Abstract

Multispot diffuse configuration (MSDC) for indoor wireless optical communications, utilizing multibeam transmitter and angle diversity detection, is one of the most promising ways of achieving high capacities for use in high-bandwidth islands such as classrooms, hotel lobbies, shopping malls, and train stations. Typically, the optical front end of the receiver consists of an optical concentrator to increase the received optical signal power and an optical bandpass filter to reject the ambient light. Using the unique properties of holographic optical elements (HOE), we propose a novel design for the receiver optical subsystem used in MSDC. With a holographic curved mirror as an optical front end, the receiver would achieve more than an 10-dB improvement in the electrical signal-to-noise ratio compared with a bare photodetector. Features such as multifunctionality of the HOE and the receiver’s small size, light weight, and low cost make the receiver front end a promising candidate for a user’s portable equipment in broadband indoor wireless multimedia access.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85, 265–298 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Yun, M. Kavehrad, “Spot diffusing and fly-eye receivers for indoor infrared wireless communications,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Selected Topics in Wireless Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 262–265.
  3. S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Indoor wireless infrared local access, multi-spot diffusing with computer generated holographic beam-splitter,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), Vol. 1, pp. 604–608.
  4. S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Multi-spot diffusing configuration for wireless infrared access,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 970–978 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. B. Carruthers, J. M. Kahn, “Angle diversity for nondirected wireless infrared communication,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 960–969 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K.-P. Ho, J. M. Kahn, “Compound parabolic concentrators for narrowband wireless infrared receivers,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1385–1395 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Kahn, R. You, P. Djahani, A. Weisbin, B. Teik, A. Tang, “Imaging diversity receivers for high-speed infrared wireless communication,” IEEE Communications Magazine, 36, No. 12, 88–94 (1998).
  8. A. P. Tang, J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, “Wireless infrared communication links using multi-beam transmitters and imaging receivers,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), Vol. 1, pp. 180–186.
  9. L. Solymar, D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, New York, 1981).
  10. S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Multi-spot diffusing configuration for wireless infrared access: joint optimization of multi-beam transmitter and angle diversity receiver,” in Optical Wireless Communication II, E. J. Korevaar, ed., Proc. SPIE3850, 72–77 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. T. Welford, R. Winston, High Collection Non-imaging Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989).

2000 (2)

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Multi-spot diffusing configuration for wireless infrared access,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 970–978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Carruthers, J. M. Kahn, “Angle diversity for nondirected wireless infrared communication,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 960–969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Kahn, R. You, P. Djahani, A. Weisbin, B. Teik, A. Tang, “Imaging diversity receivers for high-speed infrared wireless communication,” IEEE Communications Magazine, 36, No. 12, 88–94 (1998).

1997 (1)

M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85, 265–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K.-P. Ho, J. M. Kahn, “Compound parabolic concentrators for narrowband wireless infrared receivers,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1385–1395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barry, J. R.

M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85, 265–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carruthers, J. B.

J. B. Carruthers, J. M. Kahn, “Angle diversity for nondirected wireless infrared communication,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 960–969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, D. J.

L. Solymar, D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, New York, 1981).

Djahani, P.

J. Kahn, R. You, P. Djahani, A. Weisbin, B. Teik, A. Tang, “Imaging diversity receivers for high-speed infrared wireless communication,” IEEE Communications Magazine, 36, No. 12, 88–94 (1998).

Ho, K.-P.

K.-P. Ho, J. M. Kahn, “Compound parabolic concentrators for narrowband wireless infrared receivers,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1385–1395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Tang, J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, “Wireless infrared communication links using multi-beam transmitters and imaging receivers,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), Vol. 1, pp. 180–186.

Jivkova, S.

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Multi-spot diffusing configuration for wireless infrared access,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 970–978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Indoor wireless infrared local access, multi-spot diffusing with computer generated holographic beam-splitter,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), Vol. 1, pp. 604–608.

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Multi-spot diffusing configuration for wireless infrared access: joint optimization of multi-beam transmitter and angle diversity receiver,” in Optical Wireless Communication II, E. J. Korevaar, ed., Proc. SPIE3850, 72–77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, J.

J. Kahn, R. You, P. Djahani, A. Weisbin, B. Teik, A. Tang, “Imaging diversity receivers for high-speed infrared wireless communication,” IEEE Communications Magazine, 36, No. 12, 88–94 (1998).

Kahn, J. M.

J. B. Carruthers, J. M. Kahn, “Angle diversity for nondirected wireless infrared communication,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 960–969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K.-P. Ho, J. M. Kahn, “Compound parabolic concentrators for narrowband wireless infrared receivers,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1385–1395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Tang, J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, “Wireless infrared communication links using multi-beam transmitters and imaging receivers,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), Vol. 1, pp. 180–186.

Kahn, M.

M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85, 265–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kavehrad, M.

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Multi-spot diffusing configuration for wireless infrared access,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 970–978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Yun, M. Kavehrad, “Spot diffusing and fly-eye receivers for indoor infrared wireless communications,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Selected Topics in Wireless Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 262–265.

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Multi-spot diffusing configuration for wireless infrared access: joint optimization of multi-beam transmitter and angle diversity receiver,” in Optical Wireless Communication II, E. J. Korevaar, ed., Proc. SPIE3850, 72–77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Indoor wireless infrared local access, multi-spot diffusing with computer generated holographic beam-splitter,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), Vol. 1, pp. 604–608.

Solymar, L.

L. Solymar, D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, New York, 1981).

Tang, A.

J. Kahn, R. You, P. Djahani, A. Weisbin, B. Teik, A. Tang, “Imaging diversity receivers for high-speed infrared wireless communication,” IEEE Communications Magazine, 36, No. 12, 88–94 (1998).

Tang, A. P.

A. P. Tang, J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, “Wireless infrared communication links using multi-beam transmitters and imaging receivers,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), Vol. 1, pp. 180–186.

Teik, B.

J. Kahn, R. You, P. Djahani, A. Weisbin, B. Teik, A. Tang, “Imaging diversity receivers for high-speed infrared wireless communication,” IEEE Communications Magazine, 36, No. 12, 88–94 (1998).

Weisbin, A.

J. Kahn, R. You, P. Djahani, A. Weisbin, B. Teik, A. Tang, “Imaging diversity receivers for high-speed infrared wireless communication,” IEEE Communications Magazine, 36, No. 12, 88–94 (1998).

Welford, W. T.

W. T. Welford, R. Winston, High Collection Non-imaging Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989).

Winston, R.

W. T. Welford, R. Winston, High Collection Non-imaging Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989).

You, R.

J. Kahn, R. You, P. Djahani, A. Weisbin, B. Teik, A. Tang, “Imaging diversity receivers for high-speed infrared wireless communication,” IEEE Communications Magazine, 36, No. 12, 88–94 (1998).

Yun, G.

G. Yun, M. Kavehrad, “Spot diffusing and fly-eye receivers for indoor infrared wireless communications,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Selected Topics in Wireless Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 262–265.

IEEE Communications Magazine (1)

J. Kahn, R. You, P. Djahani, A. Weisbin, B. Teik, A. Tang, “Imaging diversity receivers for high-speed infrared wireless communication,” IEEE Communications Magazine, 36, No. 12, 88–94 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Multi-spot diffusing configuration for wireless infrared access,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 970–978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Carruthers, J. M. Kahn, “Angle diversity for nondirected wireless infrared communication,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 960–969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

K.-P. Ho, J. M. Kahn, “Compound parabolic concentrators for narrowband wireless infrared receivers,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1385–1395 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85, 265–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

G. Yun, M. Kavehrad, “Spot diffusing and fly-eye receivers for indoor infrared wireless communications,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Selected Topics in Wireless Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 262–265.

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Indoor wireless infrared local access, multi-spot diffusing with computer generated holographic beam-splitter,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), Vol. 1, pp. 604–608.

A. P. Tang, J. M. Kahn, K.-P. Ho, “Wireless infrared communication links using multi-beam transmitters and imaging receivers,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), Vol. 1, pp. 180–186.

L. Solymar, D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, New York, 1981).

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Multi-spot diffusing configuration for wireless infrared access: joint optimization of multi-beam transmitter and angle diversity receiver,” in Optical Wireless Communication II, E. J. Korevaar, ed., Proc. SPIE3850, 72–77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Welford, R. Winston, High Collection Non-imaging Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Reflection hologram recorded by two plane waves. (b) Angular and spectral selectivity for θ1 = 0, θ2 = π, λ = 850 nm, n = 1.5, Δn = 0.01, d = 60 µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Angular and (b) spectral selectivity of a reflection hologram (θ1 = 0, θ2 = π, λ = 850 nm, n = 1.5, d = 60 µm) for different amplitudes of the refractive-index grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Angular and (b) spectral selectivity of a reflection hologram (θ1 = 0, θ2 = π, λ = 850 nm, n = 1.5, Δn = 0.01) for different thicknesses of the recording medium.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Recording of a spherical holographic mirror on a spherical substrate. (b) A holographic spherical mirror as a receiver optical front end.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angular dependence of the receiver effective area at the wavelength for which (AS)bg, eff takes maximum value. (a) R = 5 cm, ρ = 5 mm, h = R/2; (b) r = 1.5 cm, ρ = 5 mm, h = R/2; (c) R = 5 cm, r = 1.5 cm, h = R/2; (d) R = 5 cm, r = 1.5 cm, ρ = 5 mm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral dependence of the receiver effective area-solid angle product for different geometrical configurations. An isotropic distribution of the optical power is assumed. (a) R = 5 cm, ρ = 5 mm, h = R/2; (b) r = 1.5 cm, ρ = 5 mm, h = R/2; (c) R = 5 cm, r = 1.5cm, h = R/2; (d) R = 5 cm, r = 1.5 cm, ρ = 5 mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Signal effective area for different signal wavelengths and (b) spectral response of a holographic spherical mirror for an isotropic ambient light (r = 1.5 cm, R = 4.8 cm, ρ = 5 mm, h = 2.4 cm).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Signal gain and (b) figure-of-merit gain for a holographic spherical mirror and an ideal concentrator combined with different interference filters.

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2nΛ sin θ=λ,
η=1+1-ξ2/μ2sinh2μ2-ξ21/2-1,
Ω=βΔθ sinθ1-θ2+Δβ1-cosθ1-θ2,
Φsϕ, λ=r=0rψ=02π Esηϕ, r, ψ; λr1-r/R21/2×cos ϕdψdr=EsAs,effϕ, λ,
Φbg=λ=0ϕ=0π/2r=0rψ=02π Lbgηϕ, r, ψ; λr1-r/R2×2π sin ϕ cos ϕdψdrdϕdλ
=Lbgλ=0ASbg,effdλ,
Φsϕ=EsTAin cos ϕ=EsAs, effidϕ,
Φbg=LbgTAin4π sin2FOV2Δλ=LbgASbg, effidΔλ.
SNRoptidϕ=ΦsϕΦbg=EsLbgcos ϕ4π sin2FOV2Δλ,
SNRelidϕ  Φs2ϕΦbg=Es2LbgTAin cos2 ϕ4π sin2FOV2Δλ.
Midϕ=TAin cos2 ϕ4π sin2FOV2Δλ.
SNRϕ  Φs2ϕΦbg=Es2LbgAs, eff2λ=0ASbg, effdλ,
Mϕ=As, eff2λ=0ASbg, effdλ.
Gsid=10 logEsTAin cos ϕEsAout cos ϕ=10 logTAinAout,
Gsϕ=10 log×r=0rψ=02π Esηϕ, r, ψ; λr1-r/R21/2cos ϕdψdrEsAout cos ϕ=10 logAs, effAout cos ϕ.
GMid=10 logTAin cos2 ϕ4π sin2FOV2Δλ4π sin2FOV2200Aout cos2 ϕ=10 log200TAinΔλAout.
GMϕ=10 log×As, eff2λ=0ASbg, effdλ4π sin2FOV2200Aout cos2 ϕ.

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