Abstract

Angular and polarimetric directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR) measurements of three highly absorbing appliqués in the 2.5–14.3-µm IR spectral region are presented. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images are presented to probe the surface morphology of these appliqués. DHR measurements of Energy Science Laboratory, Incorporated (ESLI), Rippey, and Rodel appliqués were obtained at incidence angles of 8°, 30°, and 50° and as a function of S, P, and unpolarized incident light. The ESLI appliqué exhibited the lowest DHR for all angles and incident polarization states. SEM images revealed a fibrous structure for the ESLI appliqué with fiber diameters of the order of 7–8 µm, whereas the Rippey and the Rodel appliqués showed spongelike surfaces with pore diameters of 40–50 and 30–40 µm, respectively. All the appliqués use cavities or fibers in conjunction with carbon compounds to absorb IR radiation. The optical system designed to perform these measurements, a method for correcting off-normal DHR measurements in center-mount integrating spheres, and sources of measurement error are also discussed.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. M. Pompea, R. P. Breault, Handbook of Optics, II (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Chap. 37.
  2. M. J. Persky, “Review of black surfaces for space-borne infrared systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2193–2217 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. R. Meier, M. L. Korwin, C. I. Merzbacher, “Carbon aerogel: a new nonreflective material for the infrared,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3940–3944 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Direct inquiries to Tim Knowles at the Energy Science Laboratories, 6888 Nancy Ridge Road, San Diego, Calif. 92121.
  6. Direct inquiries to Chris Bhaten at the Rippey Corporation, 5000 Hillsdale Circle, El Dorado Hills, Calif. 95762.
  7. Direct inquiries to Tara MacDonald at Rodel, 9495 E. San Salvador Drive, Scottsdale, Ariz. 85258.
  8. The mention of manufacturers and model names is intended solely for the purpose of technical information to the reader and should not be construed as an endorsement of the named manufacturer or product.
  9. A Guide to Integrating Sphere Photometry and Radiometry, Labsphere Technical Guide (Labsphere, Incorporated, North Sutton, N.H., 1994), pp. 5–6.
  10. S. G. Kaplan, L. M. Hanssen, “FT-IR based polarimeter with high-quality Brewster angle polarizers,” in Optical Diagnostic Methods for Inorganic Transmissive Materials, R. J. Datlu, L. M. Hanssen, eds., Proc. SPIE3425, 239–247 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. M. Hanssen, S. G. Kaplan, “Infrared diffuse reflectance instrumentation and standards at NIST,” Anal. Chim. Acta 380, 289–302 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. A. Snail, L. M. Hanssen, “Conic mirror reflectometers,” in Applied Spectroscopy: A Compact Reference for Practioners, J. Workman, A. Springsteen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1998), pp. 284–295.
  13. F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” NBS Monogr. 160 (U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C., 1977).
  14. S. R. Meier, R. G. Priest, “Mueller matrix measurements of black and white materials in the infrared,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 82–91 (2000).

2000

1999

L. M. Hanssen, S. G. Kaplan, “Infrared diffuse reflectance instrumentation and standards at NIST,” Anal. Chim. Acta 380, 289–302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Persky, “Review of black surfaces for space-borne infrared systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2193–2217 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Breault, R. P.

S. M. Pompea, R. P. Breault, Handbook of Optics, II (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Chap. 37.

Brown, D. P.

K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Costantino, J.

K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ginsberg, I. W.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” NBS Monogr. 160 (U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Hanssen, L. M.

L. M. Hanssen, S. G. Kaplan, “Infrared diffuse reflectance instrumentation and standards at NIST,” Anal. Chim. Acta 380, 289–302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kaplan, L. M. Hanssen, “FT-IR based polarimeter with high-quality Brewster angle polarizers,” in Optical Diagnostic Methods for Inorganic Transmissive Materials, R. J. Datlu, L. M. Hanssen, eds., Proc. SPIE3425, 239–247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Snail, L. M. Hanssen, “Conic mirror reflectometers,” in Applied Spectroscopy: A Compact Reference for Practioners, J. Workman, A. Springsteen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1998), pp. 284–295.

Hsia, J. J.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” NBS Monogr. 160 (U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Kaplan, S. G.

L. M. Hanssen, S. G. Kaplan, “Infrared diffuse reflectance instrumentation and standards at NIST,” Anal. Chim. Acta 380, 289–302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Kaplan, L. M. Hanssen, “FT-IR based polarimeter with high-quality Brewster angle polarizers,” in Optical Diagnostic Methods for Inorganic Transmissive Materials, R. J. Datlu, L. M. Hanssen, eds., Proc. SPIE3425, 239–247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knowles, T. R.

K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Korwin, M. L.

Limperis, T.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” NBS Monogr. 160 (U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Lynn, W. F.

K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meier, S. R.

S. R. Meier, M. L. Korwin, C. I. Merzbacher, “Carbon aerogel: a new nonreflective material for the infrared,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3940–3944 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Meier, R. G. Priest, “Mueller matrix measurements of black and white materials in the infrared,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 82–91 (2000).

Merzbacher, C. I.

Nicodemus, F. E.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” NBS Monogr. 160 (U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Persky, M. J.

M. J. Persky, “Review of black surfaces for space-borne infrared systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2193–2217 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pompea, S. M.

S. M. Pompea, R. P. Breault, Handbook of Optics, II (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Chap. 37.

Priest, R. G.

S. R. Meier, R. G. Priest, “Mueller matrix measurements of black and white materials in the infrared,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 82–91 (2000).

Richmond, J. C.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” NBS Monogr. 160 (U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Schmidt, C. W.

K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seaman, C. L.

K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shemano, W. C.

K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snail, K. A.

K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Snail, L. M. Hanssen, “Conic mirror reflectometers,” in Applied Spectroscopy: A Compact Reference for Practioners, J. Workman, A. Springsteen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1998), pp. 284–295.

Anal. Chim. Acta

L. M. Hanssen, S. G. Kaplan, “Infrared diffuse reflectance instrumentation and standards at NIST,” Anal. Chim. Acta 380, 289–302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

M. J. Persky, “Review of black surfaces for space-borne infrared systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2193–2217 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. M. Pompea, R. P. Breault, Handbook of Optics, II (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Chap. 37.

K. A. Snail, L. M. Hanssen, “Conic mirror reflectometers,” in Applied Spectroscopy: A Compact Reference for Practioners, J. Workman, A. Springsteen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1998), pp. 284–295.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, T. Limperis, “Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” NBS Monogr. 160 (U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C., 1977).

S. R. Meier, R. G. Priest, “Mueller matrix measurements of black and white materials in the infrared,” in Polarization Analysis and Measurement III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE4133, 82–91 (2000).

K. A. Snail, D. P. Brown, J. Costantino, W. C. Shemano, C. W. Schmidt, W. F. Lynn, C. L. Seaman, T. R. Knowles, “Optical characterization of black appliqués,” in Optical System Contamination V and Stray Light and System Optimization, A. P. M. Glassford, R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, eds., Proc. SPIE2864, 465–474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Direct inquiries to Tim Knowles at the Energy Science Laboratories, 6888 Nancy Ridge Road, San Diego, Calif. 92121.

Direct inquiries to Chris Bhaten at the Rippey Corporation, 5000 Hillsdale Circle, El Dorado Hills, Calif. 95762.

Direct inquiries to Tara MacDonald at Rodel, 9495 E. San Salvador Drive, Scottsdale, Ariz. 85258.

The mention of manufacturers and model names is intended solely for the purpose of technical information to the reader and should not be construed as an endorsement of the named manufacturer or product.

A Guide to Integrating Sphere Photometry and Radiometry, Labsphere Technical Guide (Labsphere, Incorporated, North Sutton, N.H., 1994), pp. 5–6.

S. G. Kaplan, L. M. Hanssen, “FT-IR based polarimeter with high-quality Brewster angle polarizers,” in Optical Diagnostic Methods for Inorganic Transmissive Materials, R. J. Datlu, L. M. Hanssen, eds., Proc. SPIE3425, 239–247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical system used to obtain angular and polarimetric DHR measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Correction curves for DHR measurements at incidence angles of 20°, 30°, 40°, and 50° normalized to the reflectance at an 8° incidence angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) DHR measurements of the ESLI, Rippey, and Rodel appliqués obtained with incident unpolarized light at an incidence angle of 8° off normal in the 2.5–14.3-µm IR wavelength region, (b) DHR measurements of the ESLI, Rippey, and Rodel appliqués obtained with incident S-polarized light at an incidence angle of 8° off normal in the 2.5–14.3-µm IR wavelength region, (c) DHR measurements of the ESLI, Rippey, and Rodel appliqués obtained with incident P-polarized light at an incidence angle of 8° off normal in the 2.5–14.3-µm IR wavelength region.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) DHR measurements of the ESLI, Rippey, and Rodel appliqués obtained with incident unpolarized light at an incidence angle of 30° off normal in the 2.5–14.3-µm IR wavelength region, (b) DHR measurements of the ESLI, Rippey, and Rodel appliqués obtained with incident S-polarized light at an incidence angle of 30° off normal in the 2.5–14.3-µm IR wavelength region, (c) DHR measurements of the ESLI, Rippey, and Rodel appliqués obtained with incident P-polarized light at an incidence angle of 30° off normal in the 2.5–14.3-µm IR wavelength region.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) DHR measurements of the ESLI, Rippey, and Rodel appliqués obtained with incident unpolarized light at an incidence angle of 50° off normal in the 2.5–14.3-µm IR wavelength region, (b) DHR measurements of the ESLI, Rippey, and Rodel appliqués obtained with incident S-polarized light at an incidence angle of 50° off normal in the 2.5–14.3-µm IR wavelength region, (c) DHR measurements of the ESLI, Rippey, and Rodel appliqués obtained with incident P-polarized light at an incidence angle of 50° off normal in the 2.5–14.3-µm IR wavelength region.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM images of (a) ESLI flocked appliqué at 1000×, (b) Rippey appliqué at 1000×, and (c) Rodel appliqué at 500×. Note the fibrous structure for the ESLI and spongelike morphology for both the Rippey and the Rodel appliqués.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τsphere=ΦeΦi=ρspherewall fe1-ρspherewall (1-fj),
ρθi, ϕi; 2π=fθi, ϕi; θs, ϕsdΩ,
ρsamθi, ϕi; 2π=fsamθi, ϕi; θs, ϕsdΩτsamsphθi, ϕifstdθi, ϕi; θs, ϕsdΩτstdsphθi, ϕi×ρstdabs8°, ϕi; 2π.
ρsamθi, ϕi; 2π=fsamθi, ϕi; θs, ϕsdΩτsamsphθi, ϕifstdθi, ϕi; θs, ϕsdΩτstdsphθi, ϕi×ρstdabs8°, ϕi; 2π×fstdθi, ϕi; θs, ϕsdΩτstdsphθi, ϕifstd8°, ϕi; θs, ϕsdΩτstdsph8°, ϕi.
ρsamθi, ϕi; 2π=fsamθi, ϕi; θs, ϕsdΩfstdθi, ϕo; θs, ϕsdΩ×ρstdabs8°, ϕi; 2π×fstdθi, ϕi; θs, ϕsdΩfstd8°, ϕi; θs, ϕsdΩ.
ρsamθi, ϕi; 2π=ρsamθi, ϕi; 2πρstdθi, ϕi; 2π×ρstdabs8°, ϕi; 2π×ρstdθi, ϕi; 2πρstd8°, ϕi; 2π.

Metrics