Abstract

A model developed recently by Loisel and Stramski [Appl. Opt. 39, 3001–3011 (2000)] for estimating the spectral absorption a(λ), scattering b(λ), and backscattering b b(λ) coefficients in the upper ocean from the irradiance reflectance just beneath the sea surface R(λ, z = 0-) and the diffuse attenuation of downwelling irradiance within the surface layer 〈K d(λ)〉1 is compared with measurements. Field data for this comparison were collected in different areas including off-shore and near-shore waters off southern California and around Europe. The a(λ) and b b(λ) values predicted by the model in the blue-green spectral region show generally good agreement with measurements that covered a broad range of conditions from clear oligotrophic waters to turbid coastal waters affected by river discharge. The agreement is still good if the model estimates of a(λ) and b b(λ) are based on R(λ, z = 0-) used as the only input to the model available from measurements [as opposed to both R(λ, z = 0-) and 〈K d(λ)〉1 being measured]. This particular mode of operation of the model is relevant to ocean-color remote-sensing applications. In contrast to a(λ) and b b(λ) the comparison between the modeled and the measured b(λ) shows large discrepancies. These discrepancies are most likely attributable to significant variations in the scattering phase function of suspended particulate matter, which were not included in the development of the model.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  43. A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (4)

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, “Estimation of the inherent optical properties of natural waters from irradiance attenuation coefficient and reflectance in the presence of Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3001–3011 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the absorption and backscattering coefficients from in-water radiometric measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 628–641 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Barth, D. J. Bogucki, “Spectral light absorption and attenuation measurements from a towed undulating vehicle,” Deep Sea Res. 47, 323–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Claustre, F. Fell, K. Oubelkheir, L. Prieur, A. Sciandra, B. Gentili, M. Babin, “Continuous monitoring of surface optical properties across a geostrophic front: biogeochemical inferences,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 309–421 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “In situ determination of the remotely sensed reflectance and the absorption coefficient: closure and inversion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5108–5117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. Hawes, “Semianalytic modis algorithms for chlorophyll-a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (6)

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Sydor, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, G. E. Terrie, S. D. Ladner, C. G. Wood, “Remote-sensing technique for determination of the volume absorption coefficient of turbid water,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4944–4950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical ocean color algorithm for light absorption coefficients of optically deep waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27,967–27,978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leathers, C. S. Roesler, N. J. McCornick, “Ocean inherent optical property determination from in-water light field measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5096–5103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, G. C. Boynton, “Radiance-irradiance inversion algorithm for estimating the absorption and backscattering coefficients of natural waters: vertically stratified water bodies,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3886–3896 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

1996 (2)

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,274–13,294 (1995).

1994 (2)

J. T. O. Kirk, “Estimation of the absorption and scattering coefficient of natural waters by use underwater irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3276–3278 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Seze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (2)

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: Its dependence on Sun angles as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Absorption and scattering estimates from irradiance measurements: Monte Carlo simulations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 769–777 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “On the noncorrelation of the vertical structure of light scattering and chlorophyll a in case 1 waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20,237–20,246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, C. M. Caverhill, M. R. Lewis, “Ocean primary production and available light: further algorithms for remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 855–879 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Solar Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).

1983 (1)

M. R. Lewis, J. J. Cullen, T. Platt, “Phytoplankton and thermal structure in the upper ocean: consequences of nonuniformity in chlorophyll profile,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2565–2570 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

Arnone, R. A.

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 239–256.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Austin, “The remote sensing of spectral radiance from below the ocean surface,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steeman Nielsen, eds. (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 317–344.

Babin, M.

H. Claustre, F. Fell, K. Oubelkheir, L. Prieur, A. Sciandra, B. Gentili, M. Babin, “Continuous monitoring of surface optical properties across a geostrophic front: biogeochemical inferences,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 309–421 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “In situ determination of the remotely sensed reflectance and the absorption coefficient: closure and inversion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5108–5117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barth, J. A.

J. A. Barth, D. J. Bogucki, “Spectral light absorption and attenuation measurements from a towed undulating vehicle,” Deep Sea Res. 47, 323–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bogucki, D. J.

J. A. Barth, D. J. Bogucki, “Spectral light absorption and attenuation measurements from a towed undulating vehicle,” Deep Sea Res. 47, 323–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boynton, G. C.

Breon, F. M.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Seze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Seze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Buriez, J. C.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Seze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. Hawes, “Semianalytic modis algorithms for chlorophyll-a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical ocean color algorithm for light absorption coefficients of optically deep waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27,967–27,978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Caverhill, C. M.

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, C. M. Caverhill, M. R. Lewis, “Ocean primary production and available light: further algorithms for remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 855–879 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F. R.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. Hawes, “Semianalytic modis algorithms for chlorophyll-a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

Claustre, H.

H. Claustre, F. Fell, K. Oubelkheir, L. Prieur, A. Sciandra, B. Gentili, M. Babin, “Continuous monitoring of surface optical properties across a geostrophic front: biogeochemical inferences,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 309–421 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cullen, J. J.

M. R. Lewis, J. J. Cullen, T. Platt, “Phytoplankton and thermal structure in the upper ocean: consequences of nonuniformity in chlorophyll profile,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2565–2570 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dana, D. R.

R. A. Maffione, D. R. Dana, “Recent measurements of the spectral backward scattering coefficient in coastal waters,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 154–159 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical ocean color algorithm for light absorption coefficients of optically deep waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27,967–27,978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P. Y.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Seze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fell, F.

H. Claustre, F. Fell, K. Oubelkheir, L. Prieur, A. Sciandra, B. Gentili, M. Babin, “Continuous monitoring of surface optical properties across a geostrophic front: biogeochemical inferences,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 309–421 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

Gentili, B.

Gordon, H. R.

Gould, R. W.

Hawes, S.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. Hawes, “Semianalytic modis algorithms for chlorophyll-a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ishizaka, J.

M. Kishino, J. Ishizaka, H. Satoh, K. Kusaka, S. Saitoh, T. Miyoi, K. Kawasaki, “Optical characteristics of sea water in the north Pacific ocean,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 173–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kahru, M.

B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, “Algorithms for Sea WIFS developed with the CalCOFI data set,” (CalFOFI, La Jolla, Calif., 1998).

Kawasaki, K.

M. Kishino, J. Ishizaka, H. Satoh, K. Kusaka, S. Saitoh, T. Miyoi, K. Kawasaki, “Optical characteristics of sea water in the north Pacific ocean,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 173–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, J. T. O.

Kishino, M.

M. Kishino, J. Ishizaka, H. Satoh, K. Kusaka, S. Saitoh, T. Miyoi, K. Kawasaki, “Optical characteristics of sea water in the north Pacific ocean,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 173–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kitchen, J. C.

J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “On the noncorrelation of the vertical structure of light scattering and chlorophyll a in case 1 waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20,237–20,246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of the reflecting tube absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kusaka, K.

M. Kishino, J. Ishizaka, H. Satoh, K. Kusaka, S. Saitoh, T. Miyoi, K. Kawasaki, “Optical characteristics of sea water in the north Pacific ocean,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 173–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Labs, D.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Solar Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).

Ladner, S. D.

Leathers, R. A.

Lee, Z. P.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. Hawes, “Semianalytic modis algorithms for chlorophyll-a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical ocean color algorithm for light absorption coefficients of optically deep waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27,967–27,978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leroy, M.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Seze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M. R.

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, C. M. Caverhill, M. R. Lewis, “Ocean primary production and available light: further algorithms for remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 855–879 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Lewis, J. J. Cullen, T. Platt, “Phytoplankton and thermal structure in the upper ocean: consequences of nonuniformity in chlorophyll profile,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2565–2570 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Loisel, H.

Lyon, P. E.

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maffione, R. A.

R. A. Maffione, D. R. Dana, “Recent measurements of the spectral backward scattering coefficient in coastal waters,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 154–159 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCornick, N. J.

Mitchell, B. G.

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the absorption and backscattering coefficients from in-water radiometric measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 628–641 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, “Algorithms for Sea WIFS developed with the CalCOFI data set,” (CalFOFI, La Jolla, Calif., 1998).

B. G. Mitchell, “Algorithm for determining the absorption coefficient of aquatic particulate using the quantitative filter technique (QFT),” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 137–148 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miyoi, T.

M. Kishino, J. Ishizaka, H. Satoh, K. Kusaka, S. Saitoh, T. Miyoi, K. Kawasaki, “Optical characteristics of sea water in the north Pacific ocean,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 173–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the absorption and backscattering coefficients from in-water radiometric measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 628–641 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, Hydrolight 4.0 User’s Guide (Sequoia Scientific, Mercer Island, Wash., 1998).

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

Moore, C. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of the reflecting tube absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: Its dependence on Sun angles as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure seawater,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steeman Nielsen, eds. (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 1–24.

Mueller, J. L.

J. L. Mueller, C. Trees, “Revised Sea WIFS prelaunch algorithm for diffuse attenuation coefficient K(490),” , Vol. 41, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1997), pp. 18–21.

Neckel, H.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Solar Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).

Oubelkheir, K.

H. Claustre, F. Fell, K. Oubelkheir, L. Prieur, A. Sciandra, B. Gentili, M. Babin, “Continuous monitoring of surface optical properties across a geostrophic front: biogeochemical inferences,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 309–421 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Patch, J. S.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical ocean color algorithm for light absorption coefficients of optically deep waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27,967–27,978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, T. G.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical ocean color algorithm for light absorption coefficients of optically deep waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27,967–27,978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “In situ determination of the remotely sensed reflectance and the absorption coefficient: closure and inversion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5108–5117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. J.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,274–13,294 (1995).

Petzold, T. J.

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 239–256.
[CrossRef]

Platt, T.

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, C. M. Caverhill, M. R. Lewis, “Ocean primary production and available light: further algorithms for remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 855–879 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Lewis, J. J. Cullen, T. Platt, “Phytoplankton and thermal structure in the upper ocean: consequences of nonuniformity in chlorophyll profile,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2565–2570 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Podaire, A.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Seze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

Prieur, L.

H. Claustre, F. Fell, K. Oubelkheir, L. Prieur, A. Sciandra, B. Gentili, M. Babin, “Continuous monitoring of surface optical properties across a geostrophic front: biogeochemical inferences,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 309–421 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C.

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C. S.

R. A. Leathers, C. S. Roesler, N. J. McCornick, “Ocean inherent optical property determination from in-water light field measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5096–5103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,274–13,294 (1995).

Saitoh, S.

M. Kishino, J. Ishizaka, H. Satoh, K. Kusaka, S. Saitoh, T. Miyoi, K. Kawasaki, “Optical characteristics of sea water in the north Pacific ocean,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 173–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, C. M. Caverhill, M. R. Lewis, “Ocean primary production and available light: further algorithms for remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 855–879 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Satoh, H.

M. Kishino, J. Ishizaka, H. Satoh, K. Kusaka, S. Saitoh, T. Miyoi, K. Kawasaki, “Optical characteristics of sea water in the north Pacific ocean,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 173–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sciandra, A.

H. Claustre, F. Fell, K. Oubelkheir, L. Prieur, A. Sciandra, B. Gentili, M. Babin, “Continuous monitoring of surface optical properties across a geostrophic front: biogeochemical inferences,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 309–421 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seze, G.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Seze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. G.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical ocean color algorithm for light absorption coefficients of optically deep waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27,967–27,978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stramska, M.

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the absorption and backscattering coefficients from in-water radiometric measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 628–641 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the absorption and backscattering coefficients from in-water radiometric measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 628–641 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, “Estimation of the inherent optical properties of natural waters from irradiance attenuation coefficient and reflectance in the presence of Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3001–3011 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sydor, M.

Terrie, G. E.

Trees, C.

J. L. Mueller, C. Trees, “Revised Sea WIFS prelaunch algorithm for diffuse attenuation coefficient K(490),” , Vol. 41, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1997), pp. 18–21.

Wood, C. G.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “In situ determination of the remotely sensed reflectance and the absorption coefficient: closure and inversion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5108–5117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “On the noncorrelation of the vertical structure of light scattering and chlorophyll a in case 1 waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20,237–20,246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of the reflecting tube absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (14)

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, “Estimation of the inherent optical properties of natural waters from irradiance attenuation coefficient and reflectance in the presence of Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3001–3011 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. T. O. Kirk, “Estimation of the absorption and scattering coefficient of natural waters by use underwater irradiance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3276–3278 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, G. C. Boynton, “Radiance-irradiance inversion algorithm for estimating the absorption and backscattering coefficients of natural waters: homogeneous waters,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2636–2641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Barnard, J. R. V. Zaneveld, W. S. Pegau, “In situ determination of the remotely sensed reflectance and the absorption coefficient: closure and inversion,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5108–5117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Sydor, R. A. Arnone, “Effects of suspended particulate and dissolved organic matter on remote sensing of coastal and riverine waters,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6905–6912 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leathers, C. S. Roesler, N. J. McCornick, “Ocean inherent optical property determination from in-water light field measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5096–5103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, G. C. Boynton, “Radiance-irradiance inversion algorithm for estimating the absorption and backscattering coefficients of natural waters: vertically stratified water bodies,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3886–3896 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: Its dependence on Sun angles as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Removal of atmospheric effects from satellite imagery of the oceans,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1631–1636 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of Coastal Zone Color Scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2257–2260 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sydor, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, G. E. Terrie, S. D. Ladner, C. G. Wood, “Remote-sensing technique for determination of the volume absorption coefficient of turbid water,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4944–4950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. (1)

J. A. Barth, D. J. Bogucki, “Spectral light absorption and attenuation measurements from a towed undulating vehicle,” Deep Sea Res. 47, 323–342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. (1)

T. Platt, S. Sathyendranath, C. M. Caverhill, M. R. Lewis, “Ocean primary production and available light: further algorithms for remote sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 35, 855–879 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Seze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (8)

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17,081–17,106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Lewis, J. J. Cullen, T. Platt, “Phytoplankton and thermal structure in the upper ocean: consequences of nonuniformity in chlorophyll profile,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2565–2570 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kitchen, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “On the noncorrelation of the vertical structure of light scattering and chlorophyll a in case 1 waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20,237–20,246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. S. Patch, “An empirical ocean color algorithm for light absorption coefficients of optically deep waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27,967–27,978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,274–13,294 (1995).

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. Hawes, “Semianalytic modis algorithms for chlorophyll-a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (6)

H. R. Gordon, “Absorption and scattering estimates from irradiance measurements: Monte Carlo simulations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 769–777 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Stramska, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the absorption and backscattering coefficients from in-water radiometric measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 628–641 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Claustre, F. Fell, K. Oubelkheir, L. Prieur, A. Sciandra, B. Gentili, M. Babin, “Continuous monitoring of surface optical properties across a geostrophic front: biogeochemical inferences,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 309–421 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Solar Phys. (1)

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Solar Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984).

Other (11)

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 239–256.
[CrossRef]

M. Kishino, J. Ishizaka, H. Satoh, K. Kusaka, S. Saitoh, T. Miyoi, K. Kawasaki, “Optical characteristics of sea water in the north Pacific ocean,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 173–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Austin, “The remote sensing of spectral radiance from below the ocean surface,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steeman Nielsen, eds. (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 317–344.

J. L. Mueller, C. Trees, “Revised Sea WIFS prelaunch algorithm for diffuse attenuation coefficient K(490),” , Vol. 41, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1997), pp. 18–21.

C. D. Mobley, Hydrolight 4.0 User’s Guide (Sequoia Scientific, Mercer Island, Wash., 1998).

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure seawater,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steeman Nielsen, eds. (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 1–24.

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, C. C. Moore, “Scattering error correction of the reflecting tube absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 44–55 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Mitchell, “Algorithm for determining the absorption coefficient of aquatic particulate using the quantitative filter technique (QFT),” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 137–148 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Maffione, D. R. Dana, “Recent measurements of the spectral backward scattering coefficient in coastal waters,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 154–159 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, “Algorithms for Sea WIFS developed with the CalCOFI data set,” (CalFOFI, La Jolla, Calif., 1998).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Vertical profiles of chlorophyll a concentration characterized by a large maximum near the ocean surface, and (b) the profiles with no maximum at all and with the significant subsurface maxima characteristic of open ocean waters. (c), (d) Vertical profiles of the absorption coefficient (dashed curves) and the scattering coefficient (solid curves) for one example profile of chlorophyll, that is, profile 3 in (b). (c) Results of calculations in the case in which both absorption and scattering covary with chlorophyll concentration; (d) results of calculations when only absorption covaries with chlorophyll (see text for details about these calculations).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of errors (in percent) in the values of absorption, scattering, and backscattering coefficients estimated from our model when the vertical profiles of IOPs are defined by the IOP ab-Chl (left) or the IOP a-Chl (right) models as described in the text. The errors are plotted for the three selected wavelengths, 440, 555, and 660 nm, for each chlorophyll profile from Fig. 1, as indicated: circles, errors for the absorption coefficient; squares, those for the scattering coefficient; triangles, those for the backscattering coefficient.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spectral reflectance just beneath the sea surface and (b) the vertical attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance averaged within the first attenuation layer obtained from measurements at CalCOFI stations: Open and solid circles, data collected at off-shore and near-shore stations, respectively; triangles, spectral curves intermediate between the off-shore and the near-shore spectra.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Examples of the (a) measured spectral absorption coefficient and (b) the backscattering coefficient averaged within the first attenuation layer for off-shore and near-shore CalCOFI stations (see text for details about the measurements). These spectra correspond to the total absorption and backscattering coefficients after the contribution of pure seawater is subtracted. The pure seawater absorption and backscattering spectra are also shown for comparison (dashed curves). (b) The solid curves correspond to a power function fitted to measurements of backscattering at six wavebands, indicated by open and solid circles. The measurements of absorption were made with a high spectral resolution at 2-nm intervals.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Spectral reflectance just beneath the sea surface and (b) the vertical attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance averaged within the first attenuation layer obtained from measurements at selected COASTlOOC stations: open circles, data collected in the Atlantic; solid circles, coastal waters affected by discharge from the Rhone and the Rhine Rivers; triangles, Mediterranean stations unaffected by the Rhone River discharge.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral values of (a) the scattering-to-absorption ratio and (b) the parameter η calculated from the COASTlOOC data.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Comparison of the modeled and the measured absorption coefficients with the contribution of pure seawater subtracted. All data for the blue-green spectral wave bands from the CalCOFI and the COASTlOOC stations considered in this study are included: solid line, linear regression fit to the data points; dashed line, an ideal match between the measured and the modeled values. (b) Comparison of the modeled absorption spectra (solid lines) and the measured spectral absorption coefficients (circles, triangles) for selected stations. Dashed line, triangles, specific station in the Lions Gulf (see text for more details).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the modeled and the measured particle backscattering coefficient. All data for the blue-green wave bands and CalCOFI stations considered in this study are included: solid line, linear regression fit to the data points; dashed line, perfect match between the model and measurements.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Comparison of the modeled and measured particle-scattering coefficient. All data for the blue-green wave bands and COASTlOOC stations considered in this study are included: short-dashed line, perfect match between the model and measurements. (b) As in (a), but the data points are only from the Atlantic: long-dashed line, short-dashed line, linear regression fit to the data points and the perfect agreement, respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Estimates of the vertical attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance from the three empirical models plotted versus the values from our in situ measurements at the CalCOFI and the COASTlOOC stations. The different symbols represent the various empirical models used for specific wavelengths, as indicated: dashed line, perfect agreement between the model and observations; solid line, linear regression fit to the data points. The standard errors of the slope and intercept of the regression are 0.0447 and 0.0112, respectively.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Comparison of the modeled and the measured absorption coefficient for a special case in which the reflectance just beneath the sea surface is the only measurement used as input to the model (see text for more details): solid, dashed lines, linear regression fit and the perfect agreement, respectively. The standard errors of the slope and the intercept parameters of the regression are 0.0431 and 0.0081, respectively. Note that the number of data points in (a), which were obtained during the CalCOFI and the COASTlOOC experiments, is not the same as in Fig. 7(a) because the measurements of R(z = 0-) at 443 and 555 nm necessary to calculate 〈K d (490)〉1 were not available at all stations. (b) As in (a) but for the backscattering coefficient (recall that the measurements of backscattering are from CalCOFI stations only).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparison of the modeled and the measured absorption coefficients at two specific wavelengths: (a) λ = 440 nm; (b) λ = 490 nm. For each wavelength, two different models are compared with measurements, as indicated: dashed line, perfect agreement between the model and observations. The linear regression fit to the data points, solid line, for our model and, dotted line, for the two other models (Lee et al. at λ = 440 nm, and Barnard et al. at λ = 490 nm).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of the Linear Regression Analysis Between the Modeled and the Measured Absorption Coefficientsa

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

a=μwKd11+2.54-6.54μw+19.89μw2Re0-1-Re0-0.5,
b=aRe0-1-Re0--bw0.165-0.0358μw0.0215-0.0149μw,
bb=Kd110αRe0-δ.
α=-0.83+5.34η-12.26η2+μw1.013-4.124η+8.088η2,
δ=0.871+0.40η-1.83η2,
Chlz=Chl0+hσ2σ1/2exp-z-zm22σ2,
err%=IOPmodel-IOPtrueIOPtrue×100.
LWθV, ϕV, λ, z=0+= Rλ, z=0-QθV, ϕV, λ, z=0-×Edλ, z=0+,
Kd4901=0.022+0.1LWN443LWN555-1.29966,
LWNλ=F0nQn Rλ, z=0-,
Kd4901=0.022+0.1×R443, z=0-R555, z=0-F0443F0555n443n555Qn555Qn443-1.29966.
Kd4901=0.022+0.1R443, z=0-R555, z=0--1.29966,
Kdλ1=AλKd4901+Bλ,

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