Abstract

Detrimental effects to quantitative interpretation of Mie and laser-induced fluorescence images of hollow-cone sprays were investigated. The attenuation of the laser beam leads to locally unknown intensities rendering it impossible to obtain high-fidelity images of these sprays. Two strategies that use bidirectional illumination of the spray are discussed and evaluated. Conditions for which a bidirectional illumination, single-image detection will allow good recovery of the spray structure are identified. Furthermore, the attenuation of laser-induced fluorescence signals on their path through the spray is quantified.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F.-Q. Zhao, M.-C. Lai, D. L. Harrington, “Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 25, 437–562 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly, “Quantitative 2D single-shot imaging of NO concentrations and temperatures in a transparent SI engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2597–2604.
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Knapp, A. Luczak, H. Schlüter, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Crank-angle-resolved laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in a spark-ignition engine at 248 nm and correlations to flame front propagation and pressure release,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4009–4017 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, E. Wagner, V. Sick, “Investigation of spatially resolved light absorption in a spark-ignition engine fueled with propane/air,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1452–1458 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Preussner, C. Doering, S. Fehler, S. Kampmann, “GDI: Interaction between mixture preparation, combustion system and injector performance,” SAE paper 980498 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).
  6. J. Su, M. C. Drake, T. D. Fansler, D. L. Harrington, “Towards quantitative characterization of transient fuel sprays using planar laser induced fluorescence imaging,” presented at the Eleventh Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems of the Institute for Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, ILASS Americas ’98, Sacramento, Calif., 17–20 May 1998.
  7. H. M. Hertz, M. Alden, “Calibration of imaging laser-induced fluorescence measurements in highly absorbing flames,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 97–102 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Versluis, N. Georgiev, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, “2-D absolute OH concentration profiles in atmospheric flames using planar LIF in a bi-directional laser beam configuration,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 411–417 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. G. Talley, J. F. Verdieck, S. W. Lee, V. G. McDonnell, G. S. Samuelsen, “Accounting for laser sheet extinction in applying PLLIF to sprays,” paper AIAA-96-0469, presented at the Thirty-Fourth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 15–18 Jan. 1996 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1996).
  10. A. Arnold, A. Buschmann, B. Cousyn, M. Decker, V. Sick, F. Vannobel, J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous imaging of fuel and hydroxyl radicals in an in-line four cylinder SI engine,” SAE paper 932696 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993).
  11. S. Einecke, C. Schulz, V. Sick, R. Schiessl, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, “Two-dimensional temperature measurements in the compression stroke of a SI engine using two-line tracer LIF,” SAE Trans. 107, 1060–1068 (1998).
  12. J. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, R. H. Kraus, J. C.McDaniel, “Laser selection of OH fluorescence measurements in supersonic test facilities,” AIAA J. 31, 520–527 (1993).
  13. B. Stojkovic, V. Sick, “Spray evolution and impingement investigated with simultaneous Mie/LIF techniques,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).
  14. M. Raffel, C. E. Willert, J. Kompenhans, Particle Image Velocimetry: A Practical Guide (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Weickert, Anisotropic Diffusion in Image Processing (Teubner, Stuttgart, Germany, 1998).

1999 (2)

F.-Q. Zhao, M.-C. Lai, D. L. Harrington, “Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 25, 437–562 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, E. Wagner, V. Sick, “Investigation of spatially resolved light absorption in a spark-ignition engine fueled with propane/air,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1452–1458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, V. Sick, R. Schiessl, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, “Two-dimensional temperature measurements in the compression stroke of a SI engine using two-line tracer LIF,” SAE Trans. 107, 1060–1068 (1998).

1997 (1)

M. Versluis, N. Georgiev, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, “2-D absolute OH concentration profiles in atmospheric flames using planar LIF in a bi-directional laser beam configuration,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 411–417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

J. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, R. H. Kraus, J. C.McDaniel, “Laser selection of OH fluorescence measurements in supersonic test facilities,” AIAA J. 31, 520–527 (1993).

1987 (1)

H. M. Hertz, M. Alden, “Calibration of imaging laser-induced fluorescence measurements in highly absorbing flames,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 97–102 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Alden, M.

M. Versluis, N. Georgiev, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, “2-D absolute OH concentration profiles in atmospheric flames using planar LIF in a bi-directional laser beam configuration,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 411–417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Hertz, M. Alden, “Calibration of imaging laser-induced fluorescence measurements in highly absorbing flames,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 97–102 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Andresen, P.

Arnold, A.

A. Arnold, A. Buschmann, B. Cousyn, M. Decker, V. Sick, F. Vannobel, J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous imaging of fuel and hydroxyl radicals in an in-line four cylinder SI engine,” SAE paper 932696 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993).

Beushausen, V.

Buschmann, A.

A. Arnold, A. Buschmann, B. Cousyn, M. Decker, V. Sick, F. Vannobel, J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous imaging of fuel and hydroxyl radicals in an in-line four cylinder SI engine,” SAE paper 932696 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993).

C.McDaniel, J.

J. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, R. H. Kraus, J. C.McDaniel, “Laser selection of OH fluorescence measurements in supersonic test facilities,” AIAA J. 31, 520–527 (1993).

Cousyn, B.

A. Arnold, A. Buschmann, B. Cousyn, M. Decker, V. Sick, F. Vannobel, J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous imaging of fuel and hydroxyl radicals in an in-line four cylinder SI engine,” SAE paper 932696 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993).

Decker, M.

A. Arnold, A. Buschmann, B. Cousyn, M. Decker, V. Sick, F. Vannobel, J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous imaging of fuel and hydroxyl radicals in an in-line four cylinder SI engine,” SAE paper 932696 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993).

Doering, C.

C. Preussner, C. Doering, S. Fehler, S. Kampmann, “GDI: Interaction between mixture preparation, combustion system and injector performance,” SAE paper 980498 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

Drake, M. C.

J. Su, M. C. Drake, T. D. Fansler, D. L. Harrington, “Towards quantitative characterization of transient fuel sprays using planar laser induced fluorescence imaging,” presented at the Eleventh Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems of the Institute for Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, ILASS Americas ’98, Sacramento, Calif., 17–20 May 1998.

Dreizler, A.

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, V. Sick, R. Schiessl, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, “Two-dimensional temperature measurements in the compression stroke of a SI engine using two-line tracer LIF,” SAE Trans. 107, 1060–1068 (1998).

Drewes, V.

C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly, “Quantitative 2D single-shot imaging of NO concentrations and temperatures in a transparent SI engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2597–2604.
[CrossRef]

Einecke, S.

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, V. Sick, R. Schiessl, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, “Two-dimensional temperature measurements in the compression stroke of a SI engine using two-line tracer LIF,” SAE Trans. 107, 1060–1068 (1998).

Fansler, T. D.

J. Su, M. C. Drake, T. D. Fansler, D. L. Harrington, “Towards quantitative characterization of transient fuel sprays using planar laser induced fluorescence imaging,” presented at the Eleventh Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems of the Institute for Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, ILASS Americas ’98, Sacramento, Calif., 17–20 May 1998.

Fehler, S.

C. Preussner, C. Doering, S. Fehler, S. Kampmann, “GDI: Interaction between mixture preparation, combustion system and injector performance,” SAE paper 980498 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

Georgiev, N.

M. Versluis, N. Georgiev, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, “2-D absolute OH concentration profiles in atmospheric flames using planar LIF in a bi-directional laser beam configuration,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 411–417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, D. L.

F.-Q. Zhao, M.-C. Lai, D. L. Harrington, “Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 25, 437–562 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Su, M. C. Drake, T. D. Fansler, D. L. Harrington, “Towards quantitative characterization of transient fuel sprays using planar laser induced fluorescence imaging,” presented at the Eleventh Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems of the Institute for Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, ILASS Americas ’98, Sacramento, Calif., 17–20 May 1998.

Hentschel, W.

Hertz, H. M.

H. M. Hertz, M. Alden, “Calibration of imaging laser-induced fluorescence measurements in highly absorbing flames,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 97–102 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hildenbrand, F.

Kampmann, S.

C. Preussner, C. Doering, S. Fehler, S. Kampmann, “GDI: Interaction between mixture preparation, combustion system and injector performance,” SAE paper 980498 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

Knapp, M.

Kompenhans, J.

M. Raffel, C. E. Willert, J. Kompenhans, Particle Image Velocimetry: A Practical Guide (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998).
[CrossRef]

Kraus, R. H.

J. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, R. H. Kraus, J. C.McDaniel, “Laser selection of OH fluorescence measurements in supersonic test facilities,” AIAA J. 31, 520–527 (1993).

Kröll, S.

M. Versluis, N. Georgiev, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, “2-D absolute OH concentration profiles in atmospheric flames using planar LIF in a bi-directional laser beam configuration,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 411–417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lai, M.-C.

F.-Q. Zhao, M.-C. Lai, D. L. Harrington, “Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 25, 437–562 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laufer, G.

J. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, R. H. Kraus, J. C.McDaniel, “Laser selection of OH fluorescence measurements in supersonic test facilities,” AIAA J. 31, 520–527 (1993).

Lee, S. W.

D. G. Talley, J. F. Verdieck, S. W. Lee, V. G. McDonnell, G. S. Samuelsen, “Accounting for laser sheet extinction in applying PLLIF to sprays,” paper AIAA-96-0469, presented at the Thirty-Fourth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 15–18 Jan. 1996 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1996).

Luczak, A.

Maas, U.

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, V. Sick, R. Schiessl, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, “Two-dimensional temperature measurements in the compression stroke of a SI engine using two-line tracer LIF,” SAE Trans. 107, 1060–1068 (1998).

Maly, R.

C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly, “Quantitative 2D single-shot imaging of NO concentrations and temperatures in a transparent SI engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2597–2604.
[CrossRef]

Martinsson, L.

M. Versluis, N. Georgiev, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, “2-D absolute OH concentration profiles in atmospheric flames using planar LIF in a bi-directional laser beam configuration,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 411–417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McDonnell, V. G.

D. G. Talley, J. F. Verdieck, S. W. Lee, V. G. McDonnell, G. S. Samuelsen, “Accounting for laser sheet extinction in applying PLLIF to sprays,” paper AIAA-96-0469, presented at the Thirty-Fourth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 15–18 Jan. 1996 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1996).

Preussner, C.

C. Preussner, C. Doering, S. Fehler, S. Kampmann, “GDI: Interaction between mixture preparation, combustion system and injector performance,” SAE paper 980498 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

Quagliaroli, J. M.

J. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, R. H. Kraus, J. C.McDaniel, “Laser selection of OH fluorescence measurements in supersonic test facilities,” AIAA J. 31, 520–527 (1993).

Raffel, M.

M. Raffel, C. E. Willert, J. Kompenhans, Particle Image Velocimetry: A Practical Guide (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998).
[CrossRef]

Samuelsen, G. S.

D. G. Talley, J. F. Verdieck, S. W. Lee, V. G. McDonnell, G. S. Samuelsen, “Accounting for laser sheet extinction in applying PLLIF to sprays,” paper AIAA-96-0469, presented at the Thirty-Fourth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 15–18 Jan. 1996 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1996).

Schiessl, R.

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, V. Sick, R. Schiessl, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, “Two-dimensional temperature measurements in the compression stroke of a SI engine using two-line tracer LIF,” SAE Trans. 107, 1060–1068 (1998).

Schlüter, H.

Schulz, C.

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, E. Wagner, V. Sick, “Investigation of spatially resolved light absorption in a spark-ignition engine fueled with propane/air,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1452–1458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, V. Sick, R. Schiessl, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, “Two-dimensional temperature measurements in the compression stroke of a SI engine using two-line tracer LIF,” SAE Trans. 107, 1060–1068 (1998).

C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly, “Quantitative 2D single-shot imaging of NO concentrations and temperatures in a transparent SI engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2597–2604.
[CrossRef]

Sick, V.

F. Hildenbrand, C. Schulz, E. Wagner, V. Sick, “Investigation of spatially resolved light absorption in a spark-ignition engine fueled with propane/air,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1452–1458 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, V. Sick, R. Schiessl, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, “Two-dimensional temperature measurements in the compression stroke of a SI engine using two-line tracer LIF,” SAE Trans. 107, 1060–1068 (1998).

A. Arnold, A. Buschmann, B. Cousyn, M. Decker, V. Sick, F. Vannobel, J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous imaging of fuel and hydroxyl radicals in an in-line four cylinder SI engine,” SAE paper 932696 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993).

B. Stojkovic, V. Sick, “Spray evolution and impingement investigated with simultaneous Mie/LIF techniques,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly, “Quantitative 2D single-shot imaging of NO concentrations and temperatures in a transparent SI engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2597–2604.
[CrossRef]

Stojkovic, B.

B. Stojkovic, V. Sick, “Spray evolution and impingement investigated with simultaneous Mie/LIF techniques,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Su, J.

J. Su, M. C. Drake, T. D. Fansler, D. L. Harrington, “Towards quantitative characterization of transient fuel sprays using planar laser induced fluorescence imaging,” presented at the Eleventh Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems of the Institute for Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, ILASS Americas ’98, Sacramento, Calif., 17–20 May 1998.

Talley, D. G.

D. G. Talley, J. F. Verdieck, S. W. Lee, V. G. McDonnell, G. S. Samuelsen, “Accounting for laser sheet extinction in applying PLLIF to sprays,” paper AIAA-96-0469, presented at the Thirty-Fourth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 15–18 Jan. 1996 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1996).

Vannobel, F.

A. Arnold, A. Buschmann, B. Cousyn, M. Decker, V. Sick, F. Vannobel, J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous imaging of fuel and hydroxyl radicals in an in-line four cylinder SI engine,” SAE paper 932696 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993).

Verdieck, J. F.

D. G. Talley, J. F. Verdieck, S. W. Lee, V. G. McDonnell, G. S. Samuelsen, “Accounting for laser sheet extinction in applying PLLIF to sprays,” paper AIAA-96-0469, presented at the Thirty-Fourth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 15–18 Jan. 1996 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1996).

Versluis, M.

M. Versluis, N. Georgiev, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, “2-D absolute OH concentration profiles in atmospheric flames using planar LIF in a bi-directional laser beam configuration,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 411–417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, E.

Weickert, J.

J. Weickert, Anisotropic Diffusion in Image Processing (Teubner, Stuttgart, Germany, 1998).

Willert, C. E.

M. Raffel, C. E. Willert, J. Kompenhans, Particle Image Velocimetry: A Practical Guide (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolfrum, J.

A. Arnold, A. Buschmann, B. Cousyn, M. Decker, V. Sick, F. Vannobel, J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous imaging of fuel and hydroxyl radicals in an in-line four cylinder SI engine,” SAE paper 932696 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993).

C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly, “Quantitative 2D single-shot imaging of NO concentrations and temperatures in a transparent SI engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2597–2604.
[CrossRef]

Zahn, M.

C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly, “Quantitative 2D single-shot imaging of NO concentrations and temperatures in a transparent SI engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2597–2604.
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F.-Q.

F.-Q. Zhao, M.-C. Lai, D. L. Harrington, “Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 25, 437–562 (1999).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (1)

J. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, R. H. Kraus, J. C.McDaniel, “Laser selection of OH fluorescence measurements in supersonic test facilities,” AIAA J. 31, 520–527 (1993).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

H. M. Hertz, M. Alden, “Calibration of imaging laser-induced fluorescence measurements in highly absorbing flames,” Appl. Phys. B 42, 97–102 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Versluis, N. Georgiev, L. Martinsson, M. Alden, S. Kröll, “2-D absolute OH concentration profiles in atmospheric flames using planar LIF in a bi-directional laser beam configuration,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 411–417 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. (1)

F.-Q. Zhao, M.-C. Lai, D. L. Harrington, “Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 25, 437–562 (1999).
[CrossRef]

SAE Trans. (1)

S. Einecke, C. Schulz, V. Sick, R. Schiessl, A. Dreizler, U. Maas, “Two-dimensional temperature measurements in the compression stroke of a SI engine using two-line tracer LIF,” SAE Trans. 107, 1060–1068 (1998).

Other (8)

C. Schulz, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly, “Quantitative 2D single-shot imaging of NO concentrations and temperatures in a transparent SI engine,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2597–2604.
[CrossRef]

B. Stojkovic, V. Sick, “Spray evolution and impingement investigated with simultaneous Mie/LIF techniques,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

M. Raffel, C. E. Willert, J. Kompenhans, Particle Image Velocimetry: A Practical Guide (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Weickert, Anisotropic Diffusion in Image Processing (Teubner, Stuttgart, Germany, 1998).

D. G. Talley, J. F. Verdieck, S. W. Lee, V. G. McDonnell, G. S. Samuelsen, “Accounting for laser sheet extinction in applying PLLIF to sprays,” paper AIAA-96-0469, presented at the Thirty-Fourth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 15–18 Jan. 1996 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1996).

A. Arnold, A. Buschmann, B. Cousyn, M. Decker, V. Sick, F. Vannobel, J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous imaging of fuel and hydroxyl radicals in an in-line four cylinder SI engine,” SAE paper 932696 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1993).

C. Preussner, C. Doering, S. Fehler, S. Kampmann, “GDI: Interaction between mixture preparation, combustion system and injector performance,” SAE paper 980498 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

J. Su, M. C. Drake, T. D. Fansler, D. L. Harrington, “Towards quantitative characterization of transient fuel sprays using planar laser induced fluorescence imaging,” presented at the Eleventh Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems of the Institute for Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, ILASS Americas ’98, Sacramento, Calif., 17–20 May 1998.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of a vertical cross section through a hollow-cone spray and nomenclature for the coordinate system and laser beam direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for counterpropagating excitation to study hollow-cone sprays with Mie scattering and LIF. The dotted laser beam illustrates the setup to measure the signal attenuation across the spray structure. ICCD, intensified CCD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Assumed model fuel distribution along a horizontal cross section through the hollow-cone spray. Two cases that are considered are denoted as narrow and wide fuel distribution. The local laser intensities calculated for the forward and backward laser beams are given for an overall attenuation of 95%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reconstructed fuel distribution: (a) 50% overall attenuation and (b) 95% overall attenuation. Both reconstruction strategies are shown for comparison.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Observed deviation between true fuel distribution and reconstructed profiles. Results shown are for both reconstruction methods and fuel distributions. (a) 50% overall attenuation and (b) 95% overall attenuation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Maximum deviation of the smaller peak between the true and the reconstructed distribution for the narrow and wide distribution as a function of the overall attenuation of the exciting laser beams. The intensity of the larger peaks was scaled to unity as a reference.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Maximum deviation of the smaller peak between the true and the reconstructed distribution for the narrow and wide distribution as a function of the initial intensity ratio of backward–forward laser beams. The intensity of the larger peaks was scaled to unity as a reference.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Averaged Mie-scattering images of an impinging spray. A horizontal profile at the indicated location is extracted for numerical illustration.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Ratio of Mie-scattering signals obtained by forward and backward illumination only. The profile is calculated from the data of Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Single-shot transmission measurement for LIF signals through a hollow-cone spray.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Isignal=NIlaserσC,
IforwardP=I0,forward exp-0P σNxdx.
IbackwardP=I0,backward exp-PL σNxdx.
IsignalP=Iforward laserPNP+Ibackward laserPNPσC.
RP=Isignal forwardPIsignal backwardP=IforwardPIbackwardP.
ln RP=lnI0,forwardI0,backward-0P σNPdx+PL σNPdx.
ln RP=lnI0,forwardI0,backward-2 0P σNPdx+0L σNPdx.
ddxln RP=2σNP.
NP=12σddxln RP.
ddxfxn=fxn+1-fxn-12Δx.

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