Abstract

Micromachined thermal infrared (IR) detectors are emerging into the marketplace to provide high-performance thermal (IR) imagery at low cost. Thermal detectors can be improved when a tunable wavelength response is provided and when a thermal chopper is incorporated into the detector by use of microelectromechanical (MEM) elements. Most thermal detectors require a chopper, continuous synchronous chopping in the case of pyroelectric detectors, or asynchronous chopping in the case of staring microbolometers. Mechanical choppers are bulky and costly. We present the fundamental principles of micromachined thermal detectors that possess tunable wavelength or color response and a technique for thermal chopping. A micromirror, switching between two spatial positions under the detector, provides a response to two wavelength windows by tuning the optical resonant cavity. The image can then be integrated at the readout level to achieve a multicolor IR picture. A thermal MEM chopper can be used instead of a mechanical chopper to maintain the same video frame rate and to allow for an interlaced resetting of staring thermal arrays. Unlike the second generation of uncooled IR arrays, the actual temperature of objects can be obtained by a comparison of the response in two wavelength windows, in addition to the direct measurement of IR power that they radiate in the entire 8–14-µm spectral region.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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1998

D. Butler, Z. Çelik-Butler, A. Jahanzeb, J. E. Gray, C. M. Travers, “Micromachined YBaCuO capacitor structures as uncooled pyroelectric infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1680–1687 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Vendik, S. P. Zubko, L. T. Ter-Martirosayn, “Experimental evidence of the size effect in thin ferroelectric films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 37–39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Seifert, P. Muralt, N. Setter, “High figure-of-merit porous Pb1-xCaxTiO3 thin films for pyroelectric applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2409–2411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Leonov, “Capabilities of antenna-coupled superconducting microbolometers,” J. Phys. IV 8, 267–270 (1998).

X. Gu, G. Karunasiri, J. Yu, G. Chen, U. Sridhar, W. J. Zeng, “On-chip compensation of self-heating effects in microbolometer infrared detector arrays,” Sens. Actuators A 69, 92–96 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Sedky, P. Fiorini, M. Caymax, C. Baert, L. Hermans, R. Mertens, “Characterization of bolometers based on polycrystalline silicon germanium alloys,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 19, 376–378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Bruchhaus, D. Pitzer, R. Primig, W.-R. Wersing, Y. Xu, “Deposition of self-polarized PZT films by planar multi-target sputtering,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 14, 141–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1986

R. W. Whatmore, “Pyroelectric devices and materials,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 49, 1335–1386 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. P. Neikirk, W. W. Lam, D. B. Rutledge, “Far-infrared microbolometer detectors,” Int. J. Infrared and Millim. Waves 5, 245–278 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Alain, C.

H. Jerominek, T. D. Pope, C. Alain, R. Zhang, M. Lehoux, F. Picard, R. W. Fuchs, C. Grenier, Y. Rouleau, F. Cayer, S. Savard, G. Bilodeau, J.-F. Couillard, C. Larouche, L. N. Phong, “128 × 128 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA for IR detection and imaging,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 585–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Almasri, M.

J. Gray, Z. Celik-Butler, D. P. Butler, M. Almasri, “Semiconducting YBaCuO as infrared detecting bolometers,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 555–565 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baert, C.

S. Sedky, P. Fiorini, M. Caymax, C. Baert, L. Hermans, R. Mertens, “Characterization of bolometers based on polycrystalline silicon germanium alloys,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 19, 376–378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baur, S.

W. Radford, R. Wyles, J. Wyles, J. Varesi, M. Ray, D. Murphy, A. Kennedy, A. Finch, E. Moody, F. Cheung, R. Coda, S. Baur, “Microbolometer uncooled infrared camera with 20 mK NETD,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 636–646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Belcher, J. F.

C. M. Hanson, H. R. Beratan, J. F. Belcher, K. R. Udayakumar, K. L. Soch, “Advances in monolithic ferroelectric uncooled IRFPA technology,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays V, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE3379, 60–68 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Belcher, C. M. Hanson, H. R. Beratan, K. R. Udayakumar, K. L. Soch, “Uncooled monolithic ferroelectric IRFPA technology,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 611–622 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beratan, H.

C. Hanson, H. Beratan, R. Owen, M. Corbin, S. McKenney, “Uncooled thermal imaging at Texas Instruments,” in Infrared Detectors: State of the Art, W. H. Makky, ed., Proc. SPIE1735, 17–26 (1992).

Beratan, H. R.

J. F. Belcher, C. M. Hanson, H. R. Beratan, K. R. Udayakumar, K. L. Soch, “Uncooled monolithic ferroelectric IRFPA technology,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 611–622 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Hanson, H. R. Beratan, J. F. Belcher, K. R. Udayakumar, K. L. Soch, “Advances in monolithic ferroelectric uncooled IRFPA technology,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays V, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE3379, 60–68 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Leonov, D. P. Butler, Z. Çelik-Butler, K. R. Udayakumar, C. M. Hanson, H. R. Beratan, “Dielectric loss and related noise of pyroelectric modified lead titanate arrays,” Solid-State Electron. (in press).

Beyer, B.

B. Beyer, R. Cannata, A. Stout, A. Gin, P. Taylor, E. Woodbury, J. Deffner, F. Ennerson, “Amber’s uncooled microbolometer LWIR camera,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays IV, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE2746, 13–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, G.

H. Jerominek, T. D. Pope, C. Alain, R. Zhang, M. Lehoux, F. Picard, R. W. Fuchs, C. Grenier, Y. Rouleau, F. Cayer, S. Savard, G. Bilodeau, J.-F. Couillard, C. Larouche, L. N. Phong, “128 × 128 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA for IR detection and imaging,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 585–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G. D.

E. L. Dereniak, G. D. Boreman, Infrared Detectors and Systems (Wiley, New York, 1996).

Breen, T.

T. Breen, N. Butler, M. Kohin, C. Marshall, R. Murphy, T. Parker, R. Silva, “More applications of uncooled microbolometer sensors,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 530–540 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bruchhaus, R.

R. Bruchhaus, D. Pitzer, R. Primig, W.-R. Wersing, Y. Xu, “Deposition of self-polarized PZT films by planar multi-target sputtering,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 14, 141–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burke, B. E.

A. M. Waxman, A. N. Gove, M. C. Seibert, D. A. Fay, J. E. Carrick, J. P. Racamato, E. D. Savoye, B. E. Burke, R. K. Reich, W. H. McGonagle, D. M. Craig, “Progress on color night vision: visible/IR fusion, reception and search, and low-light CCD imaging,” in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 1996, J. G. Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE2736, 96–107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Butler, D.

D. Butler, Z. Çelik-Butler, A. Jahanzeb, J. E. Gray, C. M. Travers, “Micromachined YBaCuO capacitor structures as uncooled pyroelectric infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1680–1687 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Butler, D. P.

V. N. Leonov, D. P. Butler, Z. Çelik-Butler, K. R. Udayakumar, C. M. Hanson, H. R. Beratan, “Dielectric loss and related noise of pyroelectric modified lead titanate arrays,” Solid-State Electron. (in press).

J. Gray, Z. Celik-Butler, D. P. Butler, M. Almasri, “Semiconducting YBaCuO as infrared detecting bolometers,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 555–565 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Butler, N.

T. Breen, N. Butler, M. Kohin, C. Marshall, R. Murphy, T. Parker, R. Silva, “More applications of uncooled microbolometer sensors,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 530–540 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cannata, R.

B. Beyer, R. Cannata, A. Stout, A. Gin, P. Taylor, E. Woodbury, J. Deffner, F. Ennerson, “Amber’s uncooled microbolometer LWIR camera,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays IV, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE2746, 13–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carrick, J. E.

A. M. Waxman, A. N. Gove, M. C. Seibert, D. A. Fay, J. E. Carrick, J. P. Racamato, E. D. Savoye, B. E. Burke, R. K. Reich, W. H. McGonagle, D. M. Craig, “Progress on color night vision: visible/IR fusion, reception and search, and low-light CCD imaging,” in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 1996, J. G. Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE2736, 96–107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cayer, F.

H. Jerominek, T. D. Pope, C. Alain, R. Zhang, M. Lehoux, F. Picard, R. W. Fuchs, C. Grenier, Y. Rouleau, F. Cayer, S. Savard, G. Bilodeau, J.-F. Couillard, C. Larouche, L. N. Phong, “128 × 128 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA for IR detection and imaging,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 585–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Caymax, M.

S. Sedky, P. Fiorini, M. Caymax, C. Baert, L. Hermans, R. Mertens, “Characterization of bolometers based on polycrystalline silicon germanium alloys,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 19, 376–378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Celik-Butler, Z.

J. Gray, Z. Celik-Butler, D. P. Butler, M. Almasri, “Semiconducting YBaCuO as infrared detecting bolometers,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 555–565 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Çelik-Butler, Z.

D. Butler, Z. Çelik-Butler, A. Jahanzeb, J. E. Gray, C. M. Travers, “Micromachined YBaCuO capacitor structures as uncooled pyroelectric infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1680–1687 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Leonov, D. P. Butler, Z. Çelik-Butler, K. R. Udayakumar, C. M. Hanson, H. R. Beratan, “Dielectric loss and related noise of pyroelectric modified lead titanate arrays,” Solid-State Electron. (in press).

Chasmar, B.

R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones, B. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infrared Radiation (Clarendon, Oxford, 1957).

Chen, G.

X. Gu, G. Karunasiri, J. Yu, G. Chen, U. Sridhar, W. J. Zeng, “On-chip compensation of self-heating effects in microbolometer infrared detector arrays,” Sens. Actuators A 69, 92–96 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, F.

W. Radford, R. Wyles, J. Wyles, J. Varesi, M. Ray, D. Murphy, A. Kennedy, A. Finch, E. Moody, F. Cheung, R. Coda, S. Baur, “Microbolometer uncooled infrared camera with 20 mK NETD,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 636–646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. R.

D. L. Polla, J. R. Choi, “Monolithic pyroelectric bolometer arrays,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals: Uncooled Infrared Imaging Arrays and Systems, P. Kruse, D. Skatrud, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), Vol. 47, pp. 175–201.
[CrossRef]

Coda, R.

W. Radford, R. Wyles, J. Wyles, J. Varesi, M. Ray, D. Murphy, A. Kennedy, A. Finch, E. Moody, F. Cheung, R. Coda, S. Baur, “Microbolometer uncooled infrared camera with 20 mK NETD,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 636–646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Corbin, M.

C. Hanson, H. Beratan, R. Owen, M. Corbin, S. McKenney, “Uncooled thermal imaging at Texas Instruments,” in Infrared Detectors: State of the Art, W. H. Makky, ed., Proc. SPIE1735, 17–26 (1992).

Couillard, J.-F.

H. Jerominek, T. D. Pope, C. Alain, R. Zhang, M. Lehoux, F. Picard, R. W. Fuchs, C. Grenier, Y. Rouleau, F. Cayer, S. Savard, G. Bilodeau, J.-F. Couillard, C. Larouche, L. N. Phong, “128 × 128 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA for IR detection and imaging,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 585–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Craig, D. M.

A. M. Waxman, A. N. Gove, M. C. Seibert, D. A. Fay, J. E. Carrick, J. P. Racamato, E. D. Savoye, B. E. Burke, R. K. Reich, W. H. McGonagle, D. M. Craig, “Progress on color night vision: visible/IR fusion, reception and search, and low-light CCD imaging,” in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 1996, J. G. Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE2736, 96–107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Deffner, J.

B. Beyer, R. Cannata, A. Stout, A. Gin, P. Taylor, E. Woodbury, J. Deffner, F. Ennerson, “Amber’s uncooled microbolometer LWIR camera,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays IV, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE2746, 13–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dereniak, E. L.

E. L. Dereniak, G. D. Boreman, Infrared Detectors and Systems (Wiley, New York, 1996).

Ennerson, F.

B. Beyer, R. Cannata, A. Stout, A. Gin, P. Taylor, E. Woodbury, J. Deffner, F. Ennerson, “Amber’s uncooled microbolometer LWIR camera,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays IV, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE2746, 13–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fay, D. A.

A. M. Waxman, A. N. Gove, M. C. Seibert, D. A. Fay, J. E. Carrick, J. P. Racamato, E. D. Savoye, B. E. Burke, R. K. Reich, W. H. McGonagle, D. M. Craig, “Progress on color night vision: visible/IR fusion, reception and search, and low-light CCD imaging,” in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 1996, J. G. Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE2736, 96–107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Filler, R. L.

J. R. Vig, R. L. Filler, Y. Kim, “Application of quartz microresonators to uncooled infrared imaging arrays,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals: Uncooled Infrared Imaging Arrays and Systems, P. Kruse, D. Skatrud, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), Vol. 47, pp. 269–296.
[CrossRef]

Finch, A.

W. Radford, R. Wyles, J. Wyles, J. Varesi, M. Ray, D. Murphy, A. Kennedy, A. Finch, E. Moody, F. Cheung, R. Coda, S. Baur, “Microbolometer uncooled infrared camera with 20 mK NETD,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 636–646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fiorini, P.

S. Sedky, P. Fiorini, M. Caymax, C. Baert, L. Hermans, R. Mertens, “Characterization of bolometers based on polycrystalline silicon germanium alloys,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 19, 376–378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, R. W.

H. Jerominek, T. D. Pope, C. Alain, R. Zhang, M. Lehoux, F. Picard, R. W. Fuchs, C. Grenier, Y. Rouleau, F. Cayer, S. Savard, G. Bilodeau, J.-F. Couillard, C. Larouche, L. N. Phong, “128 × 128 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA for IR detection and imaging,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 585–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gin, A.

B. Beyer, R. Cannata, A. Stout, A. Gin, P. Taylor, E. Woodbury, J. Deffner, F. Ennerson, “Amber’s uncooled microbolometer LWIR camera,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays IV, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE2746, 13–22 (1996).
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A. M. Waxman, A. N. Gove, M. C. Seibert, D. A. Fay, J. E. Carrick, J. P. Racamato, E. D. Savoye, B. E. Burke, R. K. Reich, W. H. McGonagle, D. M. Craig, “Progress on color night vision: visible/IR fusion, reception and search, and low-light CCD imaging,” in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 1996, J. G. Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE2736, 96–107 (1996).
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D. Butler, Z. Çelik-Butler, A. Jahanzeb, J. E. Gray, C. M. Travers, “Micromachined YBaCuO capacitor structures as uncooled pyroelectric infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1680–1687 (1998).
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H. Jerominek, T. D. Pope, C. Alain, R. Zhang, M. Lehoux, F. Picard, R. W. Fuchs, C. Grenier, Y. Rouleau, F. Cayer, S. Savard, G. Bilodeau, J.-F. Couillard, C. Larouche, L. N. Phong, “128 × 128 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA for IR detection and imaging,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 585–592 (1998).
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X. Gu, G. Karunasiri, J. Yu, G. Chen, U. Sridhar, W. J. Zeng, “On-chip compensation of self-heating effects in microbolometer infrared detector arrays,” Sens. Actuators A 69, 92–96 (1998).
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C. Hanson, H. Beratan, R. Owen, M. Corbin, S. McKenney, “Uncooled thermal imaging at Texas Instruments,” in Infrared Detectors: State of the Art, W. H. Makky, ed., Proc. SPIE1735, 17–26 (1992).

Hanson, C. M.

V. N. Leonov, D. P. Butler, Z. Çelik-Butler, K. R. Udayakumar, C. M. Hanson, H. R. Beratan, “Dielectric loss and related noise of pyroelectric modified lead titanate arrays,” Solid-State Electron. (in press).

C. M. Hanson, “Hybrid pyroelectric-ferroelectric bolometer arrays,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals: Uncooled Infrared Imaging Arrays and Systems, P. Kruse, D. Skatrud, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), Vol. 47, pp. 123–174.
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J. F. Belcher, C. M. Hanson, H. R. Beratan, K. R. Udayakumar, K. L. Soch, “Uncooled monolithic ferroelectric IRFPA technology,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 611–622 (1998).
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C. M. Hanson, H. R. Beratan, J. F. Belcher, K. R. Udayakumar, K. L. Soch, “Advances in monolithic ferroelectric uncooled IRFPA technology,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays V, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE3379, 60–68 (1998).
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S. Sedky, P. Fiorini, M. Caymax, C. Baert, L. Hermans, R. Mertens, “Characterization of bolometers based on polycrystalline silicon germanium alloys,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 19, 376–378 (1998).
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Jahanzeb, A.

D. Butler, Z. Çelik-Butler, A. Jahanzeb, J. E. Gray, C. M. Travers, “Micromachined YBaCuO capacitor structures as uncooled pyroelectric infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1680–1687 (1998).
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K. C. Liddiard, U. Ringh, C. Jansson, O. Reinhold, “Progress of Swedish-Australian research collaboration on uncooled smart IR sensors,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 578–584 (1998).
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H. Jerominek, T. D. Pope, C. Alain, R. Zhang, M. Lehoux, F. Picard, R. W. Fuchs, C. Grenier, Y. Rouleau, F. Cayer, S. Savard, G. Bilodeau, J.-F. Couillard, C. Larouche, L. N. Phong, “128 × 128 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA for IR detection and imaging,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 585–592 (1998).
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R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones, B. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infrared Radiation (Clarendon, Oxford, 1957).

Karunasiri, G.

X. Gu, G. Karunasiri, J. Yu, G. Chen, U. Sridhar, W. J. Zeng, “On-chip compensation of self-heating effects in microbolometer infrared detector arrays,” Sens. Actuators A 69, 92–96 (1998).
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W. Radford, R. Wyles, J. Wyles, J. Varesi, M. Ray, D. Murphy, A. Kennedy, A. Finch, E. Moody, F. Cheung, R. Coda, S. Baur, “Microbolometer uncooled infrared camera with 20 mK NETD,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 636–646 (1998).
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J. R. Vig, R. L. Filler, Y. Kim, “Application of quartz microresonators to uncooled infrared imaging arrays,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals: Uncooled Infrared Imaging Arrays and Systems, P. Kruse, D. Skatrud, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), Vol. 47, pp. 269–296.
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Kohin, M.

T. Breen, N. Butler, M. Kohin, C. Marshall, R. Murphy, T. Parker, R. Silva, “More applications of uncooled microbolometer sensors,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 530–540 (1998).
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D. P. Neikirk, W. W. Lam, D. B. Rutledge, “Far-infrared microbolometer detectors,” Int. J. Infrared and Millim. Waves 5, 245–278 (1984).
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H. Jerominek, T. D. Pope, C. Alain, R. Zhang, M. Lehoux, F. Picard, R. W. Fuchs, C. Grenier, Y. Rouleau, F. Cayer, S. Savard, G. Bilodeau, J.-F. Couillard, C. Larouche, L. N. Phong, “128 × 128 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA for IR detection and imaging,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 585–592 (1998).
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Lehoux, M.

H. Jerominek, T. D. Pope, C. Alain, R. Zhang, M. Lehoux, F. Picard, R. W. Fuchs, C. Grenier, Y. Rouleau, F. Cayer, S. Savard, G. Bilodeau, J.-F. Couillard, C. Larouche, L. N. Phong, “128 × 128 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA for IR detection and imaging,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 585–592 (1998).
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V. N. Leonov, D. P. Butler, Z. Çelik-Butler, K. R. Udayakumar, C. M. Hanson, H. R. Beratan, “Dielectric loss and related noise of pyroelectric modified lead titanate arrays,” Solid-State Electron. (in press).

Liddiard, K. C.

K. C. Liddiard, U. Ringh, C. Jansson, O. Reinhold, “Progress of Swedish-Australian research collaboration on uncooled smart IR sensors,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 578–584 (1998).
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Marshall, C.

T. Breen, N. Butler, M. Kohin, C. Marshall, R. Murphy, T. Parker, R. Silva, “More applications of uncooled microbolometer sensors,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 530–540 (1998).
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A. M. Waxman, A. N. Gove, M. C. Seibert, D. A. Fay, J. E. Carrick, J. P. Racamato, E. D. Savoye, B. E. Burke, R. K. Reich, W. H. McGonagle, D. M. Craig, “Progress on color night vision: visible/IR fusion, reception and search, and low-light CCD imaging,” in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 1996, J. G. Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE2736, 96–107 (1996).
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McKenney, S.

C. Hanson, H. Beratan, R. Owen, M. Corbin, S. McKenney, “Uncooled thermal imaging at Texas Instruments,” in Infrared Detectors: State of the Art, W. H. Makky, ed., Proc. SPIE1735, 17–26 (1992).

Mertens, R.

S. Sedky, P. Fiorini, M. Caymax, C. Baert, L. Hermans, R. Mertens, “Characterization of bolometers based on polycrystalline silicon germanium alloys,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 19, 376–378 (1998).
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Moody, E.

W. Radford, R. Wyles, J. Wyles, J. Varesi, M. Ray, D. Murphy, A. Kennedy, A. Finch, E. Moody, F. Cheung, R. Coda, S. Baur, “Microbolometer uncooled infrared camera with 20 mK NETD,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 636–646 (1998).
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Muralt, P.

A. Seifert, P. Muralt, N. Setter, “High figure-of-merit porous Pb1-xCaxTiO3 thin films for pyroelectric applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2409–2411 (1998).
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Murphy, D.

W. Radford, R. Wyles, J. Wyles, J. Varesi, M. Ray, D. Murphy, A. Kennedy, A. Finch, E. Moody, F. Cheung, R. Coda, S. Baur, “Microbolometer uncooled infrared camera with 20 mK NETD,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 636–646 (1998).
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Murphy, R.

T. Breen, N. Butler, M. Kohin, C. Marshall, R. Murphy, T. Parker, R. Silva, “More applications of uncooled microbolometer sensors,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 530–540 (1998).
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D. P. Neikirk, W. W. Lam, D. B. Rutledge, “Far-infrared microbolometer detectors,” Int. J. Infrared and Millim. Waves 5, 245–278 (1984).
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Owen, R.

C. Hanson, H. Beratan, R. Owen, M. Corbin, S. McKenney, “Uncooled thermal imaging at Texas Instruments,” in Infrared Detectors: State of the Art, W. H. Makky, ed., Proc. SPIE1735, 17–26 (1992).

Parker, T.

T. Breen, N. Butler, M. Kohin, C. Marshall, R. Murphy, T. Parker, R. Silva, “More applications of uncooled microbolometer sensors,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 530–540 (1998).
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H. Jerominek, T. D. Pope, C. Alain, R. Zhang, M. Lehoux, F. Picard, R. W. Fuchs, C. Grenier, Y. Rouleau, F. Cayer, S. Savard, G. Bilodeau, J.-F. Couillard, C. Larouche, L. N. Phong, “128 × 128 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA for IR detection and imaging,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 585–592 (1998).
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Picard, F.

H. Jerominek, T. D. Pope, C. Alain, R. Zhang, M. Lehoux, F. Picard, R. W. Fuchs, C. Grenier, Y. Rouleau, F. Cayer, S. Savard, G. Bilodeau, J.-F. Couillard, C. Larouche, L. N. Phong, “128 × 128 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA for IR detection and imaging,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 585–592 (1998).
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D. L. Polla, J. R. Choi, “Monolithic pyroelectric bolometer arrays,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals: Uncooled Infrared Imaging Arrays and Systems, P. Kruse, D. Skatrud, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), Vol. 47, pp. 175–201.
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Pope, T. D.

H. Jerominek, T. D. Pope, C. Alain, R. Zhang, M. Lehoux, F. Picard, R. W. Fuchs, C. Grenier, Y. Rouleau, F. Cayer, S. Savard, G. Bilodeau, J.-F. Couillard, C. Larouche, L. N. Phong, “128 × 128 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA for IR detection and imaging,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 585–592 (1998).
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Primig, R.

R. Bruchhaus, D. Pitzer, R. Primig, W.-R. Wersing, Y. Xu, “Deposition of self-polarized PZT films by planar multi-target sputtering,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 14, 141–149 (1997).
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Putley, E. H.

E. H. Putley, “The pyroelectric detector,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals: Infrared Detectors, R. Willardson, A. Beer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1970), Vol. 5, pp. 259–285.
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A. M. Waxman, A. N. Gove, M. C. Seibert, D. A. Fay, J. E. Carrick, J. P. Racamato, E. D. Savoye, B. E. Burke, R. K. Reich, W. H. McGonagle, D. M. Craig, “Progress on color night vision: visible/IR fusion, reception and search, and low-light CCD imaging,” in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 1996, J. G. Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE2736, 96–107 (1996).
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W. Radford, R. Wyles, J. Wyles, J. Varesi, M. Ray, D. Murphy, A. Kennedy, A. Finch, E. Moody, F. Cheung, R. Coda, S. Baur, “Microbolometer uncooled infrared camera with 20 mK NETD,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 636–646 (1998).
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S. Ramo, J. H. Whinnery, T. Van Duzer, Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Ray, M.

W. Radford, R. Wyles, J. Wyles, J. Varesi, M. Ray, D. Murphy, A. Kennedy, A. Finch, E. Moody, F. Cheung, R. Coda, S. Baur, “Microbolometer uncooled infrared camera with 20 mK NETD,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 636–646 (1998).
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Reich, R. K.

A. M. Waxman, A. N. Gove, M. C. Seibert, D. A. Fay, J. E. Carrick, J. P. Racamato, E. D. Savoye, B. E. Burke, R. K. Reich, W. H. McGonagle, D. M. Craig, “Progress on color night vision: visible/IR fusion, reception and search, and low-light CCD imaging,” in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 1996, J. G. Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE2736, 96–107 (1996).
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K. C. Liddiard, U. Ringh, C. Jansson, O. Reinhold, “Progress of Swedish-Australian research collaboration on uncooled smart IR sensors,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 578–584 (1998).
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Ringh, U.

K. C. Liddiard, U. Ringh, C. Jansson, O. Reinhold, “Progress of Swedish-Australian research collaboration on uncooled smart IR sensors,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 578–584 (1998).
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Rouleau, Y.

H. Jerominek, T. D. Pope, C. Alain, R. Zhang, M. Lehoux, F. Picard, R. W. Fuchs, C. Grenier, Y. Rouleau, F. Cayer, S. Savard, G. Bilodeau, J.-F. Couillard, C. Larouche, L. N. Phong, “128 × 128 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA for IR detection and imaging,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 585–592 (1998).
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Rutledge, D. B.

D. P. Neikirk, W. W. Lam, D. B. Rutledge, “Far-infrared microbolometer detectors,” Int. J. Infrared and Millim. Waves 5, 245–278 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Savard, S.

H. Jerominek, T. D. Pope, C. Alain, R. Zhang, M. Lehoux, F. Picard, R. W. Fuchs, C. Grenier, Y. Rouleau, F. Cayer, S. Savard, G. Bilodeau, J.-F. Couillard, C. Larouche, L. N. Phong, “128 × 128 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA for IR detection and imaging,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 585–592 (1998).
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Savoye, E. D.

A. M. Waxman, A. N. Gove, M. C. Seibert, D. A. Fay, J. E. Carrick, J. P. Racamato, E. D. Savoye, B. E. Burke, R. K. Reich, W. H. McGonagle, D. M. Craig, “Progress on color night vision: visible/IR fusion, reception and search, and low-light CCD imaging,” in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 1996, J. G. Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE2736, 96–107 (1996).
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Sedky, S.

S. Sedky, P. Fiorini, M. Caymax, C. Baert, L. Hermans, R. Mertens, “Characterization of bolometers based on polycrystalline silicon germanium alloys,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 19, 376–378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seibert, M. C.

A. M. Waxman, A. N. Gove, M. C. Seibert, D. A. Fay, J. E. Carrick, J. P. Racamato, E. D. Savoye, B. E. Burke, R. K. Reich, W. H. McGonagle, D. M. Craig, “Progress on color night vision: visible/IR fusion, reception and search, and low-light CCD imaging,” in Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 1996, J. G. Verly, ed., Proc. SPIE2736, 96–107 (1996).
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A. Seifert, P. Muralt, N. Setter, “High figure-of-merit porous Pb1-xCaxTiO3 thin films for pyroelectric applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2409–2411 (1998).
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Setter, N.

A. Seifert, P. Muralt, N. Setter, “High figure-of-merit porous Pb1-xCaxTiO3 thin films for pyroelectric applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2409–2411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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T. Breen, N. Butler, M. Kohin, C. Marshall, R. Murphy, T. Parker, R. Silva, “More applications of uncooled microbolometer sensors,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 530–540 (1998).
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R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones, B. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infrared Radiation (Clarendon, Oxford, 1957).

Soch, K. L.

C. M. Hanson, H. R. Beratan, J. F. Belcher, K. R. Udayakumar, K. L. Soch, “Advances in monolithic ferroelectric uncooled IRFPA technology,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays V, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE3379, 60–68 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Belcher, C. M. Hanson, H. R. Beratan, K. R. Udayakumar, K. L. Soch, “Uncooled monolithic ferroelectric IRFPA technology,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 611–622 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sridhar, U.

X. Gu, G. Karunasiri, J. Yu, G. Chen, U. Sridhar, W. J. Zeng, “On-chip compensation of self-heating effects in microbolometer infrared detector arrays,” Sens. Actuators A 69, 92–96 (1998).
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B. Beyer, R. Cannata, A. Stout, A. Gin, P. Taylor, E. Woodbury, J. Deffner, F. Ennerson, “Amber’s uncooled microbolometer LWIR camera,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays IV, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE2746, 13–22 (1996).
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Taylor, P.

B. Beyer, R. Cannata, A. Stout, A. Gin, P. Taylor, E. Woodbury, J. Deffner, F. Ennerson, “Amber’s uncooled microbolometer LWIR camera,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays IV, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE2746, 13–22 (1996).
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O. G. Vendik, S. P. Zubko, L. T. Ter-Martirosayn, “Experimental evidence of the size effect in thin ferroelectric films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 37–39 (1998).
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D. Butler, Z. Çelik-Butler, A. Jahanzeb, J. E. Gray, C. M. Travers, “Micromachined YBaCuO capacitor structures as uncooled pyroelectric infrared detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1680–1687 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Udayakumar, K. R.

V. N. Leonov, D. P. Butler, Z. Çelik-Butler, K. R. Udayakumar, C. M. Hanson, H. R. Beratan, “Dielectric loss and related noise of pyroelectric modified lead titanate arrays,” Solid-State Electron. (in press).

C. M. Hanson, H. R. Beratan, J. F. Belcher, K. R. Udayakumar, K. L. Soch, “Advances in monolithic ferroelectric uncooled IRFPA technology,” in Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays V, E. L. Dereniak, R. E. Sampson, eds., Proc. SPIE3379, 60–68 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Belcher, C. M. Hanson, H. R. Beratan, K. R. Udayakumar, K. L. Soch, “Uncooled monolithic ferroelectric IRFPA technology,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 611–622 (1998).
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Van Duzer, T.

S. Ramo, J. H. Whinnery, T. Van Duzer, Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Varesi, J.

W. Radford, R. Wyles, J. Wyles, J. Varesi, M. Ray, D. Murphy, A. Kennedy, A. Finch, E. Moody, F. Cheung, R. Coda, S. Baur, “Microbolometer uncooled infrared camera with 20 mK NETD,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 636–646 (1998).
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O. G. Vendik, S. P. Zubko, L. T. Ter-Martirosayn, “Experimental evidence of the size effect in thin ferroelectric films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 37–39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vig, J. R.

J. R. Vig, R. L. Filler, Y. Kim, “Application of quartz microresonators to uncooled infrared imaging arrays,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals: Uncooled Infrared Imaging Arrays and Systems, P. Kruse, D. Skatrud, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), Vol. 47, pp. 269–296.
[CrossRef]

Watton, R.

R. Watton, P. Manning, “Ferroelectrics in uncooled thermal imaging,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXIV, B. F. Andersen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3436, 541–554 (1998).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the proposed design of a two-color floating detector with a thermal microelectromechanical chopper: 1, Ti absorber; 2, SiO2 insulator; 3, bolometric Si film; 4, Au electrode; 5, Ti leg; 6, W pillar; 7, free mirror; 8, Al cantilever beam (bending part of the chopper); 9, thermally conducting part of the Al chopper covered with a Si3N4 insulating film; 10, electrostatic actuating plates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical tuning of the resonant cavity in the 8–14-µm IR region. The dotted curve shows the conventional tuning for the whole 8–14-µm window. The solid curves show the proposed tuning, providing a selection of the 8–10.5- or 10.5–14-µm regions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature dependence of the temperature contrast in the different spectral regions: (1) 8–14 µm, (2) 8–10.5 µm, (3) 10.5–14 µm, (4) 3–5 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature dependence of the power radiated by the unit surface of a blackbody in the different spectral regions: (1) 8–14 µm, (2) 8–10.5 µm, (3) 10.5–14 µm, (4) 3–5 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temperature dependence for the ratio of power radiated by the unit surface of a blackbody in the 8–10.5- and 10.5–14-µm regions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated time diagrams for the detector operation: (a) optical power modulated by a conventional chopper; (b) and (c) the response diagrams in the optical and the thermal chopping regime, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Frequency dependence of the modulus of the detector thermal impedance when the thermal chopper is (1) disconnected from the detector (heating by radiation) and (2) connected to the detector (fast cooling). The components of thermal impedance are also shown.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Power irradiated by a 300 K blackbody and received by the detector in the two-color channels; normalized to the maximum of the blackbody spectral power density.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

1, Power irradiated by a 300 K blackbody versus wavelength; 2, total power received by the detector in the two-color channels during one frame period; 3, power received by a similar detector but with one-color absorption, i.e., with a 2-µm cavity and optical chopping. The powers are normalized to the maximum of the blackbody spectral power density.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculated dependence of the responsivity and detectivity versus the frame rate for the detector with a 5.7-µm cavity. The solid curve is the responsivity; the dotted curve is the detectivity.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Calculated dependence for the NETD of the detector versus the frame rate when Δf = 1 Hz is assumed. The solid curve is the 5.7-µm cavity; the dotted curve is the 4.2-µm cavity.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Properties of the Detector Components used for the Calculations

Tables Icon

Table 2 Power Radiated by the Unit Surface of a Blackbody in the Different Spectral Regions and the Related Temperature Contrast ΔMT

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Psc=02πhc2ελλ5exphc/λkTsc-1dλ,
PD=A4F2λ1λ22τatmλτobjλπhc2εληλλ5exphc/λkTsc-1dλ,
ΔPD=A4F2λ1λ22τatmλτobjλπhc2εληλλ5Tsc×1exphc/λkTsc-1ΔTscdλ.
Mλ, Tsc=2πhc2λ5exphc/λkTsc-1
λ1λ2 τatmλτobjλεληλMλ, TscTscdλ=τatmτobjεητMΔTscλ1-λ2,
ΔPDΔTsc=τatmτobjεηA4F2ΔMΔTscλ1-λ2.
ΔV=RVΔPDη,
RV=η|Zf| dVdT.
dVdT=I dRdTin the case of a bolometer,NΔS in the case of an N-junction thermopile,pAωτeC1+ω2τe21/2in the case of a pyroelectric detector,
D*=RVAΔfVn,
ΔTsc=4F2VnτatmτobjεARVdM/dTscλ1λ2.
NETD=4F2VnτobjARVdM/dTscλ1λ2.
NETD=4F2ΔfτobjAD*dM/dTscλ1λ2.
τ=RthCth,
Vph2¯=4kT2RV2η2Rth,
Zf=Zpf+1/Rrad+2/R1+iωCp+2Cl/3-1,
Zch-1f=1/Rrad+2Zpf+1/Rl+iωCp/2+Cl/3-1-1+2Zpf+1/Rl+2Rp+Rc+Rd+Rb+Rch+Rr-1+iωCp+Cch/3+Cl/3-1-1,
Vn2¯=16kσT5ARV2η+4kT2RV2η2Rth+4kTR+Vro2¯,

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