Abstract

An instrument to measure total integrated scattering (TIS) in space was built as part of the Optical Properties Monitor instrument package and flown on the Russian Mir Space Station in a low Earth orbit. TIS at two wavelengths was measured in space at approximately weekly intervals from 29 April to 26 December 1997 and telemetered to Earth during the mission. Of the 20 TIS samples, 13 are described here to illustrate the performance of the TIS instrument. These include ten optical samples and three thermal control samples. Two optical samples and one thermal control sample were severely degraded by atomic oxygen. All samples received a light dusting of particles during the mission and an additional heavier layer after the samples returned to Earth. The initial brassboard instrument and the validation tests of the flight instrument are also described.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. R. Gull, H. Herzig, J. F. Osantowski, A. R. Toft, “Low earth orbit environmental effects on osmium and related optical thin-film coatings,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2660–2665 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. N. Peters, J. C. Gregory, J. T. Swann, “Effects on optical systems from interactions with oxygen atoms in low Earth orbits,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1290–1298 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, C. M. Fleetwood, “Long-duration orbital effects on optical coating materials,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1798–1804 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, G. M. Blumenstock, C. M. Fleetwood, D.-R. Schmitt, “Effects of space exposure on ion-beam-deposited silicon-carbide and boron-carbide coatings,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8038–8042 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. M. Donovan, J. M. Bennett, R. Z. Dalbey, D. K. Burge, S. Gyetvay, “Space environmental effects on coated optics,” in Proceedings of the First Post-Retrieval Symposium: LDEF—69 Months in Space, Kissimmee, Florida, 2–8 June 1991, NASA Conference Publication 3134 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1991), Pt. 3, pp. 1361–1365.
  6. M. D. Blue, D. W. Roberts, “Effects of space exposure on optical filters,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5299–5303 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. R. Wilkes, “Thermal control surfaces experiment,” (AZ Technology, Huntsville, Ala., 1997); reissued by NASA as (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1999).
  8. D. R. Wilkes, J. M. Zwiener, “Science data report, optical properties monitor (OPM),” Final Contract Rep. NAS8-39237, AZ Technology Rep. 91-1-118-169 (AZ Technology, Huntsville, Ala., 1999).
  9. P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, London, 1963).
  10. H. E. Bennett, J. O. Porteus, “Relation between surface roughness and specular reflectance at normal incidence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 123–129 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), Chaps. 3C and 4E.
  12. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  13. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).
  14. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  15. J. L. Pezzaniti, J. B. Hadaway, R. A. Chipman, D. Wilkes, L. Hummer, J. M. Bennett, “Total integrated scatter instrument for in-space monitoring of surface degradation,” in Optical System Contamination: Effects, Measurement, Control II, A. M. Glassford, ed., Proc. SPIE1329, 200–210 (1990).
  16. J. B. Hadaway, A. Ahmad, J. M. Bennett, “Final design, assembly, and testing of a space-based total integrated scatter instrument,” in Scattering and Surface Roughness, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3141, 209–219 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. ATX Telecom Systems, Incorporated, a Scientific-Atlanta company, 1251 Frontenac Road, Naperville, Ill. 60530, http://www.sciatl.com .
  18. TFR Laboratories, 136A East Main Street, Center Moriches, N.Y. 11934, http://www.tflc.com .
  19. Opti-Forms, Incorporated, 42310 Winchester Road, Temecula, Calif. 92590; e-mail, info@opti-forms.com.
  20. Hamamatsu Corporation, Subsidiary of Photonic Management Corporation, 360 Foothill Road, P.O. Box 6910, Bridgewater, N.J. 08807–0910, http://www.hamamatsu.com .
  21. Labsphere, Incorporated, Subsidiary of X-Rite, Incorporated, Shaker Street, P.O. Box 70, North Sutton, N.H. 03260-0070, http://www.labsphere.com .
  22. G. Nomarski, “Microinterféromètre différentiel à ondes polarisées,” J. Phys. Rad. 16, 9S–13S (1955).
  23. G. Nomarski, A. R. Weill, “Application à la métallographie des méthodes interférentielles à deux ondes polarisées,” Rev. Metall. (Paris) 52, 121–134 (1955).
  24. AFM measurements were made at the company headquarters: Digital Instruments, a division of Veeco Process Metrology, 112 Robin Hill Road, Goleta, Calif. 93117, http://www.di.com .
  25. See Ref. 8, pp. 81–83.

1998 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

1961 (1)

1955 (2)

G. Nomarski, “Microinterféromètre différentiel à ondes polarisées,” J. Phys. Rad. 16, 9S–13S (1955).

G. Nomarski, A. R. Weill, “Application à la métallographie des méthodes interférentielles à deux ondes polarisées,” Rev. Metall. (Paris) 52, 121–134 (1955).

Ahmad, A.

J. B. Hadaway, A. Ahmad, J. M. Bennett, “Final design, assembly, and testing of a space-based total integrated scatter instrument,” in Scattering and Surface Roughness, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3141, 209–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beckmann, P.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, London, 1963).

Bennett, H. E.

Bennett, J. M.

J. B. Hadaway, A. Ahmad, J. M. Bennett, “Final design, assembly, and testing of a space-based total integrated scatter instrument,” in Scattering and Surface Roughness, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3141, 209–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), Chaps. 3C and 4E.

T. M. Donovan, J. M. Bennett, R. Z. Dalbey, D. K. Burge, S. Gyetvay, “Space environmental effects on coated optics,” in Proceedings of the First Post-Retrieval Symposium: LDEF—69 Months in Space, Kissimmee, Florida, 2–8 June 1991, NASA Conference Publication 3134 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1991), Pt. 3, pp. 1361–1365.

J. L. Pezzaniti, J. B. Hadaway, R. A. Chipman, D. Wilkes, L. Hummer, J. M. Bennett, “Total integrated scatter instrument for in-space monitoring of surface degradation,” in Optical System Contamination: Effects, Measurement, Control II, A. M. Glassford, ed., Proc. SPIE1329, 200–210 (1990).

Blue, M. D.

Blumenstock, G. M.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Burge, D. K.

T. M. Donovan, J. M. Bennett, R. Z. Dalbey, D. K. Burge, S. Gyetvay, “Space environmental effects on coated optics,” in Proceedings of the First Post-Retrieval Symposium: LDEF—69 Months in Space, Kissimmee, Florida, 2–8 June 1991, NASA Conference Publication 3134 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1991), Pt. 3, pp. 1361–1365.

Chipman, R. A.

J. L. Pezzaniti, J. B. Hadaway, R. A. Chipman, D. Wilkes, L. Hummer, J. M. Bennett, “Total integrated scatter instrument for in-space monitoring of surface degradation,” in Optical System Contamination: Effects, Measurement, Control II, A. M. Glassford, ed., Proc. SPIE1329, 200–210 (1990).

Dalbey, R. Z.

T. M. Donovan, J. M. Bennett, R. Z. Dalbey, D. K. Burge, S. Gyetvay, “Space environmental effects on coated optics,” in Proceedings of the First Post-Retrieval Symposium: LDEF—69 Months in Space, Kissimmee, Florida, 2–8 June 1991, NASA Conference Publication 3134 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1991), Pt. 3, pp. 1361–1365.

Donovan, T. M.

T. M. Donovan, J. M. Bennett, R. Z. Dalbey, D. K. Burge, S. Gyetvay, “Space environmental effects on coated optics,” in Proceedings of the First Post-Retrieval Symposium: LDEF—69 Months in Space, Kissimmee, Florida, 2–8 June 1991, NASA Conference Publication 3134 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1991), Pt. 3, pp. 1361–1365.

Fleetwood, C. M.

Gregory, J. C.

Gull, T. R.

Gyetvay, S.

T. M. Donovan, J. M. Bennett, R. Z. Dalbey, D. K. Burge, S. Gyetvay, “Space environmental effects on coated optics,” in Proceedings of the First Post-Retrieval Symposium: LDEF—69 Months in Space, Kissimmee, Florida, 2–8 June 1991, NASA Conference Publication 3134 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1991), Pt. 3, pp. 1361–1365.

Hadaway, J. B.

J. B. Hadaway, A. Ahmad, J. M. Bennett, “Final design, assembly, and testing of a space-based total integrated scatter instrument,” in Scattering and Surface Roughness, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3141, 209–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Pezzaniti, J. B. Hadaway, R. A. Chipman, D. Wilkes, L. Hummer, J. M. Bennett, “Total integrated scatter instrument for in-space monitoring of surface degradation,” in Optical System Contamination: Effects, Measurement, Control II, A. M. Glassford, ed., Proc. SPIE1329, 200–210 (1990).

Herzig, H.

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Hummer, L.

J. L. Pezzaniti, J. B. Hadaway, R. A. Chipman, D. Wilkes, L. Hummer, J. M. Bennett, “Total integrated scatter instrument for in-space monitoring of surface degradation,” in Optical System Contamination: Effects, Measurement, Control II, A. M. Glassford, ed., Proc. SPIE1329, 200–210 (1990).

Kerker, M.

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).

Keski-Kuha, R. A. M.

Mattsson, L.

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), Chaps. 3C and 4E.

Nomarski, G.

G. Nomarski, “Microinterféromètre différentiel à ondes polarisées,” J. Phys. Rad. 16, 9S–13S (1955).

G. Nomarski, A. R. Weill, “Application à la métallographie des méthodes interférentielles à deux ondes polarisées,” Rev. Metall. (Paris) 52, 121–134 (1955).

Osantowski, J. F.

Peters, P. N.

Pezzaniti, J. L.

J. L. Pezzaniti, J. B. Hadaway, R. A. Chipman, D. Wilkes, L. Hummer, J. M. Bennett, “Total integrated scatter instrument for in-space monitoring of surface degradation,” in Optical System Contamination: Effects, Measurement, Control II, A. M. Glassford, ed., Proc. SPIE1329, 200–210 (1990).

Porteus, J. O.

Roberts, D. W.

Schmitt, D.-R.

Spizzichino, A.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, London, 1963).

Swann, J. T.

Toft, A. R.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Weill, A. R.

G. Nomarski, A. R. Weill, “Application à la métallographie des méthodes interférentielles à deux ondes polarisées,” Rev. Metall. (Paris) 52, 121–134 (1955).

Wilkes, D.

J. L. Pezzaniti, J. B. Hadaway, R. A. Chipman, D. Wilkes, L. Hummer, J. M. Bennett, “Total integrated scatter instrument for in-space monitoring of surface degradation,” in Optical System Contamination: Effects, Measurement, Control II, A. M. Glassford, ed., Proc. SPIE1329, 200–210 (1990).

Wilkes, D. R.

D. R. Wilkes, J. M. Zwiener, “Science data report, optical properties monitor (OPM),” Final Contract Rep. NAS8-39237, AZ Technology Rep. 91-1-118-169 (AZ Technology, Huntsville, Ala., 1999).

D. R. Wilkes, “Thermal control surfaces experiment,” (AZ Technology, Huntsville, Ala., 1997); reissued by NASA as (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1999).

Zwiener, J. M.

D. R. Wilkes, J. M. Zwiener, “Science data report, optical properties monitor (OPM),” Final Contract Rep. NAS8-39237, AZ Technology Rep. 91-1-118-169 (AZ Technology, Huntsville, Ala., 1999).

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Rad. (1)

G. Nomarski, “Microinterféromètre différentiel à ondes polarisées,” J. Phys. Rad. 16, 9S–13S (1955).

Rev. Metall. (Paris) (1)

G. Nomarski, A. R. Weill, “Application à la métallographie des méthodes interférentielles à deux ondes polarisées,” Rev. Metall. (Paris) 52, 121–134 (1955).

Other (17)

AFM measurements were made at the company headquarters: Digital Instruments, a division of Veeco Process Metrology, 112 Robin Hill Road, Goleta, Calif. 93117, http://www.di.com .

See Ref. 8, pp. 81–83.

T. M. Donovan, J. M. Bennett, R. Z. Dalbey, D. K. Burge, S. Gyetvay, “Space environmental effects on coated optics,” in Proceedings of the First Post-Retrieval Symposium: LDEF—69 Months in Space, Kissimmee, Florida, 2–8 June 1991, NASA Conference Publication 3134 (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1991), Pt. 3, pp. 1361–1365.

D. R. Wilkes, “Thermal control surfaces experiment,” (AZ Technology, Huntsville, Ala., 1997); reissued by NASA as (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1999).

D. R. Wilkes, J. M. Zwiener, “Science data report, optical properties monitor (OPM),” Final Contract Rep. NAS8-39237, AZ Technology Rep. 91-1-118-169 (AZ Technology, Huntsville, Ala., 1999).

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, London, 1963).

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), Chaps. 3C and 4E.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

J. L. Pezzaniti, J. B. Hadaway, R. A. Chipman, D. Wilkes, L. Hummer, J. M. Bennett, “Total integrated scatter instrument for in-space monitoring of surface degradation,” in Optical System Contamination: Effects, Measurement, Control II, A. M. Glassford, ed., Proc. SPIE1329, 200–210 (1990).

J. B. Hadaway, A. Ahmad, J. M. Bennett, “Final design, assembly, and testing of a space-based total integrated scatter instrument,” in Scattering and Surface Roughness, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3141, 209–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

ATX Telecom Systems, Incorporated, a Scientific-Atlanta company, 1251 Frontenac Road, Naperville, Ill. 60530, http://www.sciatl.com .

TFR Laboratories, 136A East Main Street, Center Moriches, N.Y. 11934, http://www.tflc.com .

Opti-Forms, Incorporated, 42310 Winchester Road, Temecula, Calif. 92590; e-mail, info@opti-forms.com.

Hamamatsu Corporation, Subsidiary of Photonic Management Corporation, 360 Foothill Road, P.O. Box 6910, Bridgewater, N.J. 08807–0910, http://www.hamamatsu.com .

Labsphere, Incorporated, Subsidiary of X-Rite, Incorporated, Shaker Street, P.O. Box 70, North Sutton, N.H. 03260-0070, http://www.labsphere.com .

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the TIS instrument.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the OPM unit before flight showing the carousel sample holder. The TIS samples are in the third ring from the outside edge.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of the TIS instrument in the OPM before the flight. The back side of the Coblentz sphere is in the foreground, and the two black laser housings are in the background.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diagram of the Mir Space Station showing the location of the OPM mounted on the Kristall Docking Module.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TIS at 532 nm from preflight to postflight for the lowest-scatter samples. Solid curves: circles, niobia/silica; squares, zirconia/silica; triangles, silver; diamonds, MgF2/Al; inverted triangles, platinum. Dashed curves: squares, TiB2; circles, ZrB2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

TIS at 532 nm from preflight to postflight for the low-scatter samples: circles, CN on silicon; squares, DLC on silicon; diamonds, levelized aluminum sheet.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

TIS at 532 nm from preflight to postflight for the high-scatter samples: circles, chemical vapor deposition diamond; squares, Kapton; diamonds, blackened-aluminum sheet.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

TIS at 1064 nm for the lowest-scatter samples. Same materials and symbols as in Fig. 5.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

TIS at 1064 nm from preflight to postflight for the low-scatter samples. Same materials and symbols as in Fig. 6.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

TIS at 1064 nm from preflight to postflight for the high-scatter samples. Same materials and symbols as in Fig. 7.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

AFM image of the edge of a DLC film that was protected from the space environment.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

AFM image of the same DLC film in the central exposed area.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

AFM image of the same DLC film in a shadowed region near the edge.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

AFM image of the central eroded area of a CN film.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

AFM image of the protected edge of the same CN film.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Preflight Analysis of Flight Samples

Tables Icon

Table 2 Postflight Analysis of Flight Samples

Tables Icon

Table 3 rms Roughnesses (nm) from AFM Measurementsa

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

TIS=Rd/R0=R0-Rs/R0=1-exp-4πδ cos θ/λ2,
TIS4πδ/λ2.
TIS=scattered power/scattered power + specular power,

Metrics