Abstract

The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an imaging infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer scheduled to be launched into polar Sun-synchronous orbit aboard the Earth Observing System’s Aura satellite in June 2003. The primary objective of the TES is to make global three-dimensional measurements of tropospheric ozone and of the physical–chemical factors that control its formation, destruction, and distribution. Such an ambitious goal requires a highly sophisticated cryogenic instrument operating over a wide frequency range, which, in turn, demands state-of-the-art infrared detector arrays. In addition, the measurements require an instrument that can operate in both nadir and limb-sounding modes with a precision pointing system. The way in which these mission objectives flow down to the specific science and measurement requirements and in turn are implemented in the flight hardware are described. A brief overview of the data analysis approach is provided.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  5. S. A. Clough, C. P. Rinsland, P. D. Brown, “Retrieval of tropospheric ozone from simulations of nadir spectral radiances as observed from space,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16579–16593 (1995).
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  9. K. W. Bowman, H. M. Worden, R. Beer, “Instrument line-shape modeling and correction for off-axis detectors in Fourier-transform spectrometry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3765–3773 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, “Level 1B algorithm theoretical basis document,” [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1999 ( http:/www.eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/atbd/pg1.html )].
  11. C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods in Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000).
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  13. H. M. Worden, R. Beer, C. P. Rinsland, “Airborne infrared spectroscopy of 1994 western wildfires,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1287–1299 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. J. Realmuto, H. M. Worden, “Impact of atmospheric water vapor on the thermal infrared remote sensing of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions: a case study from the Pu’u O’o vent of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 21,497–21,507 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2000

V. J. Realmuto, H. M. Worden, “Impact of atmospheric water vapor on the thermal infrared remote sensing of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions: a case study from the Pu’u O’o vent of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 21,497–21,507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Bowman, H. M. Worden, R. Beer, “Instrument line-shape modeling and correction for off-axis detectors in Fourier-transform spectrometry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3765–3773 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. M. Worden, R. Beer, C. P. Rinsland, “Airborne infrared spectroscopy of 1994 western wildfires,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1287–1299 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. A. Clough, C. P. Rinsland, P. D. Brown, “Retrieval of tropospheric ozone from simulations of nadir spectral radiances as observed from space,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16579–16593 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987

C. B. Farmer, “High resolution infrared spectroscopy of the Sun and the Earth’s atmosphere from space,” Mikrochim. Ac 3, 189–214 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1966

Baumann, J.

M. Nikitkin, B. Cullimore, J. Baumann, “CPL and LHP technologies: what are the differences, what are the similarities?” presented at the 9th Annual Spacecraft Thermal Control Technology Workshop Los Angeles, Calif., 4–6 March 1998.

Beer, R.

K. W. Bowman, H. M. Worden, R. Beer, “Instrument line-shape modeling and correction for off-axis detectors in Fourier-transform spectrometry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3765–3773 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Worden, R. Beer, C. P. Rinsland, “Airborne infrared spectroscopy of 1994 western wildfires,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1287–1299 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Beer, Remote Sensing by Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Wiley, New York, 1992).

Bowman, K. W.

Brown, P. D.

S. A. Clough, C. P. Rinsland, P. D. Brown, “Retrieval of tropospheric ozone from simulations of nadir spectral radiances as observed from space,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16579–16593 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough, C. P. Rinsland, P. D. Brown, “Retrieval of tropospheric ozone from simulations of nadir spectral radiances as observed from space,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16579–16593 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Connes, J.

Connes, P.

Cullimore, B.

M. Nikitkin, B. Cullimore, J. Baumann, “CPL and LHP technologies: what are the differences, what are the similarities?” presented at the 9th Annual Spacecraft Thermal Control Technology Workshop Los Angeles, Calif., 4–6 March 1998.

Ernst, D. M.

D. A. Wolf, D. M. Ernst, A. L. Phillips, “Loop heat pipes—their performance and potential,” in 1994 SAE International Conference on Environmental Systems, Friedrichshafen, Germany, 20–23 June 1994Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 941575.

Farmer, C. B.

C. B. Farmer, “High resolution infrared spectroscopy of the Sun and the Earth’s atmosphere from space,” Mikrochim. Ac 3, 189–214 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nikitkin, M.

M. Nikitkin, B. Cullimore, J. Baumann, “CPL and LHP technologies: what are the differences, what are the similarities?” presented at the 9th Annual Spacecraft Thermal Control Technology Workshop Los Angeles, Calif., 4–6 March 1998.

Phillips, A. L.

D. A. Wolf, D. M. Ernst, A. L. Phillips, “Loop heat pipes—their performance and potential,” in 1994 SAE International Conference on Environmental Systems, Friedrichshafen, Germany, 20–23 June 1994Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 941575.

Realmuto, V. J.

V. J. Realmuto, H. M. Worden, “Impact of atmospheric water vapor on the thermal infrared remote sensing of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions: a case study from the Pu’u O’o vent of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 21,497–21,507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

H. M. Worden, R. Beer, C. P. Rinsland, “Airborne infrared spectroscopy of 1994 western wildfires,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1287–1299 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Clough, C. P. Rinsland, P. D. Brown, “Retrieval of tropospheric ozone from simulations of nadir spectral radiances as observed from space,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16579–16593 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods in Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000).

Wolf, D. A.

D. A. Wolf, D. M. Ernst, A. L. Phillips, “Loop heat pipes—their performance and potential,” in 1994 SAE International Conference on Environmental Systems, Friedrichshafen, Germany, 20–23 June 1994Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 941575.

Worden, H. M.

V. J. Realmuto, H. M. Worden, “Impact of atmospheric water vapor on the thermal infrared remote sensing of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions: a case study from the Pu’u O’o vent of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 21,497–21,507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Bowman, H. M. Worden, R. Beer, “Instrument line-shape modeling and correction for off-axis detectors in Fourier-transform spectrometry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3765–3773 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Worden, R. Beer, C. P. Rinsland, “Airborne infrared spectroscopy of 1994 western wildfires,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1287–1299 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Geophys. Res.

S. A. Clough, C. P. Rinsland, P. D. Brown, “Retrieval of tropospheric ozone from simulations of nadir spectral radiances as observed from space,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16579–16593 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Worden, R. Beer, C. P. Rinsland, “Airborne infrared spectroscopy of 1994 western wildfires,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1287–1299 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Realmuto, H. M. Worden, “Impact of atmospheric water vapor on the thermal infrared remote sensing of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions: a case study from the Pu’u O’o vent of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 21,497–21,507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Mikrochim. Ac

C. B. Farmer, “High resolution infrared spectroscopy of the Sun and the Earth’s atmosphere from space,” Mikrochim. Ac 3, 189–214 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. A. Wolf, D. M. Ernst, A. L. Phillips, “Loop heat pipes—their performance and potential,” in 1994 SAE International Conference on Environmental Systems, Friedrichshafen, Germany, 20–23 June 1994Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa. 15096), paper 941575.

M. Nikitkin, B. Cullimore, J. Baumann, “CPL and LHP technologies: what are the differences, what are the similarities?” presented at the 9th Annual Spacecraft Thermal Control Technology Workshop Los Angeles, Calif., 4–6 March 1998.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, “Level 1B algorithm theoretical basis document,” [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1999 ( http:/www.eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/atbd/pg1.html )].

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods in Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000).

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, “Level 2 Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document,” [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1999) ( http:/www.eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/atbd/pg1.html )].

“Earth Science Strategic Enterprise Plan 1998–2002” [NASA, Washington, D.C., 1998 ( http://www.earth.nasa.gov/visions/stratplan/index.html )].

“Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer scientific objectives & approach, goals & requirements,” (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1999).

R. Beer, Remote Sensing by Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Wiley, New York, 1992).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Computer-aided design view of the EOS Aura platform on orbit. The TES is the instrument slightly to the right of center. The keyhole-shaped entrance aperture permits both downward and limb views to be obtained (indicated by the rays emanating from the aperture).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere Temperature Profile showing the conventional names of the divisions of the vertical structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TES detectors projected to the nadir (705-km range) and to the limb (3100-km range). Although they are shown as discrete elements, the pixels are, in fact, continuous but are defined by an array of contacts underneath. FOV, field of view.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TES optical schematic (Earth upward in this view). Light enters at the upper left. Note the three different temperature zones and the labeling of the four detector arrays.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phasing of nadir and limb sequences: SP, 4-s space view calibration (∼300-km altitude above the surface); BB, 4-s view of the internal 340-K blackbody; N1, N2, two 4-s atmosphere–surface scans of the same location near nadir, L1–L3, are three 16-s scans of the atmosphere at the trailing limb.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Coverage during a typical day of a TES global survey (crosses). The Aura platform will be in a 705-km Sun-synchronous polar orbit with an exact 16-day repeat cycle. However, there is also a near-repeat every 2 days, so the mission plan of observing on alternate days ensures that these marked areas will be sampled repeatedly because the observation timing is designed to place TES footprints at the same latitudes on every orbit.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of the TES transect mode. Beginning by pointing 45° forward (along track), successive footprints are laid end to end over a distance of as much as 885 km. The transect ends at a nadir angle of -45°. Note that the along-track expansion of the footprint (keystoning) is exaggerated for clarity.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 TES Standard Products and Required Sensitivitya

Tables Icon

Table 2 Potential Special (Research) Products

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Table 3 TES Requirements and Specifications

Tables Icon

Table 4 Filter Bands and Species Coveragea

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