Abstract

We present what we believe is a new hybrid objective consisting of a gradient-index optical element that has external flat refracting surfaces and is made of two different inhomogeneous materials separated by a cemented spherical surface. Microstructures of diffractive lenses are placed on the flat external surfaces of the objective. The most surprising property of this objective is that even calculation in the area of the third- and the fifth-order aberrations yields an efficient design for imaging with a Rayleigh resolution of 1 µm.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. A. Stepanov, G. I. Greisukh, “Aberration properties and the possibilities for correction of a glued Wood lens,” Opt. Spektrosk. 86, 460–465 (1999).
  2. G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Focusing properties of diffractive lenses,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 1.2, pp. 10–22.
  3. G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Design of a planar structure,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 10.2, pp. 372–376.
  4. P. J. Sands, “Inhomogeneous lenses. III. Paraxial optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 879–885 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Gradient-diffractive doublet,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 9.3, pp. 344–351.
  6. P. J. Sands, “Third-order aberrations of inhomogeneous lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1436–1443 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Aberrations of infinitely thin optical elements,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 1.3, pp. 22–34.
  8. G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Higher-order aberrations. Pseudorays,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 5.3, pp. 164–187.
  9. G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Criteria of image evaluation in optical system design,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 3.2, pp. 81–104.
  10. G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “High-resolution objectives using diffractive lenses,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Chap. 7, pp. 232–287.
  11. G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Hybrid objectives using gradient-index lenses,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Chap. 9, pp. 330–360.
  12. G. I. Greisukh, S. A. Stepanov, “Design of a cemented, radial gradient-index triplet,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2687–2690 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. I. Greisukh, S. A. Stepanov, E. G. Ezhov, “Correction possibilities of a component consisting of three cemented plane-parallel plates,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 146–148 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. I. Greisukh, S. A. Stepanov, E. G. Ezhov, “Triple cemented radial-gradient objectives,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 918–921 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1998 (1)

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

Bobrov, S. T.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Focusing properties of diffractive lenses,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 1.2, pp. 10–22.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Design of a planar structure,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 10.2, pp. 372–376.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Gradient-diffractive doublet,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 9.3, pp. 344–351.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Aberrations of infinitely thin optical elements,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 1.3, pp. 22–34.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Higher-order aberrations. Pseudorays,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 5.3, pp. 164–187.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Criteria of image evaluation in optical system design,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 3.2, pp. 81–104.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “High-resolution objectives using diffractive lenses,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Chap. 7, pp. 232–287.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Hybrid objectives using gradient-index lenses,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Chap. 9, pp. 330–360.

Ezhov, E. G.

Greisukh, G. I.

G. I. Greisukh, S. A. Stepanov, E. G. Ezhov, “Triple cemented radial-gradient objectives,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 918–921 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Greisukh, S. A. Stepanov, E. G. Ezhov, “Correction possibilities of a component consisting of three cemented plane-parallel plates,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 146–148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Stepanov, G. I. Greisukh, “Aberration properties and the possibilities for correction of a glued Wood lens,” Opt. Spektrosk. 86, 460–465 (1999).

G. I. Greisukh, S. A. Stepanov, “Design of a cemented, radial gradient-index triplet,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2687–2690 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “High-resolution objectives using diffractive lenses,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Chap. 7, pp. 232–287.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Hybrid objectives using gradient-index lenses,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Chap. 9, pp. 330–360.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Higher-order aberrations. Pseudorays,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 5.3, pp. 164–187.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Criteria of image evaluation in optical system design,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 3.2, pp. 81–104.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Focusing properties of diffractive lenses,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 1.2, pp. 10–22.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Design of a planar structure,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 10.2, pp. 372–376.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Aberrations of infinitely thin optical elements,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 1.3, pp. 22–34.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Gradient-diffractive doublet,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 9.3, pp. 344–351.

Sands, P. J.

Stepanov, S. A.

S. A. Stepanov, G. I. Greisukh, “Aberration properties and the possibilities for correction of a glued Wood lens,” Opt. Spektrosk. 86, 460–465 (1999).

G. I. Greisukh, S. A. Stepanov, E. G. Ezhov, “Correction possibilities of a component consisting of three cemented plane-parallel plates,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 146–148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Greisukh, S. A. Stepanov, E. G. Ezhov, “Triple cemented radial-gradient objectives,” J. Opt. Technol. 66, 918–921 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Greisukh, S. A. Stepanov, “Design of a cemented, radial gradient-index triplet,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2687–2690 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Hybrid objectives using gradient-index lenses,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Chap. 9, pp. 330–360.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Higher-order aberrations. Pseudorays,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 5.3, pp. 164–187.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “High-resolution objectives using diffractive lenses,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Chap. 7, pp. 232–287.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Criteria of image evaluation in optical system design,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 3.2, pp. 81–104.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Design of a planar structure,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 10.2, pp. 372–376.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Focusing properties of diffractive lenses,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 1.2, pp. 10–22.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Aberrations of infinitely thin optical elements,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 1.3, pp. 22–34.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Gradient-diffractive doublet,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 9.3, pp. 344–351.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Technol. (2)

Opt. Spektrosk. (1)

S. A. Stepanov, G. I. Greisukh, “Aberration properties and the possibilities for correction of a glued Wood lens,” Opt. Spektrosk. 86, 460–465 (1999).

Other (8)

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Focusing properties of diffractive lenses,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 1.2, pp. 10–22.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Design of a planar structure,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 10.2, pp. 372–376.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Gradient-diffractive doublet,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 9.3, pp. 344–351.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Aberrations of infinitely thin optical elements,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 1.3, pp. 22–34.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Higher-order aberrations. Pseudorays,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 5.3, pp. 164–187.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Criteria of image evaluation in optical system design,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Sec. 3.2, pp. 81–104.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “High-resolution objectives using diffractive lenses,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Chap. 7, pp. 232–287.

G. I. Greisukh, S. T. Bobrov, S. A. Stepanov, “Hybrid objectives using gradient-index lenses,” in Optics of Diffractive and Gradient-Index Elements and Systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Chap. 9, pp. 330–360.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diffractive-gradient-index cemented objective.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Astigmatic field curves of the objective corrected for the all third- and fifth-order monochromatic aberrations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Astigmatic field curves of the objective corrected for the third- and fifth-order aberrations exception for fifth-order distortion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Field aberration plots for the optimized variant of a high-resolution objective.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Distribution of the wave-front aberration within the exit pupil.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intensity distribution in the diffraction point image.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Refractive index distributions of (a) the frontal part and (b) subsequent parts of the CWL.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Design Parameters of the Objective Corrected for All Third- and Fifth-Order Monochromatic Aberrationsa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Design Parameters of the Objective Corrected for All Aberrations Except Fifth-Order Distortiona

Tables Icon

Table 3 Additional Design Parameters and Performance of the Objectives Obtained Beforea and Afterb Optimizationc

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ωρ=1λ0dG0dρ,
G0=0.5ΦDLρ2-p=0 b2p+3ρ2p+2
nρ=p=0 npρ2p.
1-ΦDL1β1ΦCSβ2ΦDL2+α1ΦDL1β2ΦDL2+α1ΦCSβ2ΦDL2+α2ΦDL1β1ΦCS+α2ΦDL1β1ΦDL2-α1α2ΦDL1-α1α2ΦCS-α1α2ΦDL2-ΦDL1β1γ2-β2ΦDL2γ1+α1γ2+α2γ1=0,
αm=F1mdm|n¯1m|,βm=F2mdm|n¯1m|n0m,γm=2n0mn1mβm,
F1d|n¯1|=cosd-n¯1, n10coshdn¯1, n1>0,F2d|n¯1|=sind-n¯1-n¯1n10sinhdn¯1n¯1n1>0,
n¯1=2n1/n0.
2n01n02m=12n1mdm/n0m2-ΦCS=0.
AΦDLm, r, dm, n0m, n1m+m=12 b3mBmΦDLm, r, dm, n0m, n1m+m=12 n2mCmΦDLm, r, dm, n0m, n1m=0
UΦDLm, b3m, r, dm, n0m, n1m, n2mm=12 b5mVmΦDLm, b3m, r, dm, n0m, n1m, n2m+m=12 n3mWmΦDLm, b3m, r, dm, n0m, n1m, n2m=0
sF=ΦDL1β1ΦCSβ2-α1ΦDL1β2-α1ΦCSβ2-α2ΦDL1β1+β2γ1+α1α2.
r>0.5f, d1+d2<2.5f, |n1m|<1.8/f2,0.1fsFf.

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