Abstract

We describe the design and simulated response of a dust logger consisting of a downward-pointing phototube, ∼2 m below side-directed light-emitting diodes (LEDs), attached to a cable that can lower the device down a 3-in. (7.5-cm) borehole filled with butyl acetate. LED photons that enter the ice are scattered or absorbed by dust grains, and those that reach the phototube provide a measure of dust or volcanic ash concentration at a given depth. An increased dust concentration associated with an ancient colder climate will usually result in an increase in collected light, but may decrease collected light if air bubbles are present. Centimeter-thick volcanic ash bands can also be detected. The concept is based on six years of experience with pulsed light sources used to measure optical properties of deep Antarctic ice.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. For example, see WET Labs transmissometer at http://www.wetlabs.com/Products/index.html .
  2. P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. The AMANDA Collaboration, “Optical properties of deep ice at the South Pole: absorption,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4168–4180 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. B. Price, L. Bergström, “Optical properties of deep ice at the South Pole: scattering,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4181–4194 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. D. He, P. B. Price, “Remote sensing of dust in deep ice at the South Pole,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (D14) 17041–17056 (1998).
  6. See, for example, S. P. Chung, W. D. Gardner, M. J. Richardson, I. D. Walsh, M. R. Landry, “Beam attenuation and microorganisms: spatial and temporal variations in small particles along 140 °W during the 1992 JGOFS-EqPac transects,” Deep-Sea Res. II 43, 1205–1211 (1996).
  7. The AMANDA Collaboration, “The AMANDA neutrino telescope: principle of operation and first results,” Astropart. Phys. 13, 1–20 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. The AMANDA Collaboration, “Observation of high energy neutrinos with Cherenkov detectors embedded in deep Antarctic ice,” Nature (London) 410, 441–443 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. B. Price, K. Woschnagg, D. Chirkin, “Age vs depth of glacial ice at South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2129–2132 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. S. Broecker, J. van Donk, “Insolation changes, ice volumes, and the 18O record in deep-sea cores,” J. Geophys. Res. [Space Phys.] 8, 169–198 (1970).
  12. J. Hays, J. Imbrie, N. Shackleton, “Variations in the Earth’s orbit: pacemaker of the ice ages,” Science 194, 1121–1132 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. A. Muller, G. J. MacDonald, “Glacial cycles and astronomical forcing,” Science 277, 215–218 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. A. Muller, G. J. MacDonald, “Spectrum of 100-kyr glacial cycle: orbital inclination, not eccentricity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 8329–8334 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. J. Gow, T. Williamson, “Volcanic ash in the Antarctic ice sheet and its possible climatic implications,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 13, 210–218 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Mosley-Thompson, L. G. Thompson, “Nine centuries of microparticle deposition at the South Pole,” Quat. Res. 17, 1–13 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. A. Zielinski, “Use of paleo-records in determining variability within the volcanism-climate system,” Quat. Sci. Rev. 19, 417–438 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Koci, K. Cuffey, G. Clow, “Project summary: a fast mechanical-access drill for polar glaciology, paleoclimatology, and the Earth Sciences,” proposal submitted 17May2000 to the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, http://area51.berkeley.edu/deepice2000/access .
  19. K. Woschnagg, for the AMANDA Collaboration, “Optical properties of South Pole ice at depths from 140 to 2300 meters,” in the Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conference, B. L. Dingus, D. B. Kieda, M. H. Salamon, eds. (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), pp. 200–203.
  20. G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols: Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).
  21. J. R. Petit, L. Mounier, J. Jouzel, Y. S. Korotkevich, V. I. Kotlyakov, C. Lorius, “Palaeoclimatological and chronological implications of the Vostok core dust record,” Nature (London) 343, 56–58 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. N. I. Barkov, V. Ya. Lipenkov, “Kolichestvennaya kharakteristika struktury l’da do glubiny 1400 m v rayone stantsii Vostok v Antarktide” [Numerical characteristics of ice structure down to a depth of 1400 m in the region of Vostok station], Mater. Glyatsiol. Issled. 51, 178–186 (1984).

2001 (1)

The AMANDA Collaboration, “Observation of high energy neutrinos with Cherenkov detectors embedded in deep Antarctic ice,” Nature (London) 410, 441–443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

P. B. Price, K. Woschnagg, D. Chirkin, “Age vs depth of glacial ice at South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2129–2132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

The AMANDA Collaboration, “The AMANDA neutrino telescope: principle of operation and first results,” Astropart. Phys. 13, 1–20 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Zielinski, “Use of paleo-records in determining variability within the volcanism-climate system,” Quat. Sci. Rev. 19, 417–438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. D. He, P. B. Price, “Remote sensing of dust in deep ice at the South Pole,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (D14) 17041–17056 (1998).

1997 (5)

R. A. Muller, G. J. MacDonald, “Glacial cycles and astronomical forcing,” Science 277, 215–218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Muller, G. J. MacDonald, “Spectrum of 100-kyr glacial cycle: orbital inclination, not eccentricity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 8329–8334 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Price, L. Bergström, “Optical properties of deep ice at the South Pole: scattering,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4181–4194 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

The AMANDA Collaboration, “Optical properties of deep ice at the South Pole: absorption,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4168–4180 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

See, for example, S. P. Chung, W. D. Gardner, M. J. Richardson, I. D. Walsh, M. R. Landry, “Beam attenuation and microorganisms: spatial and temporal variations in small particles along 140 °W during the 1992 JGOFS-EqPac transects,” Deep-Sea Res. II 43, 1205–1211 (1996).

1995 (1)

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. R. Petit, L. Mounier, J. Jouzel, Y. S. Korotkevich, V. I. Kotlyakov, C. Lorius, “Palaeoclimatological and chronological implications of the Vostok core dust record,” Nature (London) 343, 56–58 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

N. I. Barkov, V. Ya. Lipenkov, “Kolichestvennaya kharakteristika struktury l’da do glubiny 1400 m v rayone stantsii Vostok v Antarktide” [Numerical characteristics of ice structure down to a depth of 1400 m in the region of Vostok station], Mater. Glyatsiol. Issled. 51, 178–186 (1984).

1982 (1)

E. Mosley-Thompson, L. G. Thompson, “Nine centuries of microparticle deposition at the South Pole,” Quat. Res. 17, 1–13 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. Hays, J. Imbrie, N. Shackleton, “Variations in the Earth’s orbit: pacemaker of the ice ages,” Science 194, 1121–1132 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

A. J. Gow, T. Williamson, “Volcanic ash in the Antarctic ice sheet and its possible climatic implications,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 13, 210–218 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

W. S. Broecker, J. van Donk, “Insolation changes, ice volumes, and the 18O record in deep-sea cores,” J. Geophys. Res. [Space Phys.] 8, 169–198 (1970).

Askebjer, P.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barkov, N. I.

J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Barkov, V. Ya. Lipenkov, “Kolichestvennaya kharakteristika struktury l’da do glubiny 1400 m v rayone stantsii Vostok v Antarktide” [Numerical characteristics of ice structure down to a depth of 1400 m in the region of Vostok station], Mater. Glyatsiol. Issled. 51, 178–186 (1984).

Barnola, J.-M.

J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barwick, S. W.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basile, I.

J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bender, M.

J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bergström, L.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Price, L. Bergström, “Optical properties of deep ice at the South Pole: scattering,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4181–4194 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouchta, A.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broecker, W. S.

W. S. Broecker, J. van Donk, “Insolation changes, ice volumes, and the 18O record in deep-sea cores,” J. Geophys. Res. [Space Phys.] 8, 169–198 (1970).

Carius, S.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chappellaz, J.

J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chirkin, D.

P. B. Price, K. Woschnagg, D. Chirkin, “Age vs depth of glacial ice at South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2129–2132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S. P.

See, for example, S. P. Chung, W. D. Gardner, M. J. Richardson, I. D. Walsh, M. R. Landry, “Beam attenuation and microorganisms: spatial and temporal variations in small particles along 140 °W during the 1992 JGOFS-EqPac transects,” Deep-Sea Res. II 43, 1205–1211 (1996).

Clow, G.

B. Koci, K. Cuffey, G. Clow, “Project summary: a fast mechanical-access drill for polar glaciology, paleoclimatology, and the Earth Sciences,” proposal submitted 17May2000 to the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, http://area51.berkeley.edu/deepice2000/access .

Coulthard, A.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuffey, K.

B. Koci, K. Cuffey, G. Clow, “Project summary: a fast mechanical-access drill for polar glaciology, paleoclimatology, and the Earth Sciences,” proposal submitted 17May2000 to the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, http://area51.berkeley.edu/deepice2000/access .

d’Almeida, G. A.

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols: Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

Dalberg, E.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M.

J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Delaygue, G.

J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Delmotte, M.

J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Engel, K.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erlandsson, B.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardner, W. D.

See, for example, S. P. Chung, W. D. Gardner, M. J. Richardson, I. D. Walsh, M. R. Landry, “Beam attenuation and microorganisms: spatial and temporal variations in small particles along 140 °W during the 1992 JGOFS-EqPac transects,” Deep-Sea Res. II 43, 1205–1211 (1996).

Goobar, A.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gow, A. J.

A. J. Gow, T. Williamson, “Volcanic ash in the Antarctic ice sheet and its possible climatic implications,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 13, 210–218 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Gray, L.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hallgren, A.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halzen, F.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hays, J.

J. Hays, J. Imbrie, N. Shackleton, “Variations in the Earth’s orbit: pacemaker of the ice ages,” Science 194, 1121–1132 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Y. D.

Y. D. He, P. B. Price, “Remote sensing of dust in deep ice at the South Pole,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (D14) 17041–17056 (1998).

Heukenkamp, H.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hulth, P. O.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hundertmark, S.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Imbrie, J.

J. Hays, J. Imbrie, N. Shackleton, “Variations in the Earth’s orbit: pacemaker of the ice ages,” Science 194, 1121–1132 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, J.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johansson, S.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jouzel, J.

J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Petit, L. Mounier, J. Jouzel, Y. S. Korotkevich, V. I. Kotlyakov, C. Lorius, “Palaeoclimatological and chronological implications of the Vostok core dust record,” Nature (London) 343, 56–58 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kandhadai, V.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karle, A.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koci, B.

B. Koci, K. Cuffey, G. Clow, “Project summary: a fast mechanical-access drill for polar glaciology, paleoclimatology, and the Earth Sciences,” proposal submitted 17May2000 to the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, http://area51.berkeley.edu/deepice2000/access .

Koepke, P.

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols: Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

Korotkevich, Y. S.

J. R. Petit, L. Mounier, J. Jouzel, Y. S. Korotkevich, V. I. Kotlyakov, C. Lorius, “Palaeoclimatological and chronological implications of the Vostok core dust record,” Nature (London) 343, 56–58 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kotlyakov, V. I.

J. R. Petit, L. Mounier, J. Jouzel, Y. S. Korotkevich, V. I. Kotlyakov, C. Lorius, “Palaeoclimatological and chronological implications of the Vostok core dust record,” Nature (London) 343, 56–58 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kotlyakov, V. M.

J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Landry, M. R.

See, for example, S. P. Chung, W. D. Gardner, M. J. Richardson, I. D. Walsh, M. R. Landry, “Beam attenuation and microorganisms: spatial and temporal variations in small particles along 140 °W during the 1992 JGOFS-EqPac transects,” Deep-Sea Res. II 43, 1205–1211 (1996).

Legrand, M.

J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lipenkov, V. Y.

J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lipenkov, V. Ya.

N. I. Barkov, V. Ya. Lipenkov, “Kolichestvennaya kharakteristika struktury l’da do glubiny 1400 m v rayone stantsii Vostok v Antarktide” [Numerical characteristics of ice structure down to a depth of 1400 m in the region of Vostok station], Mater. Glyatsiol. Issled. 51, 178–186 (1984).

Liubarsky, I.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorius, C.

J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Petit, L. Mounier, J. Jouzel, Y. S. Korotkevich, V. I. Kotlyakov, C. Lorius, “Palaeoclimatological and chronological implications of the Vostok core dust record,” Nature (London) 343, 56–58 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lowder, D.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacDonald, G. J.

R. A. Muller, G. J. MacDonald, “Glacial cycles and astronomical forcing,” Science 277, 215–218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Muller, G. J. MacDonald, “Spectrum of 100-kyr glacial cycle: orbital inclination, not eccentricity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 8329–8334 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, T.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
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P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
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P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
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E. Mosley-Thompson, L. G. Thompson, “Nine centuries of microparticle deposition at the South Pole,” Quat. Res. 17, 1–13 (1982).
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J. R. Petit, L. Mounier, J. Jouzel, Y. S. Korotkevich, V. I. Kotlyakov, C. Lorius, “Palaeoclimatological and chronological implications of the Vostok core dust record,” Nature (London) 343, 56–58 (1990).
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J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
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J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
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J. R. Petit, L. Mounier, J. Jouzel, Y. S. Korotkevich, V. I. Kotlyakov, C. Lorius, “Palaeoclimatological and chronological implications of the Vostok core dust record,” Nature (London) 343, 56–58 (1990).
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Porrata, R.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
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P. B. Price, K. Woschnagg, D. Chirkin, “Age vs depth of glacial ice at South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2129–2132 (2000).
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Y. D. He, P. B. Price, “Remote sensing of dust in deep ice at the South Pole,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (D14) 17041–17056 (1998).

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
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P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
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J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
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P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, M. J.

See, for example, S. P. Chung, W. D. Gardner, M. J. Richardson, I. D. Walsh, M. R. Landry, “Beam attenuation and microorganisms: spatial and temporal variations in small particles along 140 °W during the 1992 JGOFS-EqPac transects,” Deep-Sea Res. II 43, 1205–1211 (1996).

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J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
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Rubinstein, H.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
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J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
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P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
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G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols: Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

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P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
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J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
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P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
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P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
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E. Mosley-Thompson, L. G. Thompson, “Nine centuries of microparticle deposition at the South Pole,” Quat. Res. 17, 1–13 (1982).
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P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
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P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
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P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
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P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
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P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
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Walsh, I. D.

See, for example, S. P. Chung, W. D. Gardner, M. J. Richardson, I. D. Walsh, M. R. Landry, “Beam attenuation and microorganisms: spatial and temporal variations in small particles along 140 °W during the 1992 JGOFS-EqPac transects,” Deep-Sea Res. II 43, 1205–1211 (1996).

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P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
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P. B. Price, K. Woschnagg, D. Chirkin, “Age vs depth of glacial ice at South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2129–2132 (2000).
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K. Woschnagg, for the AMANDA Collaboration, “Optical properties of South Pole ice at depths from 140 to 2300 meters,” in the Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conference, B. L. Dingus, D. B. Kieda, M. H. Salamon, eds. (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), pp. 200–203.

Yodh, G.

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zielinski, G. A.

G. A. Zielinski, “Use of paleo-records in determining variability within the volcanism-climate system,” Quat. Sci. Rev. 19, 417–438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astropart. Phys. (1)

The AMANDA Collaboration, “The AMANDA neutrino telescope: principle of operation and first results,” Astropart. Phys. 13, 1–20 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. II (1)

See, for example, S. P. Chung, W. D. Gardner, M. J. Richardson, I. D. Walsh, M. R. Landry, “Beam attenuation and microorganisms: spatial and temporal variations in small particles along 140 °W during the 1992 JGOFS-EqPac transects,” Deep-Sea Res. II 43, 1205–1211 (1996).

Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (1)

A. J. Gow, T. Williamson, “Volcanic ash in the Antarctic ice sheet and its possible climatic implications,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 13, 210–218 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

P. B. Price, K. Woschnagg, D. Chirkin, “Age vs depth of glacial ice at South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2129–2132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, E. Dalberg, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, H. Heukenkamp, P. O. Hulth, S. Hundertmark, J. Jacobsen, V. Kandhadai, A. Karle, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Ch. Spiering, O. Streicher, Q. Sun, Th. Thon, S. Tilav, R. Wischnewski, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1355–1358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

Y. D. He, P. B. Price, “Remote sensing of dust in deep ice at the South Pole,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (D14) 17041–17056 (1998).

J. Geophys. Res. [Space Phys.] (1)

W. S. Broecker, J. van Donk, “Insolation changes, ice volumes, and the 18O record in deep-sea cores,” J. Geophys. Res. [Space Phys.] 8, 169–198 (1970).

Mater. Glyatsiol. Issled. (1)

N. I. Barkov, V. Ya. Lipenkov, “Kolichestvennaya kharakteristika struktury l’da do glubiny 1400 m v rayone stantsii Vostok v Antarktide” [Numerical characteristics of ice structure down to a depth of 1400 m in the region of Vostok station], Mater. Glyatsiol. Issled. 51, 178–186 (1984).

Nature (London) (3)

J. R. Petit, L. Mounier, J. Jouzel, Y. S. Korotkevich, V. I. Kotlyakov, C. Lorius, “Palaeoclimatological and chronological implications of the Vostok core dust record,” Nature (London) 343, 56–58 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, M. Stievenard, “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica,” Nature (London) 399, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

The AMANDA Collaboration, “Observation of high energy neutrinos with Cherenkov detectors embedded in deep Antarctic ice,” Nature (London) 410, 441–443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

R. A. Muller, G. J. MacDonald, “Spectrum of 100-kyr glacial cycle: orbital inclination, not eccentricity,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 8329–8334 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quat. Res. (1)

E. Mosley-Thompson, L. G. Thompson, “Nine centuries of microparticle deposition at the South Pole,” Quat. Res. 17, 1–13 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Quat. Sci. Rev. (1)

G. A. Zielinski, “Use of paleo-records in determining variability within the volcanism-climate system,” Quat. Sci. Rev. 19, 417–438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

P. Askebjer, S. W. Barwick, L. Bergström, A. Bouchta, S. Carius, A. Coulthard, K. Engel, B. Erlandsson, A. Goobar, L. Gray, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, P. O. Hulth, J. Jacobsen, S. Johansson, V. Kandhadai, I. Liubarsky, D. Lowder, T. Miller, P. C. Mock, R. Morse, R. Porrata, P. B. Price, A. Richards, H. Rubinstein, E. Schneider, Q. Sun, S. Tilav, C. Walck, G. Yodh, “Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer,” Science 267, 1147–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hays, J. Imbrie, N. Shackleton, “Variations in the Earth’s orbit: pacemaker of the ice ages,” Science 194, 1121–1132 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Muller, G. J. MacDonald, “Glacial cycles and astronomical forcing,” Science 277, 215–218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

For example, see WET Labs transmissometer at http://www.wetlabs.com/Products/index.html .

B. Koci, K. Cuffey, G. Clow, “Project summary: a fast mechanical-access drill for polar glaciology, paleoclimatology, and the Earth Sciences,” proposal submitted 17May2000 to the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, http://area51.berkeley.edu/deepice2000/access .

K. Woschnagg, for the AMANDA Collaboration, “Optical properties of South Pole ice at depths from 140 to 2300 meters,” in the Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Cosmic Ray Conference, B. L. Dingus, D. B. Kieda, M. H. Salamon, eds. (American Institute of Physics, College Park, Md., 1999), pp. 200–203.

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols: Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic design of the dust logger, immersed in a hole filled with transparent butyl acetate. Photons from side-directed LEDs scatter from dust or bubbles; some are absorbed by dust. Absorption by ice itself at a wavelength of 370 nm is negligible on a scale of tens of meters. A small fraction reaches the downward-directed phototube and provides a measure of dust or bubble concentration. Electronics are at the surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Response of 2-m dust logger to a triangular distribution of dust in a 40-m thickness of bubble-free ice, for signal integration times of 22.5, 50, and 100 ns, and for LEDs emitting at 60°–90° zenith angles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Response to a 4-m-thick dust band (thick solid curve with a triangular shape) for LEDs emitting in three different angular intervals into bubble-free ice for the 2-m logger.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Response to two thin dust bands each 2 m thick and 10 m apart in bubble-free ice, with distances between the LEDs and the PMT of 1, 2, and 3 m.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Responses to dust bands with values of D (≡b e /a) from 0.1 (highly absorbing) to 10 (highly scattering) in 20 m of bubble-free ice. Note the semilogarithmic scale.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Response to bubbles plus dust for a 250-ns integration time. The scale on the left shows the values of b e used as inputs to the calculations. Values for bubbles (solid circles) were based on microscopic measurements of bubble concentrations and radii in actual Vostok ice; values for dust concentration (solid triangles) assumed a trapezoidal distribution above a constant low-background dust level. The solid curves (arbitrary units) give the responses to the combination of bubbles plus dust for three dust types; the dashed curve shows the response if no dust were present. The dust, by absorbing some of the light, depresses the signal.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

aλ=A exp-0.48175 λ+B exp-6700/λ+C Mdustλ-κ,
beλ=λ/532-αbe532,
ud, t=3bez/4πvgt3/2 exp-3d2bez/4vgt-azvgt.
bbub=1-cos θnbubπrbub2,

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