, W. E. Moerner, L. I. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive properties of poly(N-vinyl carbazole)-based composites for high-speed applications,” Chem. Mater. 11, 1784–1791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sochava, S. L.

Steele, D. D.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science 279, 54–57 (1998).

Strutz, S. J.

S. J. Strutz, L. M. Hayden, “Quasipermanent photochemical gratings in a dual use photorefractive polymer composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2749–2751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hayden, S. C. Brower, S. J. Strutz, “Pressure dependence of the depoling temperature in nonlinear optical polymers,” Macromolecules 30, 2734–2737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sukhomlinova, L. I.

M. A. Diaz-Garcia, D. Wright, J. D. Casperson, B. Smith, E. Glazer, W. E. Moerner, L. I. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive properties of poly(N-vinyl carbazole)-based composites for high-speed applications,” Chem. Mater. 11, 1784–1791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, C. L.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, W. E. Moerner, “Spontaneous oscillation and self-pumped phase conjugation in a photorefractive polymer optical amplifier,” Science 277, 549–552 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Torkelson, J. M.

D. B. Hall, A. Dhinojwala, J. M. Torkelson, “Translation-rotation paradox for diffusion in glass-forming polymers: the role of the temperature dependence of the relaxation time distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 103–106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

R. Wortmann, C. Glania, P. Krämer, K. Lukaszuk, R. Matschiner, R. J. Twieg, F. You, “Highly transparent and birefringent chromophores for organic photorefractive materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 107–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Diaz-Garcia, D. Wright, J. D. Casperson, B. Smith, E. Glazer, W. E. Moerner, L. I. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive properties of poly(N-vinyl carbazole)-based composites for high-speed applications,” Chem. Mater. 11, 1784–1791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, D. S. Leung, H. Warren, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, “Synthesis and nonlinearity of triene chromophores containing the cyclohexene ring structure,” Chem. Mater. 9, 1437–1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “A novel sensitized photochromic organic glass for holographic optical storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vainos, N. A.

P. M. Jeffrey, S. L. Clapham, R. W. Eason, D. A. Eason, D. A. Fish, A. K. Powell, T. J. Hall, N. A. Vainos, “Mechanism of photorefractive enhancement of photochromic gratings in BSO-experimental results and phenomenological modelling,” Opt. Commun. 98, 357–365 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Vainos, S. L. Clapham, R. W. Eason, “Applications of multiplexed real time and permanent holographic recording in photorefractive BSO,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4386–4392 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van den Broeck, K.

D. Van Steenwinckel, E. Hendrickx, A. Persoons, K. Van den Broeck, C. Samyn, “Influence of the chromophore ionization potential on speed and magnitude of photorefractive effects in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) based polymer composites,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 11030–11037 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Van Steenwinckel, D.

D. Van Steenwinckel, E. Hendrickx, A. Persoons, K. Van den Broeck, C. Samyn, “Influence of the chromophore ionization potential on speed and magnitude of photorefractive effects in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) based polymer composites,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 11030–11037 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Volodin, B. L.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science 279, 54–57 (1998).

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).

Wagner, P. A.

M. T. Cicerone, P. A. Wagner, M. D. Ediger, “Translational diffusion on heterogeneous lattices: a model for dynamics in glass forming materials,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 8727–8734 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. F.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science 279, 54–57 (1998).

Warren, H.

S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, D. S. Leung, H. Warren, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, “Synthesis and nonlinearity of triene chromophores containing the cyclohexene ring structure,” Chem. Mater. 9, 1437–1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watts, D. C.

G. Williams, D. C. Watts, “Non-symmetrical dielectric relaxation behaviour arising from a simple empirical decay function,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 80–85 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G.

G. Williams, D. C. Watts, “Non-symmetrical dielectric relaxation behaviour arising from a simple empirical decay function,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 80–85 (1970).
[CrossRef]

N. E. McCrum, B. E. Read, G. Williams, Anelastic and Dielectric Effects in Polymeric Solids (Dover, New York, 1967).

Wortmann, R.

R. Wortmann, C. Glania, P. Krämer, K. Lukaszuk, R. Matschiner, R. J. Twieg, F. You, “Highly transparent and birefringent chromophores for organic photorefractive materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 107–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Würthner, R. Wortmann, R. Matschiner, K. Lukaszuk, K. Meerholz, Y. DeNardin, R. Bittner, C. Bräuchle, R. Sens, “Merocyanine dyes in the cyanine limit: a new class of chromophores for photorefractive materials,” Agnew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 36, 2765–2768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “A novel sensitized photochromic organic glass for holographic optical storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wright, D.

M. B. Klein, G. D. Bacher, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, D. Wright, W. E. Moerner, “Homodyne detection of ultrasonic surface displacements using two-wave mixing in photorefractive polymers,” Opt. Commun. 162, 79–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Diaz-Garcia, D. Wright, J. D. Casperson, B. Smith, E. Glazer, W. E. Moerner, L. I. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive properties of poly(N-vinyl carbazole)-based composites for high-speed applications,” Chem. Mater. 11, 1784–1791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

Würthner, F.

F. Würthner, R. Wortmann, R. Matschiner, K. Lukaszuk, K. Meerholz, Y. DeNardin, R. Bittner, C. Bräuchle, R. Sens, “Merocyanine dyes in the cyanine limit: a new class of chromophores for photorefractive materials,” Agnew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 36, 2765–2768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y. J.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science 279, 54–57 (1998).

You, F.

R. Wortmann, C. Glania, P. Krämer, K. Lukaszuk, R. Matschiner, R. J. Twieg, F. You, “Highly transparent and birefringent chromophores for organic photorefractive materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 107–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Agnew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

F. Würthner, R. Wortmann, R. Matschiner, K. Lukaszuk, K. Meerholz, Y. DeNardin, R. Bittner, C. Bräuchle, R. Sens, “Merocyanine dyes in the cyanine limit: a new class of chromophores for photorefractive materials,” Agnew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 36, 2765–2768 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

J. Frejlich, P. M. Garcia, “Quasipermanent hole-photorefractive and photochromic effects in Bi12TiO20 crystals,” Appl. Phys. A 55, 49–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Wortmann, P. M. Lundquist, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, Y. Jia, R. G. DeVoe, D. M. Burland, M.-P. Bernal, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. A. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, G. T. Sincerbox, “A novel sensitized photochromic organic glass for holographic optical storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1657–1659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Strutz, L. M. Hayden, “Quasipermanent photochemical gratings in a dual use photorefractive polymer composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2749–2751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Ber. (1)

R. Lemke, “Solvatochromiie von 80 mμ in verschiedenen Alkoholen bei Arylidenisophoron-Abkommlingen,” Chem. Ber. 103, 1894–1895 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (2)

S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, D. S. Leung, H. Warren, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, “Synthesis and nonlinearity of triene chromophores containing the cyclohexene ring structure,” Chem. Mater. 9, 1437–1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Diaz-Garcia, D. Wright, J. D. Casperson, B. Smith, E. Glazer, W. E. Moerner, L. I. Sukhomlinova, R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive properties of poly(N-vinyl carbazole)-based composites for high-speed applications,” Chem. Mater. 11, 1784–1791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

R. Wortmann, C. Glania, P. Krämer, K. Lukaszuk, R. Matschiner, R. J. Twieg, F. You, “Highly transparent and birefringent chromophores for organic photorefractive materials,” Chem. Phys. 245, 107–120 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

C. P. Lindsey, G. D. Patterson, “Detailed comparison of the Williams-Watts and Cole-Davidson functions,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3348–3357 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Steenwinckel, E. Hendrickx, A. Persoons, K. Van den Broeck, C. Samyn, “Influence of the chromophore ionization potential on speed and magnitude of photorefractive effects in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) based polymer composites,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 11030–11037 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

M. T. Cicerone, P. A. Wagner, M. D. Ediger, “Translational diffusion on heterogeneous lattices: a model for dynamics in glass forming materials,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 8727–8734 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

L. M. Hayden, S. C. Brower, S. J. Strutz, “Pressure dependence of the depoling temperature in nonlinear optical polymers,” Macromolecules 30, 2734–2737 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (2)

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).

S. R. Marder, B. Kippelen, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Design and synthesis of chromophores and polymers for electro-optic and photorefractive applications,” Nature (London) 388, 845–851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

K. Horiuchi, K. Kuroda, “Photorefractive and photochromic effects in undoped GaP at high temperature,” Opt. Commun. 113, 487–492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Klein, G. D. Bacher, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, D. Wright, W. E. Moerner, “Homodyne detection of ultrasonic surface displacements using two-wave mixing in photorefractive polymers,” Opt. Commun. 162, 79–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Jeffrey, S. L. Clapham, R. W. Eason, D. A. Eason, D. A. Fish, A. K. Powell, T. J. Hall, N. A. Vainos, “Mechanism of photorefractive enhancement of photochromic gratings in BSO-experimental results and phenomenological modelling,” Opt. Commun. 98, 357–365 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Fish, A. K. Powell, T. J. Hall, P. M. Jeffrey, R. W. Eason, “Theoretical analysis of mechanism of photorefractive enhancement of photochromic gratings in BSO,” Opt. Commun. 98, 349–356 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. B. Hall, A. Dhinojwala, J. M. Torkelson, “Translation-rotation paradox for diffusion in glass-forming polymers: the role of the temperature dependence of the relaxation time distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 103–106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, W. E. Moerner, “Spontaneous oscillation and self-pumped phase conjugation in a photorefractive polymer optical amplifier,” Science 277, 549–552 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science 279, 54–57 (1998).

Trans. Faraday Soc. (1)

G. Williams, D. C. Watts, “Non-symmetrical dielectric relaxation behaviour arising from a simple empirical decay function,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 80–85 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

N. E. McCrum, B. E. Read, G. Williams, Anelastic and Dielectric Effects in Polymeric Solids (Dover, New York, 1967).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chromophore structures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

UV–visible spectra of the chromophores in DCM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photorefractive external diffraction efficiency ηext as a function of the applied field for the (a) low-T g composites and (b) the high-T g composites. Data symbols correspond to those in Table 1. All composites contain 1-wt.% C60 as a sensitizer except for the composite 3NEtCarb (15%) and BBP (36%) in (a), which contains 1-wt.% TNF. The remaining percentage to 100% is PVK in all composites.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photochemical internal diffraction efficiency ηint at 675 nm as a function of writing time for (a) the low-T g composites and (b) the high-T g composites. Data symbols correspond to those in Table 2. Chromophore and plasticizer content for graph (a): open square, 4NPh2DCPT (15%), 2,4-OMeDCPT (15%), BBP (25%); filled diamond, 4NEt2DCPT (7%), BBP (36%); open circle, 3NEtCarb (15%), TCP (35%). Graph (b): inverted filled triangle, 4NPh2DCPT (18%), BBP (24%); open triangle, 4NPh2DCPT (15%), BBP (32%); filled circle, 2,4-OMeDCPT (15%), BBP (23%); filled square, 4NEt2DCPT (7%), BBP (24%); open diamond, 2,4,6-OMeDCPT (5%), BBP (24%). In all composites, the sensitizer is 1-wt.% C60, and the remaining percentage to 100% is PVK.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of chromophore size and structure on the dark decay of photochemical gratings in three composites with T g = 67 °C.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of the glass transition temperature on the dark decay times in composites based on (7%) 4NEt2DCPT. Inset is an Arrhenius plot of grating decay times.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Photorefractive Results and Experimental Details

Tables Icon

Table 2 Photochromic Results and Experimental Detailsa

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ηt=η0exp-t/τβ,
τ=0exp-tτβdt=τΓ1/ββ,

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