Abstract

A new dye, trans-4-[p-(pyrrolidinyl)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide, has been synthesized, and the two-photon-absorption (TPA), TPA-induced frequency upconversion emission, and two-photon-pumped (TPP) frequency upconverted lasing properties of this new dye were experimentally studied. This new dye has a moderate TPA cross section of σ2 = 5.7 × 10-48 (cm4 s-1)/photon at 1064 nm but exhibits high lasing efficiency. The slope efficiency of the TPP cavity laser with this new dye as the laser medium is 1.6%.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, “Three-dimensional optical data storage in refractive media by two-photon point excitation,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1780–1782 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. A. Parthenopoulos, P. M. Rentzepis, “Three-dimensional optical storage memory,” Science 245, 843–845 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature (London) 398, 51–53 (1999).
  4. W. D. James, H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 245, 73–76 (1990).
  5. S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, S. Kawata, “Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon-absorbed photopolymerization,” Opt. Lett. 22, 132–134 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. P. Joshi, H. E. Pudavar, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, “Three-dimensional optical circuitry using two-photon-assisted polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 170–172 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one- and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1983 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, Y. P. Cui, M. Li, P. N. Prasad, “Studies on two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency upconversion lasing of a new blue-green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. S. He, K. S. Kim, L. X. Yuan, N. Cheng, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped partially cross-linked polymer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1619–1621 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. S. He, R. Signorini, P. N. Prasad, “Longitudinally two-photon pumped leaky waveguide dye film laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 7–13 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C. K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, “Efficient, two-photon pumped green upconverted cavity lasing in a new dye,” Opt. Commun. 124, 33–37 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. S. He, R. Signorini, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted blue lasing in Coumarin dye solution,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5720–5725 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. P. Joshi, H. E. Pudavar, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, “Three-dimensional optical circuitry using two-photon-assisted polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 170–172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature (London) 398, 51–53 (1999).

1998 (2)

G. S. He, R. Signorini, P. N. Prasad, “Longitudinally two-photon pumped leaky waveguide dye film laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 7–13 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, R. Signorini, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted blue lasing in Coumarin dye solution,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5720–5725 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, S. Kawata, “Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon-absorbed photopolymerization,” Opt. Lett. 22, 132–134 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, Y. P. Cui, M. Li, P. N. Prasad, “Studies on two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency upconversion lasing of a new blue-green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, K. S. Kim, L. X. Yuan, N. Cheng, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped partially cross-linked polymer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1619–1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C. K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, “Efficient, two-photon pumped green upconverted cavity lasing in a new dye,” Opt. Commun. 124, 33–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one- and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

1990 (2)

W. D. James, H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 245, 73–76 (1990).

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. A. Parthenopoulos, P. M. Rentzepis, “Three-dimensional optical storage memory,” Science 245, 843–845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abbotto, A.

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency upconversion lasing of a new blue-green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ananthavel, S. P.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature (London) 398, 51–53 (1999).

Barlow, S.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature (London) 398, 51–53 (1999).

Bhatt, J. C.

Bhawalkar, J. D.

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C. K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, “Efficient, two-photon pumped green upconverted cavity lasing in a new dye,” Opt. Commun. 124, 33–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one- and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

Cheng, N.

G. S. He, K. S. Kim, L. X. Yuan, N. Cheng, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped partially cross-linked polymer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1619–1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Crane, R. L.

Cui, Y. P.

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, Y. P. Cui, M. Li, P. N. Prasad, “Studies on two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cumpston, B. H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature (London) 398, 51–53 (1999).

Dillard, A. G.

Dyer, D. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature (London) 398, 51–53 (1999).

Ehrlich, J. E.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature (London) 398, 51–53 (1999).

Epling, B. L.

Erskine, L. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature (London) 398, 51–53 (1999).

Facchetti, A.

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency upconversion lasing of a new blue-green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

He, G. S.

G. S. He, R. Signorini, P. N. Prasad, “Longitudinally two-photon pumped leaky waveguide dye film laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 7–13 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, R. Signorini, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted blue lasing in Coumarin dye solution,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5720–5725 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, K. S. Kim, L. X. Yuan, N. Cheng, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped partially cross-linked polymer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1619–1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency upconversion lasing of a new blue-green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, Y. P. Cui, M. Li, P. N. Prasad, “Studies on two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C. K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, “Efficient, two-photon pumped green upconverted cavity lasing in a new dye,” Opt. Commun. 124, 33–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one- and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heikal, A. A.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature (London) 398, 51–53 (1999).

James, W. D.

W. D. James, H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 245, 73–76 (1990).

Joshi, M. P.

M. P. Joshi, H. E. Pudavar, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, “Three-dimensional optical circuitry using two-photon-assisted polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 170–172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Kim, K. S.

G. S. He, K. S. Kim, L. X. Yuan, N. Cheng, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped partially cross-linked polymer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1619–1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuebler, S. M.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature (London) 398, 51–53 (1999).

Li, M.

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, Y. P. Cui, M. Li, P. N. Prasad, “Studies on two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature (London) 398, 51–53 (1999).

Maruo, S.

McCord-Maughon, D.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature (London) 398, 51–53 (1999).

Nakamura, O.

Natarajan, L. V.

Pagani, G. A.

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency upconversion lasing of a new blue-green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. K.

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C. K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, “Efficient, two-photon pumped green upconverted cavity lasing in a new dye,” Opt. Commun. 124, 33–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one- and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Parthenopoulos, D. A.

D. A. Parthenopoulos, P. M. Rentzepis, “Three-dimensional optical storage memory,” Science 245, 843–845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, J. W.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature (London) 398, 51–53 (1999).

Prasad, P. N.

M. P. Joshi, H. E. Pudavar, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, “Three-dimensional optical circuitry using two-photon-assisted polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 170–172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, R. Signorini, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted blue lasing in Coumarin dye solution,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5720–5725 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, R. Signorini, P. N. Prasad, “Longitudinally two-photon pumped leaky waveguide dye film laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 7–13 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency upconversion lasing of a new blue-green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, K. S. Kim, L. X. Yuan, N. Cheng, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped partially cross-linked polymer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1619–1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, Y. P. Cui, M. Li, P. N. Prasad, “Studies on two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C. K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, “Efficient, two-photon pumped green upconverted cavity lasing in a new dye,” Opt. Commun. 124, 33–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one- and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pudavar, H. E.

M. P. Joshi, H. E. Pudavar, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, “Three-dimensional optical circuitry using two-photon-assisted polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 170–172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qin, J.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature (London) 398, 51–53 (1999).

Reinhardt, B. A.

Rentzepis, P. M.

D. A. Parthenopoulos, P. M. Rentzepis, “Three-dimensional optical storage memory,” Science 245, 843–845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rockel, H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature (London) 398, 51–53 (1999).

Ruland, G.

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C. K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, “Efficient, two-photon pumped green upconverted cavity lasing in a new dye,” Opt. Commun. 124, 33–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rumi, M.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature (London) 398, 51–53 (1999).

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sandy Lee, I. Y.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature (London) 398, 51–53 (1999).

Schmitt, M. G.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Signorini, R.

G. S. He, R. Signorini, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted blue lasing in Coumarin dye solution,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5720–5725 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, R. Signorini, P. N. Prasad, “Longitudinally two-photon pumped leaky waveguide dye film laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 7–13 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Strickler, H.

W. D. James, H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 245, 73–76 (1990).

Strickler, J. H.

Swiatkiewicz, J.

M. P. Joshi, H. E. Pudavar, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, “Three-dimensional optical circuitry using two-photon-assisted polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 170–172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

J. H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, “Three-dimensional optical data storage in refractive media by two-photon point excitation,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1780–1782 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. D. James, H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 245, 73–76 (1990).

Wei, T.-H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature (London) 398, 51–53 (1999).

Xu, G. C.

Yuan, L. X.

G. S. He, K. S. Kim, L. X. Yuan, N. Cheng, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped partially cross-linked polymer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1619–1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency upconversion lasing of a new blue-green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, Y. P. Cui, M. Li, P. N. Prasad, “Studies on two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C. F.

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C. K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, “Efficient, two-photon pumped green upconverted cavity lasing in a new dye,” Opt. Commun. 124, 33–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one- and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. P. Joshi, H. E. Pudavar, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, “Three-dimensional optical circuitry using two-photon-assisted polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 170–172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, K. S. Kim, L. X. Yuan, N. Cheng, P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon pumped partially cross-linked polymer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1619–1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. K. Park, P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one- and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

G. S. He, R. Signorini, P. N. Prasad, “Longitudinally two-photon pumped leaky waveguide dye film laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 7–13 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, Y. P. Cui, M. Li, P. N. Prasad, “Studies on two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2529–2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature (London) 398, 51–53 (1999).

Opt. Commun. (2)

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency upconversion lasing of a new blue-green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bhawalkar, G. S. He, C. K. Park, C. F. Zhao, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, “Efficient, two-photon pumped green upconverted cavity lasing in a new dye,” Opt. Commun. 124, 33–37 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (2)

W. D. James, H. Strickler, W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 245, 73–76 (1990).

D. A. Parthenopoulos, P. M. Rentzepis, “Three-dimensional optical storage memory,” Science 245, 843–845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Linear absorption spectrum of 0.00001 mol/L of PSPI in DMF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Open-aperture Z-scan apparatus in which the ratio D2/D1, where D’s are detectors, is recorded as a function of the sample’s position. BS, beam splitter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized open-aperture Z-scan transmittance of 0.05 mol/L of PSPI in DMF with 35-ps pulses at λ = 1064 nm and I 0 = 2.32 GW/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup of the TPP PSPI frequency upconverted laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral distribution of the TPP frequency upconverted PSPI cavity laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temporal profiles of (a) the pump pulse and (b) the TPP lasing pulse of PSPI at a pump level of 3 mJ.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Characteristic lasing output–input curve of the frequency upconverted PSPI laser.

Equations (1)

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β=σ2N0=hγσ2NAd0×10-3.

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