A theoretical and numerical investigation of the systematic phase errors in phase-shifting speckle interferometry is presented. The theoretical investigation analyzes the behavior of some systematic error induced by intensity variations in two cases of data-computing techniques. The first case deals with the technique in which the phase change is computed, unwrapped, and then linearly filtered; the second case deals with the technique in which the data are linearly filtered before the arctangent calculation and then unwrapped. With the first filtering technique it is shown that it is preferable when the phase change is of relatively low spatial frequency, leading to a particularly accurate method. With the second case it is demonstrated that an important parameter of speckle interferometry is the modulation factor of the interference frame that induces phase errors when the data are filtered before the arctangent calculation. We show that this technique is better than the first when the phase change is composed of high-spatial-frequency variations. The theoretical investigation of the two techniques is compared with numerical simulations, considering the frequency characteristics of the phase change, and this shows a good match between theory and simulations.
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