Abstract

The new optical effect of diffractive multifocal focusing of radiation, predicted earlier by theory, on a bicomponent diffraction system with small Fresnel numbers that consists of two plane screens with circular apertures on given optical axes, is confirmed experimentally. It is shown that the diffraction picture in the focal planes of such a system represents the circular nonlocal bands of the Fresnel zones with a bright narrow peak at the center, whose intensity in the experiment can exceed by six to ten times the value of the incident plane-wave intensity. Experimentally it is established that the diffractive multifocal focusing of radiation on real screens with axial circular apertures, whose diameters exceed the radiation wavelength, is insensitive to the rough external conditions: thickness of the screens, irregularities of the edges and nonideal form of the apertures, heterogeneity of the initial distribution of the incident-wave intensity, and changes in the medium of the wave propagation.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  14. D. Jiang, J. J. Stamnes, “Theoretical and experimental results for focusing of two-dimensional scalar waves,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 211–224 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Jiang, J. J. Stamnes, “Theoretical and experimental results for focusing of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves focused through an interface,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 627–641 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Jiang, J. J. Stamnes, “Numerical and experimental results for focusing of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves into uniaxial crystals,” Opt. Commun. 174, 321–334 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. F. Yudin, M. N. Selivanov, O. F. Tishenko, A. I. Skorokhodov, Basic Terms in Metrology: Dictionary and Reference Book (Publishers of Standards, Moscow, 1989).
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  19. S. P. Kalashnikov, A. A. Matcveiko, “Photo-diode gauge for the power of laser radiation,” Devices Technol. Exp. 2, 189 (1981).

2000 (4)

R. R. Letfullin, T. F. George, “Theory of energy gain in a laser-amplifier based on a photon-branched chain reaction: auto-wave amplification mode under the condition of input signal focusing,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3824–3831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Letfullin, T. F. George, “Self-contained compact pulsed laser based on an auto-wave photon-branched chain reaction,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 813–818 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Jiang, J. J. Stamnes, “Numerical and experimental results for focusing of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves into uniaxial crystals,” Opt. Commun. 174, 321–334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Letfullin, T. F. George, “Optical effect of diffractive multifocal focusing of radiation on a bicomponent diffraction system,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2545–2550 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Jiang, J. J. Stamnes, “Theoretical and experimental results for focusing of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves focused through an interface,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 627–641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. Jiang, J. J. Stamnes, “Theoretical and experimental results for focusing of two-dimensional scalar waves,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 211–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1983 (1)

1981 (2)

S. P. Kalashnikov, A. A. Matcveiko, “Photo-diode gauge for the power of laser radiation,” Devices Technol. Exp. 2, 189 (1981).

Y. Li, E. Wolf, “Focal shifts in diffracted converging spherical waves,” Opt. Commun. 39, 211–215 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

Abrosimov, A. A.

A. A. Abrosimov, S. P. Kotova, E. A. Mnatsakanyan, V. N. Chupakhin, N. A. Shevyakov, “Development of a special-aided measurement system on the basis of a linear photosensitive charge couple device,” in Laser Technology and Automation (Science, Moscow1989), pp. 213–224.

Aksenenko, A. A.

A. A. Aksenenko, M. L. Baranotsnikov, Detectors of an Optical Radiation: Reference Book (Radio and Communication, Moscow, 1987).

Andres, P.

Baranotsnikov, M. L.

A. A. Aksenenko, M. L. Baranotsnikov, Detectors of an Optical Radiation: Reference Book (Radio and Communication, Moscow, 1987).

Chupakhin, V. N.

A. A. Abrosimov, S. P. Kotova, E. A. Mnatsakanyan, V. N. Chupakhin, N. A. Shevyakov, “Development of a special-aided measurement system on the basis of a linear photosensitive charge couple device,” in Laser Technology and Automation (Science, Moscow1989), pp. 213–224.

Climent, V.

George, T. F.

R. R. Letfullin, T. F. George, “Optical effect of diffractive multifocal focusing of radiation on a bicomponent diffraction system,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2545–2550 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Letfullin, T. F. George, “Theory of energy gain in a laser-amplifier based on a photon-branched chain reaction: auto-wave amplification mode under the condition of input signal focusing,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3824–3831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Letfullin, T. F. George, “Self-contained compact pulsed laser based on an auto-wave photon-branched chain reaction,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 813–818 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.

D. Jiang, J. J. Stamnes, “Numerical and experimental results for focusing of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves into uniaxial crystals,” Opt. Commun. 174, 321–334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Jiang, J. J. Stamnes, “Theoretical and experimental results for focusing of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves focused through an interface,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 627–641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Jiang, J. J. Stamnes, “Theoretical and experimental results for focusing of two-dimensional scalar waves,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 211–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kahaner, D.

D. Kahaner, C. Moler, S. Nash, Numerical Methods and Software (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1989).

Kalashnikov, S. P.

S. P. Kalashnikov, A. A. Matcveiko, “Photo-diode gauge for the power of laser radiation,” Devices Technol. Exp. 2, 189 (1981).

Kotova, S. P.

A. A. Abrosimov, S. P. Kotova, E. A. Mnatsakanyan, V. N. Chupakhin, N. A. Shevyakov, “Development of a special-aided measurement system on the basis of a linear photosensitive charge couple device,” in Laser Technology and Automation (Science, Moscow1989), pp. 213–224.

Letfullin, R. R.

R. R. Letfullin, T. F. George, “Theory of energy gain in a laser-amplifier based on a photon-branched chain reaction: auto-wave amplification mode under the condition of input signal focusing,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3824–3831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Letfullin, T. F. George, “Optical effect of diffractive multifocal focusing of radiation on a bicomponent diffraction system,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2545–2550 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Letfullin, T. F. George, “Self-contained compact pulsed laser based on an auto-wave photon-branched chain reaction,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 813–818 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Letfullin, “Bicomponent diffraction system for focussing of radiation. 1. Theory” (Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 2000), Preprint 4, pp. 1–200.

R. R. Letfullin, “Bicomponent diffraction system for focussing of radiation. 1. Application” (Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 2000), Preprint 30, pp. 1–36.

Li, Y.

Y. Li, E. Wolf, “Focal shifts in diffracted converging spherical waves,” Opt. Commun. 39, 211–215 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lit, J. W. Y.

Mahajan, V. N.

Martinez-Corral, M.

Matcveiko, A. A.

S. P. Kalashnikov, A. A. Matcveiko, “Photo-diode gauge for the power of laser radiation,” Devices Technol. Exp. 2, 189 (1981).

Mnatsakanyan, E. A.

A. A. Abrosimov, S. P. Kotova, E. A. Mnatsakanyan, V. N. Chupakhin, N. A. Shevyakov, “Development of a special-aided measurement system on the basis of a linear photosensitive charge couple device,” in Laser Technology and Automation (Science, Moscow1989), pp. 213–224.

Moler, C.

D. Kahaner, C. Moler, S. Nash, Numerical Methods and Software (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1989).

Nash, S.

D. Kahaner, C. Moler, S. Nash, Numerical Methods and Software (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1989).

Ojeda-Castañeda, J.

Pons, A.

Selivanov, M. N.

M. F. Yudin, M. N. Selivanov, O. F. Tishenko, A. I. Skorokhodov, Basic Terms in Metrology: Dictionary and Reference Book (Publishers of Standards, Moscow, 1989).

Shevyakov, N. A.

A. A. Abrosimov, S. P. Kotova, E. A. Mnatsakanyan, V. N. Chupakhin, N. A. Shevyakov, “Development of a special-aided measurement system on the basis of a linear photosensitive charge couple device,” in Laser Technology and Automation (Science, Moscow1989), pp. 213–224.

Skorokhodov, A. I.

M. F. Yudin, M. N. Selivanov, O. F. Tishenko, A. I. Skorokhodov, Basic Terms in Metrology: Dictionary and Reference Book (Publishers of Standards, Moscow, 1989).

Stamnes, J. J.

D. Jiang, J. J. Stamnes, “Numerical and experimental results for focusing of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves into uniaxial crystals,” Opt. Commun. 174, 321–334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Jiang, J. J. Stamnes, “Theoretical and experimental results for focusing of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves focused through an interface,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 627–641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Jiang, J. J. Stamnes, “Theoretical and experimental results for focusing of two-dimensional scalar waves,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 211–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Stamnes, Waves in Focal Regions (Adam Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1986), Sec. 6.3.1.

Tishenko, O. F.

M. F. Yudin, M. N. Selivanov, O. F. Tishenko, A. I. Skorokhodov, Basic Terms in Metrology: Dictionary and Reference Book (Publishers of Standards, Moscow, 1989).

Tremblay, R.

Wolf, E.

Y. Li, E. Wolf, “Focal shifts in diffracted converging spherical waves,” Opt. Commun. 39, 211–215 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Yudin, M. F.

M. F. Yudin, M. N. Selivanov, O. F. Tishenko, A. I. Skorokhodov, Basic Terms in Metrology: Dictionary and Reference Book (Publishers of Standards, Moscow, 1989).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. R. Letfullin, T. F. George, “Self-contained compact pulsed laser based on an auto-wave photon-branched chain reaction,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 813–818 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Devices Technol. Exp. (1)

S. P. Kalashnikov, A. A. Matcveiko, “Photo-diode gauge for the power of laser radiation,” Devices Technol. Exp. 2, 189 (1981).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. R. Letfullin, T. F. George, “Theory of energy gain in a laser-amplifier based on a photon-branched chain reaction: auto-wave amplification mode under the condition of input signal focusing,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 3824–3831 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

Y. Li, E. Wolf, “Focal shifts in diffracted converging spherical waves,” Opt. Commun. 39, 211–215 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Jiang, J. J. Stamnes, “Numerical and experimental results for focusing of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves into uniaxial crystals,” Opt. Commun. 174, 321–334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (2)

D. Jiang, J. J. Stamnes, “Theoretical and experimental results for focusing of two-dimensional scalar waves,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 211–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Jiang, J. J. Stamnes, “Theoretical and experimental results for focusing of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves focused through an interface,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 627–641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

M. F. Yudin, M. N. Selivanov, O. F. Tishenko, A. I. Skorokhodov, Basic Terms in Metrology: Dictionary and Reference Book (Publishers of Standards, Moscow, 1989).

D. Kahaner, C. Moler, S. Nash, Numerical Methods and Software (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1989).

A. A. Aksenenko, M. L. Baranotsnikov, Detectors of an Optical Radiation: Reference Book (Radio and Communication, Moscow, 1987).

A. A. Abrosimov, S. P. Kotova, E. A. Mnatsakanyan, V. N. Chupakhin, N. A. Shevyakov, “Development of a special-aided measurement system on the basis of a linear photosensitive charge couple device,” in Laser Technology and Automation (Science, Moscow1989), pp. 213–224.

J. J. Stamnes, Waves in Focal Regions (Adam Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1986), Sec. 6.3.1.

R. R. Letfullin, “Bicomponent diffraction system for focussing of radiation. 1. Application” (Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 2000), Preprint 30, pp. 1–36.

R. R. Letfullin, “Bicomponent diffraction system for focussing of radiation. 1. Theory” (Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 2000), Preprint 4, pp. 1–200.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the plane-wave diffraction problem for a bicomponent diffraction system consisting of two definitive plane screens with axial circular apertures of diameters d 1 and d 2, where L is the distance between the screens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental setup for the detection of the optical DMFR effect: (1) He–Ne laser, (2) beam expander, (3) space filter, (4) investigated system of diaphragms, (5) microscope, (6) CCD-line photodetector, (7) computer, (8) photodiode gauge; (b) dependence of the CCD-photodetector output voltage on the light exposure; (c)–(d) photos of the investigated pinholes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fresnel diffraction of a plane wave (a) by a circular aperture of diameter d 1 = 365 ± 10 λ, calculated for various distances z along the optical axis (b)–(f). Thick solid curve, theory; dotted curve with points, experiment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffractive focusing of a conical wave (a) by a second circular aperture of diameter d 2 = 80 ± 10 λ, calculated for various distances z from the aperture along the optical axis (c)–(f), and a photo (b) of the diffraction picture. Thick solid curve, theory; dotted curve with points, experiment.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a)–(c) Experimental distributions of the relative intensities of the diffracted fields observed in the homogeneous nonabsorbing (thick solid curve) and aerosol (dotted curve with points) media at different distances z from the investigated diffraction system along the optical axes. The aerosol consists of carbon particles with radius r 0 ≈ 0.1 µm and concentration N ≈ 109 cm- 3.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Integrally Averaged Absolute Values of the Systematic, Random Components and Total Errora within an Aperture, along with Evaluation of the Statistical Error

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2ik0m Ez + 1rrr Er=0,
2ik0m Ez + 1rrr Er=0, Er, z|z=L=Er, LR2r, Er, z||z|=Er, z||r|=0.
Ir, z=cm4π E*r, zEr, z,
kˆm˜=km˜=i2πNS0m˜-11/3,
δc=13δcMO2+δcCCD21/2.
δs=δs(1)CCD2+δs(2)CCD2+δs(3)CCD2+(δsFD)21/2.

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