Abstract

We demonstrate 100-nm-resolution holographic aerial image monitoring based on lensless Fourier-transform holography at extreme-UV (EUV) wavelengths, using synchrotron-based illumination. This method can be used to monitor the coherent imaging performance of EUV lithographic optical systems. The system has been implemented in the EUV phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer recently developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Here we introduce the idea of the holographic aerial image-recording technique and present imaging performance characterization results for a 10× Schwarzschild objective, a prototype EUV lithographic optic. The results are compared with simulations, and good agreement is obtained. Various object patterns, including phase-shift-enhanced patterns, have been studied. Finally, the application of the holographic aerial image-recording technique to EUV multilayer mask-blank defect characterization is discussed.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Williamson, “The elusive diffraction limit,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, D. Attwood, F. Zernike, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 68–76 (1995).
  2. S. Lee, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “EUV holographic aerial image recording,” in SPIE Microlithography Conference in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 823–828 (2000).
  3. J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).
  4. H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “A phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, “EUV interferometric measurements of diffraction-limited optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2982–2986 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, C. Chang, P. Batson, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Recent advances in EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 154–163 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2987–2991 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. These data are available at http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_ constants/.
  10. P. Rai-Choudhury, Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining, and Microfabrication (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 74–82.
  11. S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. H. Lee, J. Bokor, P. Naulleau, S. Jeong, K. A. Goldberg, “Extreme ultraviolet holographic microscopy and its application to extreme ultraviolet mask-blank defect characterization,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2935–2938 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. H. Lee, J. Bokor, P. Naulleau, S. Jeong, K. A. Goldberg, “Extreme ultraviolet holographic microscopy and its application to extreme ultraviolet mask-blank defect characterization,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2935–2938 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, “EUV interferometric measurements of diffraction-limited optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2982–2986 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2987–2991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Attwood, D.

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, C. Chang, P. Batson, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Recent advances in EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 154–163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S. L.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Batson, P.

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, C. Chang, P. Batson, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Recent advances in EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 154–163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

S. H. Lee, J. Bokor, P. Naulleau, S. Jeong, K. A. Goldberg, “Extreme ultraviolet holographic microscopy and its application to extreme ultraviolet mask-blank defect characterization,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2935–2938 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, “EUV interferometric measurements of diffraction-limited optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2982–2986 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2987–2991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “A phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lee, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “EUV holographic aerial image recording,” in SPIE Microlithography Conference in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 823–828 (2000).

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, C. Chang, P. Batson, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Recent advances in EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 154–163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, C. Chang, P. Batson, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Recent advances in EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 154–163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, K. A.

S. H. Lee, J. Bokor, P. Naulleau, S. Jeong, K. A. Goldberg, “Extreme ultraviolet holographic microscopy and its application to extreme ultraviolet mask-blank defect characterization,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2935–2938 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, “EUV interferometric measurements of diffraction-limited optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2982–2986 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2987–2991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “A phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lee, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “EUV holographic aerial image recording,” in SPIE Microlithography Conference in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 823–828 (2000).

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, C. Chang, P. Batson, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Recent advances in EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 154–163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J.

J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

Gullikson, E. M.

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2987–2991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.

S. H. Lee, J. Bokor, P. Naulleau, S. Jeong, K. A. Goldberg, “Extreme ultraviolet holographic microscopy and its application to extreme ultraviolet mask-blank defect characterization,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2935–2938 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

S. Lee, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “EUV holographic aerial image recording,” in SPIE Microlithography Conference in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 823–828 (2000).

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, J. Bokor, P. Naulleau, S. Jeong, K. A. Goldberg, “Extreme ultraviolet holographic microscopy and its application to extreme ultraviolet mask-blank defect characterization,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2935–2938 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, C. Chang, P. Batson, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Recent advances in EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 154–163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Medecki, H.

Montcalm, C.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P.

S. H. Lee, J. Bokor, P. Naulleau, S. Jeong, K. A. Goldberg, “Extreme ultraviolet holographic microscopy and its application to extreme ultraviolet mask-blank defect characterization,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2935–2938 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, “EUV interferometric measurements of diffraction-limited optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2982–2986 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2987–2991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, C. Chang, P. Batson, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Recent advances in EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 154–163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “EUV holographic aerial image recording,” in SPIE Microlithography Conference in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 823–828 (2000).

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prisbrey, S. T.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rai-Choudhury, P.

P. Rai-Choudhury, Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining, and Microfabrication (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 74–82.

Rekawa, S.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E. A.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. S.

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tejnil, E.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Medecki, E. Tejnil, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “A phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1526–1528 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Underwood, J. H.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walton, C. C.

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, D.

D. Williamson, “The elusive diffraction limit,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, D. Attwood, F. Zernike, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 68–76 (1995).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (4)

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. M. Gullikson, J. Bokor, “Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2987–2991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, J. Bokor, P. Naulleau, S. Jeong, K. A. Goldberg, “Extreme ultraviolet holographic microscopy and its application to extreme ultraviolet mask-blank defect characterization,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2935–2938 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, J. Bokor, “EUV interferometric measurements of diffraction-limited optics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2982–2986 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (7)

P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, S. H. Lee, C. Chang, P. Batson, D. Attwood, J. Bokor, “Recent advances in EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 154–163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Williamson, “The elusive diffraction limit,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, D. Attwood, F. Zernike, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 68–76 (1995).

S. Lee, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, J. Bokor, “EUV holographic aerial image recording,” in SPIE Microlithography Conference in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE3997, 823–828 (2000).

J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, J. H. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 717–723 (1999).
[CrossRef]

These data are available at http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_ constants/.

P. Rai-Choudhury, Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining, and Microfabrication (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 74–82.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Lensless Fourier-transform holography technique for recording lithographic aerial images. The system is obtained by slight modification of the PS/PDI system. The object is illuminated with coherent light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental configuration of the lensless Fourier-transform holography system. The coherent illumination at 13.4-nm wavelength is rendered by pinhole diffraction of the undulator beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results for a 1.5-µm image-side diameter circular aperture; (a) shows the recorded hologram and (b) its Fourier transform.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Through focus images of a circular aperture. At the best focus the sharp-edged circular aperture image is clearly evident along with Fresnel ringing. The almost symmetric image quality through focus indicates the astigmatism to be well controlled in the optic under test.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) SEM picture of a star-pattern object. The size variation from 0.3–3 µm allows us to investigate the resolution of the holography. (b) The reconstructed image of the star pattern with the holography technique. The spot located at the center of the pattern is 100 nm in diameter. The partial obstruction due to the image-plane window is indicated by the dotted line.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Holographically reconstructed images of various objects. For the character-based images [(a)–(d)] the larger letters are composed of 200-nm-wide lines and the small letters of 100-nm-wide lines. (e), (f), and (g) show 200-nm equal lines and spaces, 150-nm equal lines and spaces, and 100-nm 1:3 lines and spaces elbow patterns, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic depicting the simulation parameters. The simulation incorporates both the spherical object illumination and the aberration in the optic while ignoring the effect of flare. The optic aberration had been precisely determined with the PS/PDI.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulation results for various objects matching those used experimentally. Qualitative agreement with the experimental results is observed.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical microscope image of the attenuated phase-shifting mask. The bright regions indicate the Mo layers. Pi phase-shifting is anticipated at the Mo regions.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental results obtained with the phase-shift mask. (a) Cross-section view of the actual mask; (b) cross-section plot of the electric field, which is seen to go negative; (c) corresponding phase. π phase shifts are observed for Mo regions. (d) Intensity pattern obtained by the modulus squared of the plot (b), revealing frequency-doubling effect.

Equations (4)

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ICCD=|Ux, y+Tx, y|2=U×U*+T×T*+U×T*+T×U*.
Tx, y=FTδξ-s, η=T0 expj2πs/λzx.
FTICCD=uu*+tt*+ut*+tu*,
Uiu,v=[h(u,v;ξ,η)×Uo(ξ,η)]dξdη,

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