Abstract

To characterize the macroscopic behavior of Diesel sprays and to validate and extend for current high-pressure injection systems the correlations existent in the literature, it is necessary to determine the spray geometry accurately, at least in terms of spray tip penetration and cone angle. These parameters are measured by analyzing Diesel spray images and are highly sensitive to the correct edge determination. An algorithm for segmentation of color images based on a likelihood ratio test is presented. This algorithm is compared with others available in the literature and has been validated, even for adverse experimental conditions. The experimental facilities, optical layouts, and image-processing algorithms are described.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. E. Ranz, “Some experiments on orifice sprays,” Can. J. Chem. Eng. 36, 175–181 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Wakuri, M. Fujii, T. Amitani, R. Tsnuneya, “Studies of the penetration of a fuel spray in a Diesel engine,” Bull. JSME 3, (9), 123–130 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. C. Dent, “A basis for comparison of various experimental methods for studying spray penetration,” SAE Paper 710571 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1971).
  4. N. Hay, P. L. Jones, “Comparison of the various correlations for spray penetration,” SAE Paper 720776 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1972).
  5. R. D. Reitz, F. B. Bracco, “On the dependence of spray angle and other spray parameters on nozzle design and operating conditions,” SAE Paper 790494 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1979).
  6. P. Schihl, W. Bryzik, A. Atreya, “Analysis of current spray penetration models and proposal of a phenomenological cone penetration model,” SAE Paper 960773 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).
  7. J. Arrègle, J. V. Pastor, S. Ruiz, “The influence of injection parameters on Diesel spray characteristics,” SAE Paper 1999-01-0200 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999).
  8. H. Hiroyasu, M. Arai, “Structures of fuel sprays in Diesel engines,” SAE Paper 900475 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1990).
  9. F. Payri, J. M. Desantes, J. Arrègle, “Characterization of D.I. Diesel sprays in high density conditions,” SAE Paper 960774 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).
  10. H. Kuniyoshi, H. Tanabe, G. T. Sato, H. Fujimoto, “Investigation on the characteristics of Diesel fuel spray,” SAE Paper 800968 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1981).
  11. E. Winklhofer, B. Ahmadi-Befrui, B. Wiesler, G. Cresnoverh, “The influence of injection rate shaping on diesel fuel sprays—an experimental study,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D. 206, 173–182 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. D. Naber, D. L. Siebers, “Effects of gas density and vaporization on penetration and dispersion of Diesel sprays,” SAE Paper 960034 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).
  13. D. L. Siebers, “Liquid-phase fuel penetration in Diesel sprays,” SAE Paper 980809 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).
  14. E. R. Karimi, “High-speed photography of fuel spray and combustion events in a production diesel engine and combustion bomb,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A. 203, 269–281 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Payri, J. V. Pastor, J. Arrègle, “Endoscopic high speed visualisation of injection and combustion processes in a D.I. Diesel engine,” Entropie 200, 7–15 (1996).
  16. K. J. Wu, C. C. Su, R. L. Steinberger, D. A. Santavicca, F. V. Bracco, “Measurements of the spray angle of atomising jets,” (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1983).
  17. T. Dan, T. Yamamoto, J. Senda, H. Fujimoto, “Effect of nozzle configurations for characteristics of non-reacting Diesel fuel sprays,” SAE Paper 970355 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).
  18. J. V. Pastor, E. Encabo, S. Ruiz, “New modelling approach for fast on-line calculations in sprays,” SAE Paper 2000-01-0287 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 2000).
  19. C. Arcoumanis, J. H. Whitelaw, W. Hentschel, K. P. Schindler, “Flow and combustion in a transparent 1.9 litre direct injection Diesel engine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D. 208, 191–205 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. C. Gonzalez, P. Wintz, Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1992).
  21. W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1991).
  22. J. M. Desantes, J. Arrègle, J. V. Pastor, A. Delage, “Influence of the fuel characteristics on the injection process in a D.I. Diesel engine,” SAE Paper 980802 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).
  23. J. M. Desantes, J. V. Pastor, S. A. Molina, “Analysis of the combustion process in a heavy duty D.I. Diesel engine through in-cylinder visualization,” Proceedings of the 1999 Spring Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York (1999), Vol. 32-2, pp. 105–113.
  24. N. R. Pal, S. K. Pal, “A review on image segmentation techniques,” Pattern Recognition 26, 1277–1294 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Nakamura, K. Ishii, T. Sasaki, “Application of image converter camera to measure flame propagation in S.I. engine,” SAE Paper 890322 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1988).
  26. F. Medaerts, D. Puechberty, “In-cylinder fuel/air mixture and flame front visualization in a transparent engine using PLIF: a comparison between natural gas and gasoline used as fuel,” SAE Technical Paper 982524 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).
  27. J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. PAMI-8, 679–686 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Lin, “Divergence measures based on the Shannon entropy,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 37, 145–150 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  29. V. Barranco López, P. L. Luque Escamilla, J. Martinez Aroca, R. R. Román Roldán, “Entropic texture edge detection for image segmentation,” Electron. Lett. 31, 867–869 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. Fukunaga, Introduction to Statistical Pattern Recognition, 2nd ed. (Academic, London, 1990).
  31. C. A. Glasbey, “An analysis of histograms-based thresholding algorithms,” CVGIP Graph. Models Image Process. 55, 532–537 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

F. Payri, J. V. Pastor, J. Arrègle, “Endoscopic high speed visualisation of injection and combustion processes in a D.I. Diesel engine,” Entropie 200, 7–15 (1996).

1995 (1)

V. Barranco López, P. L. Luque Escamilla, J. Martinez Aroca, R. R. Román Roldán, “Entropic texture edge detection for image segmentation,” Electron. Lett. 31, 867–869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. Arcoumanis, J. H. Whitelaw, W. Hentschel, K. P. Schindler, “Flow and combustion in a transparent 1.9 litre direct injection Diesel engine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D. 208, 191–205 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

N. R. Pal, S. K. Pal, “A review on image segmentation techniques,” Pattern Recognition 26, 1277–1294 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Glasbey, “An analysis of histograms-based thresholding algorithms,” CVGIP Graph. Models Image Process. 55, 532–537 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. Winklhofer, B. Ahmadi-Befrui, B. Wiesler, G. Cresnoverh, “The influence of injection rate shaping on diesel fuel sprays—an experimental study,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D. 206, 173–182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Lin, “Divergence measures based on the Shannon entropy,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 37, 145–150 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

E. R. Karimi, “High-speed photography of fuel spray and combustion events in a production diesel engine and combustion bomb,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A. 203, 269–281 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. PAMI-8, 679–686 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

Y. Wakuri, M. Fujii, T. Amitani, R. Tsnuneya, “Studies of the penetration of a fuel spray in a Diesel engine,” Bull. JSME 3, (9), 123–130 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

W. E. Ranz, “Some experiments on orifice sprays,” Can. J. Chem. Eng. 36, 175–181 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Ahmadi-Befrui, B.

E. Winklhofer, B. Ahmadi-Befrui, B. Wiesler, G. Cresnoverh, “The influence of injection rate shaping on diesel fuel sprays—an experimental study,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D. 206, 173–182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Amitani, T.

Y. Wakuri, M. Fujii, T. Amitani, R. Tsnuneya, “Studies of the penetration of a fuel spray in a Diesel engine,” Bull. JSME 3, (9), 123–130 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Arai, M.

H. Hiroyasu, M. Arai, “Structures of fuel sprays in Diesel engines,” SAE Paper 900475 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1990).

Arcoumanis, C.

C. Arcoumanis, J. H. Whitelaw, W. Hentschel, K. P. Schindler, “Flow and combustion in a transparent 1.9 litre direct injection Diesel engine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D. 208, 191–205 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arrègle, J.

F. Payri, J. V. Pastor, J. Arrègle, “Endoscopic high speed visualisation of injection and combustion processes in a D.I. Diesel engine,” Entropie 200, 7–15 (1996).

J. M. Desantes, J. Arrègle, J. V. Pastor, A. Delage, “Influence of the fuel characteristics on the injection process in a D.I. Diesel engine,” SAE Paper 980802 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

J. Arrègle, J. V. Pastor, S. Ruiz, “The influence of injection parameters on Diesel spray characteristics,” SAE Paper 1999-01-0200 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999).

F. Payri, J. M. Desantes, J. Arrègle, “Characterization of D.I. Diesel sprays in high density conditions,” SAE Paper 960774 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

Atreya, A.

P. Schihl, W. Bryzik, A. Atreya, “Analysis of current spray penetration models and proposal of a phenomenological cone penetration model,” SAE Paper 960773 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

Barranco López, V.

V. Barranco López, P. L. Luque Escamilla, J. Martinez Aroca, R. R. Román Roldán, “Entropic texture edge detection for image segmentation,” Electron. Lett. 31, 867–869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bracco, F. B.

R. D. Reitz, F. B. Bracco, “On the dependence of spray angle and other spray parameters on nozzle design and operating conditions,” SAE Paper 790494 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1979).

Bracco, F. V.

K. J. Wu, C. C. Su, R. L. Steinberger, D. A. Santavicca, F. V. Bracco, “Measurements of the spray angle of atomising jets,” (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1983).

Bryzik, W.

P. Schihl, W. Bryzik, A. Atreya, “Analysis of current spray penetration models and proposal of a phenomenological cone penetration model,” SAE Paper 960773 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

Canny, J.

J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. PAMI-8, 679–686 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cresnoverh, G.

E. Winklhofer, B. Ahmadi-Befrui, B. Wiesler, G. Cresnoverh, “The influence of injection rate shaping on diesel fuel sprays—an experimental study,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D. 206, 173–182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dan, T.

T. Dan, T. Yamamoto, J. Senda, H. Fujimoto, “Effect of nozzle configurations for characteristics of non-reacting Diesel fuel sprays,” SAE Paper 970355 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

Delage, A.

J. M. Desantes, J. Arrègle, J. V. Pastor, A. Delage, “Influence of the fuel characteristics on the injection process in a D.I. Diesel engine,” SAE Paper 980802 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

Dent, J. C.

J. C. Dent, “A basis for comparison of various experimental methods for studying spray penetration,” SAE Paper 710571 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1971).

Desantes, J. M.

F. Payri, J. M. Desantes, J. Arrègle, “Characterization of D.I. Diesel sprays in high density conditions,” SAE Paper 960774 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

J. M. Desantes, J. V. Pastor, S. A. Molina, “Analysis of the combustion process in a heavy duty D.I. Diesel engine through in-cylinder visualization,” Proceedings of the 1999 Spring Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York (1999), Vol. 32-2, pp. 105–113.

J. M. Desantes, J. Arrègle, J. V. Pastor, A. Delage, “Influence of the fuel characteristics on the injection process in a D.I. Diesel engine,” SAE Paper 980802 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

Encabo, E.

J. V. Pastor, E. Encabo, S. Ruiz, “New modelling approach for fast on-line calculations in sprays,” SAE Paper 2000-01-0287 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 2000).

Fujii, M.

Y. Wakuri, M. Fujii, T. Amitani, R. Tsnuneya, “Studies of the penetration of a fuel spray in a Diesel engine,” Bull. JSME 3, (9), 123–130 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, H.

H. Kuniyoshi, H. Tanabe, G. T. Sato, H. Fujimoto, “Investigation on the characteristics of Diesel fuel spray,” SAE Paper 800968 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1981).

T. Dan, T. Yamamoto, J. Senda, H. Fujimoto, “Effect of nozzle configurations for characteristics of non-reacting Diesel fuel sprays,” SAE Paper 970355 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

Fukunaga, K.

K. Fukunaga, Introduction to Statistical Pattern Recognition, 2nd ed. (Academic, London, 1990).

Glasbey, C. A.

C. A. Glasbey, “An analysis of histograms-based thresholding algorithms,” CVGIP Graph. Models Image Process. 55, 532–537 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, R. C.

R. C. Gonzalez, P. Wintz, Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1992).

Hay, N.

N. Hay, P. L. Jones, “Comparison of the various correlations for spray penetration,” SAE Paper 720776 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1972).

Hentschel, W.

C. Arcoumanis, J. H. Whitelaw, W. Hentschel, K. P. Schindler, “Flow and combustion in a transparent 1.9 litre direct injection Diesel engine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D. 208, 191–205 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hiroyasu, H.

H. Hiroyasu, M. Arai, “Structures of fuel sprays in Diesel engines,” SAE Paper 900475 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1990).

Ishii, K.

A. Nakamura, K. Ishii, T. Sasaki, “Application of image converter camera to measure flame propagation in S.I. engine,” SAE Paper 890322 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1988).

Jones, P. L.

N. Hay, P. L. Jones, “Comparison of the various correlations for spray penetration,” SAE Paper 720776 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1972).

Karimi, E. R.

E. R. Karimi, “High-speed photography of fuel spray and combustion events in a production diesel engine and combustion bomb,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A. 203, 269–281 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kuniyoshi, H.

H. Kuniyoshi, H. Tanabe, G. T. Sato, H. Fujimoto, “Investigation on the characteristics of Diesel fuel spray,” SAE Paper 800968 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1981).

Lin, J.

J. Lin, “Divergence measures based on the Shannon entropy,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 37, 145–150 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Luque Escamilla, P. L.

V. Barranco López, P. L. Luque Escamilla, J. Martinez Aroca, R. R. Román Roldán, “Entropic texture edge detection for image segmentation,” Electron. Lett. 31, 867–869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Martinez Aroca, J.

V. Barranco López, P. L. Luque Escamilla, J. Martinez Aroca, R. R. Román Roldán, “Entropic texture edge detection for image segmentation,” Electron. Lett. 31, 867–869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Medaerts, F.

F. Medaerts, D. Puechberty, “In-cylinder fuel/air mixture and flame front visualization in a transparent engine using PLIF: a comparison between natural gas and gasoline used as fuel,” SAE Technical Paper 982524 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

Molina, S. A.

J. M. Desantes, J. V. Pastor, S. A. Molina, “Analysis of the combustion process in a heavy duty D.I. Diesel engine through in-cylinder visualization,” Proceedings of the 1999 Spring Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York (1999), Vol. 32-2, pp. 105–113.

Naber, J. D.

J. D. Naber, D. L. Siebers, “Effects of gas density and vaporization on penetration and dispersion of Diesel sprays,” SAE Paper 960034 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

Nakamura, A.

A. Nakamura, K. Ishii, T. Sasaki, “Application of image converter camera to measure flame propagation in S.I. engine,” SAE Paper 890322 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1988).

Pal, N. R.

N. R. Pal, S. K. Pal, “A review on image segmentation techniques,” Pattern Recognition 26, 1277–1294 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pal, S. K.

N. R. Pal, S. K. Pal, “A review on image segmentation techniques,” Pattern Recognition 26, 1277–1294 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pastor, J. V.

F. Payri, J. V. Pastor, J. Arrègle, “Endoscopic high speed visualisation of injection and combustion processes in a D.I. Diesel engine,” Entropie 200, 7–15 (1996).

J. V. Pastor, E. Encabo, S. Ruiz, “New modelling approach for fast on-line calculations in sprays,” SAE Paper 2000-01-0287 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 2000).

J. Arrègle, J. V. Pastor, S. Ruiz, “The influence of injection parameters on Diesel spray characteristics,” SAE Paper 1999-01-0200 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999).

J. M. Desantes, J. Arrègle, J. V. Pastor, A. Delage, “Influence of the fuel characteristics on the injection process in a D.I. Diesel engine,” SAE Paper 980802 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

J. M. Desantes, J. V. Pastor, S. A. Molina, “Analysis of the combustion process in a heavy duty D.I. Diesel engine through in-cylinder visualization,” Proceedings of the 1999 Spring Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York (1999), Vol. 32-2, pp. 105–113.

Payri, F.

F. Payri, J. V. Pastor, J. Arrègle, “Endoscopic high speed visualisation of injection and combustion processes in a D.I. Diesel engine,” Entropie 200, 7–15 (1996).

F. Payri, J. M. Desantes, J. Arrègle, “Characterization of D.I. Diesel sprays in high density conditions,” SAE Paper 960774 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

Pratt, W. K.

W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1991).

Puechberty, D.

F. Medaerts, D. Puechberty, “In-cylinder fuel/air mixture and flame front visualization in a transparent engine using PLIF: a comparison between natural gas and gasoline used as fuel,” SAE Technical Paper 982524 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

Ranz, W. E.

W. E. Ranz, “Some experiments on orifice sprays,” Can. J. Chem. Eng. 36, 175–181 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Reitz, R. D.

R. D. Reitz, F. B. Bracco, “On the dependence of spray angle and other spray parameters on nozzle design and operating conditions,” SAE Paper 790494 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1979).

Román Roldán, R. R.

V. Barranco López, P. L. Luque Escamilla, J. Martinez Aroca, R. R. Román Roldán, “Entropic texture edge detection for image segmentation,” Electron. Lett. 31, 867–869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz, S.

J. Arrègle, J. V. Pastor, S. Ruiz, “The influence of injection parameters on Diesel spray characteristics,” SAE Paper 1999-01-0200 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999).

J. V. Pastor, E. Encabo, S. Ruiz, “New modelling approach for fast on-line calculations in sprays,” SAE Paper 2000-01-0287 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 2000).

Santavicca, D. A.

K. J. Wu, C. C. Su, R. L. Steinberger, D. A. Santavicca, F. V. Bracco, “Measurements of the spray angle of atomising jets,” (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1983).

Sasaki, T.

A. Nakamura, K. Ishii, T. Sasaki, “Application of image converter camera to measure flame propagation in S.I. engine,” SAE Paper 890322 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1988).

Sato, G. T.

H. Kuniyoshi, H. Tanabe, G. T. Sato, H. Fujimoto, “Investigation on the characteristics of Diesel fuel spray,” SAE Paper 800968 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1981).

Schihl, P.

P. Schihl, W. Bryzik, A. Atreya, “Analysis of current spray penetration models and proposal of a phenomenological cone penetration model,” SAE Paper 960773 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

Schindler, K. P.

C. Arcoumanis, J. H. Whitelaw, W. Hentschel, K. P. Schindler, “Flow and combustion in a transparent 1.9 litre direct injection Diesel engine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D. 208, 191–205 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Senda, J.

T. Dan, T. Yamamoto, J. Senda, H. Fujimoto, “Effect of nozzle configurations for characteristics of non-reacting Diesel fuel sprays,” SAE Paper 970355 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

Siebers, D. L.

D. L. Siebers, “Liquid-phase fuel penetration in Diesel sprays,” SAE Paper 980809 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

J. D. Naber, D. L. Siebers, “Effects of gas density and vaporization on penetration and dispersion of Diesel sprays,” SAE Paper 960034 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).

Steinberger, R. L.

K. J. Wu, C. C. Su, R. L. Steinberger, D. A. Santavicca, F. V. Bracco, “Measurements of the spray angle of atomising jets,” (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1983).

Su, C. C.

K. J. Wu, C. C. Su, R. L. Steinberger, D. A. Santavicca, F. V. Bracco, “Measurements of the spray angle of atomising jets,” (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1983).

Tanabe, H.

H. Kuniyoshi, H. Tanabe, G. T. Sato, H. Fujimoto, “Investigation on the characteristics of Diesel fuel spray,” SAE Paper 800968 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1981).

Tsnuneya, R.

Y. Wakuri, M. Fujii, T. Amitani, R. Tsnuneya, “Studies of the penetration of a fuel spray in a Diesel engine,” Bull. JSME 3, (9), 123–130 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Wakuri, Y.

Y. Wakuri, M. Fujii, T. Amitani, R. Tsnuneya, “Studies of the penetration of a fuel spray in a Diesel engine,” Bull. JSME 3, (9), 123–130 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Whitelaw, J. H.

C. Arcoumanis, J. H. Whitelaw, W. Hentschel, K. P. Schindler, “Flow and combustion in a transparent 1.9 litre direct injection Diesel engine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D. 208, 191–205 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wiesler, B.

E. Winklhofer, B. Ahmadi-Befrui, B. Wiesler, G. Cresnoverh, “The influence of injection rate shaping on diesel fuel sprays—an experimental study,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D. 206, 173–182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Winklhofer, E.

E. Winklhofer, B. Ahmadi-Befrui, B. Wiesler, G. Cresnoverh, “The influence of injection rate shaping on diesel fuel sprays—an experimental study,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D. 206, 173–182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wintz, P.

R. C. Gonzalez, P. Wintz, Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1992).

Wu, K. J.

K. J. Wu, C. C. Su, R. L. Steinberger, D. A. Santavicca, F. V. Bracco, “Measurements of the spray angle of atomising jets,” (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1983).

Yamamoto, T.

T. Dan, T. Yamamoto, J. Senda, H. Fujimoto, “Effect of nozzle configurations for characteristics of non-reacting Diesel fuel sprays,” SAE Paper 970355 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

Bull. JSME (1)

Y. Wakuri, M. Fujii, T. Amitani, R. Tsnuneya, “Studies of the penetration of a fuel spray in a Diesel engine,” Bull. JSME 3, (9), 123–130 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Chem. Eng. (1)

W. E. Ranz, “Some experiments on orifice sprays,” Can. J. Chem. Eng. 36, 175–181 (1958).
[CrossRef]

CVGIP Graph. Models Image Process. (1)

C. A. Glasbey, “An analysis of histograms-based thresholding algorithms,” CVGIP Graph. Models Image Process. 55, 532–537 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

V. Barranco López, P. L. Luque Escamilla, J. Martinez Aroca, R. R. Román Roldán, “Entropic texture edge detection for image segmentation,” Electron. Lett. 31, 867–869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Entropie (1)

F. Payri, J. V. Pastor, J. Arrègle, “Endoscopic high speed visualisation of injection and combustion processes in a D.I. Diesel engine,” Entropie 200, 7–15 (1996).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

J. Lin, “Divergence measures based on the Shannon entropy,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 37, 145–150 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. PAMI-8, 679–686 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pattern Recognition (1)

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[CrossRef]

Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A. (1)

E. R. Karimi, “High-speed photography of fuel spray and combustion events in a production diesel engine and combustion bomb,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A. 203, 269–281 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D. (2)

E. Winklhofer, B. Ahmadi-Befrui, B. Wiesler, G. Cresnoverh, “The influence of injection rate shaping on diesel fuel sprays—an experimental study,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D. 206, 173–182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Arcoumanis, J. H. Whitelaw, W. Hentschel, K. P. Schindler, “Flow and combustion in a transparent 1.9 litre direct injection Diesel engine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D. 208, 191–205 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Injection chamber: (1) injector, (2) flow straightener, and (3) window.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical layout for shadowgraphy: (1) RGB camera, (2) injection chamber, (3) opal glass diffuser, (4), (5) convergent lenses, (6) light guide, and (7) stroboscopic lamp.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of segmentation algorithms results: (a) original image, (b) the Canny’s filter, (c) Jensen–Shannon entropy method, and (d) proposed algorithm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spray axis and cone angle definitions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental validation for different settings.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical layout in the swirl injection chamber: (1) RGB camera, (2) injection chamber, (3) opal glass diffuser, (4) quartz window, (5) light probe, (6) light guide, and (7) stroboscopic lamp.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example of the application of the proposed algorithm to an image obtained in the swirl chamber: (a) original image and (b) detected edge over the equalized image.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical layout in the endoscopic accessible engine: (1) stroboscopic lamp, (2) RGB camera, (3) flexible optical linkage, (4) light guide, (5) endoscopes and light probe, (6) quartz windows, (7) injector, (8) cylinder head, and (9) cylinder.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Example of the application of the proposed algorithm to an image obtained in the single-cylinder engine: (a) original image and (b) detected edge over the equalized image.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

px=PDpDx+PBpBx,
EBT=T pBxdx,
EDT=-T pDxdx.
εT=PDEDT+PBEBT.
if lx=pBxpDx<PDPB=Uxspray;else xbackground,
hx=-ln lx=-ln pDx+ln pBx,
if hx>ln Uxspray;else xbackground.
hT=-ln pDT+ln pBT=lnPDPB.
hT=T21σB2-1σD2-2TMBσB2-MDσD2+MB2σB2-MB2σD2+lnσB2PD2σD2PB2=0.
hX¯=12X¯-M¯BT ΣB-1X¯-M¯B-12X¯-M¯DT×ΣD-1X¯-M¯D+12ln|ΣB|PD2|ΣD|PB2=0,
ΣB=σRB2000σGB2000σBB2,
ΣD=σRD2000σGD2000σDB2.
r=Ar3+Br2+Cr+D,

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