Abstract

Atmospheric long-wave radiation is one of the most promising parameters for observations of climate change that are greenhouse effect related. Long-wave irradiance is usually measured with pyrgeometers that consist of a flat thermopile and a hemispherical dome acting as a filter and protecting the absorbing receiver surface. Pyrgeometers are blackbody calibrated, but uncertainties, mainly related to the silicon hemisphere, arise from thermal effects, inadequate spectral transmission, and cosine-response errors. The new absolute sky-scanning radiometer (ASR) allows absolute measurements of atmospheric long-wave radiation and is suggested as a future reference standard for pyrgeometer field calibration. The calibration of the ASR is based on a reference blackbody source traced to absolute temperature standards. The pyroelectric detector has no window to prevent thermal and spectral transmission effects. Scanning the sky with a narrow viewing angle and integrating with the Gaussian quadrature, rather than taking hemispherical measurements, prevent errors related to the cosine effect.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Ohmura, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Fröhlich, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, A. Heimo, G. König-Langlo, B. McArthur, G. Müller, R. Philipona, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, K. Dehne, M. Wild, “Baseline surface radiation network (BSRN/WRCP): new precision radiometry for climate research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115–2136 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Philipona, C. Marty, C. Fröhlich, A. Heimo, “Measurements of the long-wave radiation budget in the Alps,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 786–789.
  3. C. W. Fairall, P. O. G. Persson, E. F. Bradley, R. E. Payne, S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: theory and application,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1229–1242 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Shiobara, S. Asano, “The dome emission effect on the performance of pyrgeometers with silicon domes,” Pap. Meteorol. Geophys. 43, 17–31 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, Ch. Betz, “Characterization of pyrgeometers and the accuracy of atmospheric long-wave radiation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1598–1605 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Lorenz, P. Wendling, P. Burkert, F. Fergg, G. Wildgruber, “The chopped pyrgeometer: a new step in pyrgeometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 114–125 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. E. Payne, S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part II: calibration and use of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution improved meteorology precision infrared radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 739–751 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. J. Drummond, W. J. Scholes, J. H. Brown, “A new approach to the measurement of terrestrial long-wave radiation,” (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 1970), pp. 383–387.
  10. B. Albrecht, M. Peollet, S. K. Cox, “Pyrgeometer measurements from aircraft,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 33–38 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. R. Blevin, J. Geist, “Infrared reflectometry with a cavity-shaped pyroelectric detector,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2212–2217 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. S. Touloukian, D. P. DeWitt, Thermal Radiative Properties, Vol. 7 (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1970).
  13. E. M. Sparrow, L. U. Albers, E. R. G. Eckert, “Thermal radiation characteristics of cylindrical enclosures,” J. Heat Transfer 84, 73–81 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Betz, “Entwicklung eines Eichstrahlers für Pyrgeometer,” Diplomarbeit (Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1993).
  15. R. Philipona, “Alpine surface radiation budget project,” in Proceedings of the Global Atmospheric Watch CH Conference, Zurich, 14, 15 October 1998 (Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL), (Bern, Switzerland, 1998), UM-110-E, pp. 77–80.
  16. R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, “Atmospheric long-wave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, AERI, and radiative transfer model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

1999 (1)

R. E. Payne, S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part II: calibration and use of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution improved meteorology precision infrared radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 739–751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Ohmura, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Fröhlich, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, A. Heimo, G. König-Langlo, B. McArthur, G. Müller, R. Philipona, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, K. Dehne, M. Wild, “Baseline surface radiation network (BSRN/WRCP): new precision radiometry for climate research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115–2136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fairall, P. O. G. Persson, E. F. Bradley, R. E. Payne, S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: theory and application,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1229–1242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. Lorenz, P. Wendling, P. Burkert, F. Fergg, G. Wildgruber, “The chopped pyrgeometer: a new step in pyrgeometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 114–125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

M. Shiobara, S. Asano, “The dome emission effect on the performance of pyrgeometers with silicon domes,” Pap. Meteorol. Geophys. 43, 17–31 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

W. R. Blevin, J. Geist, “Infrared reflectometry with a cavity-shaped pyroelectric detector,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2212–2217 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Albrecht, M. Peollet, S. K. Cox, “Pyrgeometer measurements from aircraft,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 33–38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

E. M. Sparrow, L. U. Albers, E. R. G. Eckert, “Thermal radiation characteristics of cylindrical enclosures,” J. Heat Transfer 84, 73–81 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Albers, L. U.

E. M. Sparrow, L. U. Albers, E. R. G. Eckert, “Thermal radiation characteristics of cylindrical enclosures,” J. Heat Transfer 84, 73–81 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, B.

B. Albrecht, M. Peollet, S. K. Cox, “Pyrgeometer measurements from aircraft,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 33–38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, “Atmospheric long-wave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, AERI, and radiative transfer model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

Anderson, S. P.

R. E. Payne, S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part II: calibration and use of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution improved meteorology precision infrared radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 739–751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fairall, P. O. G. Persson, E. F. Bradley, R. E. Payne, S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: theory and application,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1229–1242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Asano, S.

M. Shiobara, S. Asano, “The dome emission effect on the performance of pyrgeometers with silicon domes,” Pap. Meteorol. Geophys. 43, 17–31 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Augustine, J.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bender, S.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Betz, C.

C. Betz, “Entwicklung eines Eichstrahlers für Pyrgeometer,” Diplomarbeit (Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1993).

Betz, Ch.

Blevin, W. R.

Bradley, E. F.

C. W. Fairall, P. O. G. Persson, E. F. Bradley, R. E. Payne, S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: theory and application,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1229–1242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. H.

A. J. Drummond, W. J. Scholes, J. H. Brown, “A new approach to the measurement of terrestrial long-wave radiation,” (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 1970), pp. 383–387.

Burkert, P.

D. Lorenz, P. Wendling, P. Burkert, F. Fergg, G. Wildgruber, “The chopped pyrgeometer: a new step in pyrgeometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 114–125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, “Atmospheric long-wave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, AERI, and radiative transfer model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

Cox, S. K.

B. Albrecht, M. Peollet, S. K. Cox, “Pyrgeometer measurements from aircraft,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 33–38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Dehne, K.

A. Ohmura, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Fröhlich, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, A. Heimo, G. König-Langlo, B. McArthur, G. Müller, R. Philipona, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, K. Dehne, M. Wild, “Baseline surface radiation network (BSRN/WRCP): new precision radiometry for climate research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115–2136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DeLuisi, J.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DeWitt, D. P.

Y. S. Touloukian, D. P. DeWitt, Thermal Radiative Properties, Vol. 7 (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1970).

Drummond, A. J.

A. J. Drummond, W. J. Scholes, J. H. Brown, “A new approach to the measurement of terrestrial long-wave radiation,” (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 1970), pp. 383–387.

Dutton, E. G.

A. Ohmura, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Fröhlich, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, A. Heimo, G. König-Langlo, B. McArthur, G. Müller, R. Philipona, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, K. Dehne, M. Wild, “Baseline surface radiation network (BSRN/WRCP): new precision radiometry for climate research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115–2136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, “Atmospheric long-wave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, AERI, and radiative transfer model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

Eckert, E. R. G.

E. M. Sparrow, L. U. Albers, E. R. G. Eckert, “Thermal radiation characteristics of cylindrical enclosures,” J. Heat Transfer 84, 73–81 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Fairall, C. W.

C. W. Fairall, P. O. G. Persson, E. F. Bradley, R. E. Payne, S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: theory and application,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1229–1242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fergg, F.

D. Lorenz, P. Wendling, P. Burkert, F. Fergg, G. Wildgruber, “The chopped pyrgeometer: a new step in pyrgeometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 114–125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Foot, J. S.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Forgan, B.

A. Ohmura, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Fröhlich, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, A. Heimo, G. König-Langlo, B. McArthur, G. Müller, R. Philipona, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, K. Dehne, M. Wild, “Baseline surface radiation network (BSRN/WRCP): new precision radiometry for climate research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115–2136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fröhlich, C.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Ohmura, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Fröhlich, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, A. Heimo, G. König-Langlo, B. McArthur, G. Müller, R. Philipona, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, K. Dehne, M. Wild, “Baseline surface radiation network (BSRN/WRCP): new precision radiometry for climate research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115–2136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, Ch. Betz, “Characterization of pyrgeometers and the accuracy of atmospheric long-wave radiation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1598–1605 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Philipona, C. Marty, C. Fröhlich, A. Heimo, “Measurements of the long-wave radiation budget in the Alps,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 786–789.

Geist, J.

Gilgen, H.

A. Ohmura, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Fröhlich, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, A. Heimo, G. König-Langlo, B. McArthur, G. Müller, R. Philipona, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, K. Dehne, M. Wild, “Baseline surface radiation network (BSRN/WRCP): new precision radiometry for climate research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115–2136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hegner, H.

A. Ohmura, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Fröhlich, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, A. Heimo, G. König-Langlo, B. McArthur, G. Müller, R. Philipona, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, K. Dehne, M. Wild, “Baseline surface radiation network (BSRN/WRCP): new precision radiometry for climate research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115–2136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heimo, A.

A. Ohmura, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Fröhlich, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, A. Heimo, G. König-Langlo, B. McArthur, G. Müller, R. Philipona, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, K. Dehne, M. Wild, “Baseline surface radiation network (BSRN/WRCP): new precision radiometry for climate research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115–2136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, C. Marty, C. Fröhlich, A. Heimo, “Measurements of the long-wave radiation budget in the Alps,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 786–789.

Hickey, J.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

König-Langlo, G.

A. Ohmura, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Fröhlich, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, A. Heimo, G. König-Langlo, B. McArthur, G. Müller, R. Philipona, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, K. Dehne, M. Wild, “Baseline surface radiation network (BSRN/WRCP): new precision radiometry for climate research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115–2136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, D.

D. Lorenz, P. Wendling, P. Burkert, F. Fergg, G. Wildgruber, “The chopped pyrgeometer: a new step in pyrgeometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 114–125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Love, S. P.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marty, C.

R. Philipona, C. Marty, C. Fröhlich, A. Heimo, “Measurements of the long-wave radiation budget in the Alps,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 786–789.

McArthur, B.

A. Ohmura, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Fröhlich, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, A. Heimo, G. König-Langlo, B. McArthur, G. Müller, R. Philipona, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, K. Dehne, M. Wild, “Baseline surface radiation network (BSRN/WRCP): new precision radiometry for climate research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115–2136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michalsky, J.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, “Atmospheric long-wave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, AERI, and radiative transfer model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

Mlawer, E. J.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, “Atmospheric long-wave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, AERI, and radiative transfer model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

Müller, G.

A. Ohmura, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Fröhlich, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, A. Heimo, G. König-Langlo, B. McArthur, G. Müller, R. Philipona, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, K. Dehne, M. Wild, “Baseline surface radiation network (BSRN/WRCP): new precision radiometry for climate research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115–2136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, P.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohmura, A.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Ohmura, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Fröhlich, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, A. Heimo, G. König-Langlo, B. McArthur, G. Müller, R. Philipona, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, K. Dehne, M. Wild, “Baseline surface radiation network (BSRN/WRCP): new precision radiometry for climate research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115–2136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Payne, R. E.

R. E. Payne, S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part II: calibration and use of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution improved meteorology precision infrared radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 739–751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fairall, P. O. G. Persson, E. F. Bradley, R. E. Payne, S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: theory and application,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1229–1242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peollet, M.

B. Albrecht, M. Peollet, S. K. Cox, “Pyrgeometer measurements from aircraft,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 33–38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Persson, P. O. G.

C. W. Fairall, P. O. G. Persson, E. F. Bradley, R. E. Payne, S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: theory and application,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1229–1242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Philipona, R.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Ohmura, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Fröhlich, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, A. Heimo, G. König-Langlo, B. McArthur, G. Müller, R. Philipona, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, K. Dehne, M. Wild, “Baseline surface radiation network (BSRN/WRCP): new precision radiometry for climate research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115–2136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, Ch. Betz, “Characterization of pyrgeometers and the accuracy of atmospheric long-wave radiation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1598–1605 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Philipona, C. Marty, C. Fröhlich, A. Heimo, “Measurements of the long-wave radiation budget in the Alps,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 786–789.

R. Philipona, “Alpine surface radiation budget project,” in Proceedings of the Global Atmospheric Watch CH Conference, Zurich, 14, 15 October 1998 (Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL), (Bern, Switzerland, 1998), UM-110-E, pp. 77–80.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, “Atmospheric long-wave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, AERI, and radiative transfer model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

Pinker, R.

A. Ohmura, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Fröhlich, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, A. Heimo, G. König-Langlo, B. McArthur, G. Müller, R. Philipona, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, K. Dehne, M. Wild, “Baseline surface radiation network (BSRN/WRCP): new precision radiometry for climate research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115–2136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reda, I.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, “Atmospheric long-wave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, AERI, and radiative transfer model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

Revercomb, H. E.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, “Atmospheric long-wave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, AERI, and radiative transfer model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

Scholes, W. J.

A. J. Drummond, W. J. Scholes, J. H. Brown, “A new approach to the measurement of terrestrial long-wave radiation,” (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 1970), pp. 383–387.

Seymour, J. H.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shiobara, M.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Shiobara, S. Asano, “The dome emission effect on the performance of pyrgeometers with silicon domes,” Pap. Meteorol. Geophys. 43, 17–31 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shippert, T. R.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, “Atmospheric long-wave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, AERI, and radiative transfer model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

Sparrow, E. M.

E. M. Sparrow, L. U. Albers, E. R. G. Eckert, “Thermal radiation characteristics of cylindrical enclosures,” J. Heat Transfer 84, 73–81 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Stifter, A.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, “Atmospheric long-wave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, AERI, and radiative transfer model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

Stoffel, T.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, “Atmospheric long-wave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, AERI, and radiative transfer model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

Strawa, A. W.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Touloukian, Y. S.

Y. S. Touloukian, D. P. DeWitt, Thermal Radiative Properties, Vol. 7 (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1970).

Valero, F. P. J.

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wendling, P.

D. Lorenz, P. Wendling, P. Burkert, F. Fergg, G. Wildgruber, “The chopped pyrgeometer: a new step in pyrgeometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 114–125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, “Atmospheric long-wave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, AERI, and radiative transfer model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

Whitlock, C. H.

A. Ohmura, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Fröhlich, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, A. Heimo, G. König-Langlo, B. McArthur, G. Müller, R. Philipona, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, K. Dehne, M. Wild, “Baseline surface radiation network (BSRN/WRCP): new precision radiometry for climate research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115–2136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wild, M.

A. Ohmura, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Fröhlich, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, A. Heimo, G. König-Langlo, B. McArthur, G. Müller, R. Philipona, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, K. Dehne, M. Wild, “Baseline surface radiation network (BSRN/WRCP): new precision radiometry for climate research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115–2136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wildgruber, G.

D. Lorenz, P. Wendling, P. Burkert, F. Fergg, G. Wildgruber, “The chopped pyrgeometer: a new step in pyrgeometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 114–125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wood, N.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, “Atmospheric long-wave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, AERI, and radiative transfer model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

A. Ohmura, E. G. Dutton, B. Forgan, C. Fröhlich, H. Gilgen, H. Hegner, A. Heimo, G. König-Langlo, B. McArthur, G. Müller, R. Philipona, R. Pinker, C. H. Whitlock, K. Dehne, M. Wild, “Baseline surface radiation network (BSRN/WRCP): new precision radiometry for climate research,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 2115–2136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (4)

C. W. Fairall, P. O. G. Persson, E. F. Bradley, R. E. Payne, S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part I: theory and application,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 1229–1242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenz, P. Wendling, P. Burkert, F. Fergg, G. Wildgruber, “The chopped pyrgeometer: a new step in pyrgeometry,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 114–125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Payne, S. P. Anderson, “A new look at calibration and use of Eppley precision infrared radiometers. Part II: calibration and use of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution improved meteorology precision infrared radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 739–751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Philipona, C. Fröhlich, K. Dehne, J. DeLuisi, J. Augustine, E. G. Dutton, D. Nelson, B. Forgan, P. Novotny, J. Hickey, S. P. Love, S. Bender, B. McArthur, A. Ohmura, J. H. Seymour, J. S. Foot, M. Shiobara, F. P. J. Valero, A. W. Strawa, “The baseline surface radiation network pyrgeometer round-robin calibration experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 15, 687–696 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Heat Transfer (1)

E. M. Sparrow, L. U. Albers, E. R. G. Eckert, “Thermal radiation characteristics of cylindrical enclosures,” J. Heat Transfer 84, 73–81 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Pap. Meteorol. Geophys. (1)

M. Shiobara, S. Asano, “The dome emission effect on the performance of pyrgeometers with silicon domes,” Pap. Meteorol. Geophys. 43, 17–31 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

B. Albrecht, M. Peollet, S. K. Cox, “Pyrgeometer measurements from aircraft,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 33–38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

Y. S. Touloukian, D. P. DeWitt, Thermal Radiative Properties, Vol. 7 (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1970).

C. Betz, “Entwicklung eines Eichstrahlers für Pyrgeometer,” Diplomarbeit (Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1993).

R. Philipona, “Alpine surface radiation budget project,” in Proceedings of the Global Atmospheric Watch CH Conference, Zurich, 14, 15 October 1998 (Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL), (Bern, Switzerland, 1998), UM-110-E, pp. 77–80.

R. Philipona, E. G. Dutton, T. Stoffel, J. Michalsky, I. Reda, A. Stifter, P. Wendling, N. Wood, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, G. Anderson, H. E. Revercomb, T. R. Shippert, “Atmospheric long-wave irradiance uncertainty: pyrgeometers compared to an absolute sky-scanning radiometer, AERI, and radiative transfer model calculations,” J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.

R. Philipona, C. Marty, C. Fröhlich, A. Heimo, “Measurements of the long-wave radiation budget in the Alps,” in IRS ’96: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, K. Stamnes, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1997), pp. 786–789.

A. J. Drummond, W. J. Scholes, J. H. Brown, “A new approach to the measurement of terrestrial long-wave radiation,” (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 1970), pp. 383–387.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Inhomogeneous PIR dome transmission (right scale) and significant differences between pyrgeometer calibration Planck curves and real atmospheric irradiance spectra, which cause considerable uncertainties in long-wave downward irradiance measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

ASR with reference blackbody (lower part) and rotatable detector head (upper part).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the ASR with the pyroelectric detector head and the reference blackbody calibration source. Two PIR traveling standard pyrgeometers are logged on the same data acquisition.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cavity-designed pyroelectric detector.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral sensitivity curve of the RkP-575 RF pyroelectric detector.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reference blackbody radiation source for absolute long-wave irradiance measurements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated local emittance ε a at the inside wall of a cylindrical cavity with ratio L/ D = 4 for (a) the open cylinder and (b) the partly closed cylinder with a ratio of r/ R = 0.5.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Long-wave net irradiance distribution at Davos measured by a four-Gaussian-angle scan (thick arrows) and a 5° step-angle scan (thin arrows) in the southwest to northeast direction.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Clear-sky hemispherical long-wave net irradiance distribution at Davos measured at four Gaussian angles and eight azimuthal directions.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Gaussian Quadrature Integration Angles and Weighting Coefficients for n = 4 Measurements

Tables Icon

Table 2 Uncertainties due to Errors on ASR Absolute Long-Wave Irradiance Measurements

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Mc=Ec=πLc.
Ec=εtσTc4,
01 μfμdμ=i=1n wifμi,
Ea=2π i=14 wiLi,

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