Abstract

We measured the depth profile of hydrogen atoms in graphite by laser microprobing combined with resonant laser ablation. Deuterium-implanted graphite was employed for the measurements. The sample was ablated by a tunable laser with a wavelength corresponding to the resonant wavelength of 1S–2S of deuterium with two-photon excitation. The ablated deuterium was ionized by a 2 + 1 resonant ionization process. The ions were analyzed by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The deuterium ions were detected clearly with the resonant ablation. The detection limit was estimated to be less than 1016 atoms/cm3 in our experiments. We determined the depth profile by considering the etching profile and the etching rate. The depth profile agreed well with Monte Carlo simulations to within a precision of 23 µm for the center position and 4-µm precision for distributions for three different implantation depths.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Keroack, B. Terreault, “Laser desorption study of deuterium implanted in beryllium,” J. Nucl. Mater. 212/215, 1443–1447 (1994).
  2. D. H. J. Goodall, G. M. McCracken, J. P. Coad, R. A. Causey, G. Sadler, O. N. Jarvis, “Measurement of tritium distribution in JET,” J. Nucl. Mater. 162/164, 1059–1064 (1989).
  3. C. J. McLean, J. H. Marsh, A. P. Land, A. Clark, R. Jennings, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, A. Marshall, R. P. Singhal, M. Towrie, “Resonant laser ablation (RLA),” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, R1–R7 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Maunit, A. Hachimi, P. Manuelli, P. J. Calba, J. F. Muller, “Formation of iron oxides clusters induced by resonant laser ablation/ionization,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 156, 173–187 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Towrie, S. L. T. Drysdale, R. Jennings, A. P. Land, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, R. P. Singhal, M. H. C. Smyth, C. J. McLean, “Trace analysis using a commercial resonant ionization mass spectrometer,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, 309–320 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. C. Eiden, J. E. Anderson, N. S. Nogar, “Resonant laser ablation: semiquantitative aspects and threshold effects,” Microchem. J. 50, 289–300 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. C. Eiden, N. S. Nogar, “The two-photon spectrum of iron and silicon detected by resonant laser ablation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 226, 509–516 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. G. Gill, A. W. Garett, P. H. Hemberger, N. S. Nogar, “Selective laser ablation/ioization for ion trap mass spectrometry: resonant laser ablation,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 51, 851–862 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Yorozu, Y. Okada, A. Endo, “Detection of hydrogen isotope atoms by mass spectrometry combined with resonant ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 129–132 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999

M. Yorozu, Y. Okada, A. Endo, “Detection of hydrogen isotope atoms by mass spectrometry combined with resonant ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 129–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. Maunit, A. Hachimi, P. Manuelli, P. J. Calba, J. F. Muller, “Formation of iron oxides clusters induced by resonant laser ablation/ionization,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 156, 173–187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Gill, A. W. Garett, P. H. Hemberger, N. S. Nogar, “Selective laser ablation/ioization for ion trap mass spectrometry: resonant laser ablation,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 51, 851–862 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

G. C. Eiden, J. E. Anderson, N. S. Nogar, “Resonant laser ablation: semiquantitative aspects and threshold effects,” Microchem. J. 50, 289–300 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Eiden, N. S. Nogar, “The two-photon spectrum of iron and silicon detected by resonant laser ablation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 226, 509–516 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Keroack, B. Terreault, “Laser desorption study of deuterium implanted in beryllium,” J. Nucl. Mater. 212/215, 1443–1447 (1994).

1990

M. Towrie, S. L. T. Drysdale, R. Jennings, A. P. Land, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, R. P. Singhal, M. H. C. Smyth, C. J. McLean, “Trace analysis using a commercial resonant ionization mass spectrometer,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, 309–320 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. J. McLean, J. H. Marsh, A. P. Land, A. Clark, R. Jennings, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, A. Marshall, R. P. Singhal, M. Towrie, “Resonant laser ablation (RLA),” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, R1–R7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. H. J. Goodall, G. M. McCracken, J. P. Coad, R. A. Causey, G. Sadler, O. N. Jarvis, “Measurement of tritium distribution in JET,” J. Nucl. Mater. 162/164, 1059–1064 (1989).

Anderson, J. E.

G. C. Eiden, J. E. Anderson, N. S. Nogar, “Resonant laser ablation: semiquantitative aspects and threshold effects,” Microchem. J. 50, 289–300 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Calba, P. J.

B. Maunit, A. Hachimi, P. Manuelli, P. J. Calba, J. F. Muller, “Formation of iron oxides clusters induced by resonant laser ablation/ionization,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 156, 173–187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Causey, R. A.

D. H. J. Goodall, G. M. McCracken, J. P. Coad, R. A. Causey, G. Sadler, O. N. Jarvis, “Measurement of tritium distribution in JET,” J. Nucl. Mater. 162/164, 1059–1064 (1989).

Clark, A.

C. J. McLean, J. H. Marsh, A. P. Land, A. Clark, R. Jennings, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, A. Marshall, R. P. Singhal, M. Towrie, “Resonant laser ablation (RLA),” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, R1–R7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Coad, J. P.

D. H. J. Goodall, G. M. McCracken, J. P. Coad, R. A. Causey, G. Sadler, O. N. Jarvis, “Measurement of tritium distribution in JET,” J. Nucl. Mater. 162/164, 1059–1064 (1989).

Drysdale, S. L. T.

M. Towrie, S. L. T. Drysdale, R. Jennings, A. P. Land, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, R. P. Singhal, M. H. C. Smyth, C. J. McLean, “Trace analysis using a commercial resonant ionization mass spectrometer,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, 309–320 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Eiden, G. C.

G. C. Eiden, J. E. Anderson, N. S. Nogar, “Resonant laser ablation: semiquantitative aspects and threshold effects,” Microchem. J. 50, 289–300 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Eiden, N. S. Nogar, “The two-photon spectrum of iron and silicon detected by resonant laser ablation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 226, 509–516 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Endo, A.

M. Yorozu, Y. Okada, A. Endo, “Detection of hydrogen isotope atoms by mass spectrometry combined with resonant ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 129–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garett, A. W.

C. G. Gill, A. W. Garett, P. H. Hemberger, N. S. Nogar, “Selective laser ablation/ioization for ion trap mass spectrometry: resonant laser ablation,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 51, 851–862 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gill, C. G.

C. G. Gill, A. W. Garett, P. H. Hemberger, N. S. Nogar, “Selective laser ablation/ioization for ion trap mass spectrometry: resonant laser ablation,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 51, 851–862 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goodall, D. H. J.

D. H. J. Goodall, G. M. McCracken, J. P. Coad, R. A. Causey, G. Sadler, O. N. Jarvis, “Measurement of tritium distribution in JET,” J. Nucl. Mater. 162/164, 1059–1064 (1989).

Hachimi, A.

B. Maunit, A. Hachimi, P. Manuelli, P. J. Calba, J. F. Muller, “Formation of iron oxides clusters induced by resonant laser ablation/ionization,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 156, 173–187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hemberger, P. H.

C. G. Gill, A. W. Garett, P. H. Hemberger, N. S. Nogar, “Selective laser ablation/ioization for ion trap mass spectrometry: resonant laser ablation,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 51, 851–862 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jarvis, O. N.

D. H. J. Goodall, G. M. McCracken, J. P. Coad, R. A. Causey, G. Sadler, O. N. Jarvis, “Measurement of tritium distribution in JET,” J. Nucl. Mater. 162/164, 1059–1064 (1989).

Jennings, R.

C. J. McLean, J. H. Marsh, A. P. Land, A. Clark, R. Jennings, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, A. Marshall, R. P. Singhal, M. Towrie, “Resonant laser ablation (RLA),” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, R1–R7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Towrie, S. L. T. Drysdale, R. Jennings, A. P. Land, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, R. P. Singhal, M. H. C. Smyth, C. J. McLean, “Trace analysis using a commercial resonant ionization mass spectrometer,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, 309–320 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Keroack, D.

D. Keroack, B. Terreault, “Laser desorption study of deuterium implanted in beryllium,” J. Nucl. Mater. 212/215, 1443–1447 (1994).

Land, A. P.

M. Towrie, S. L. T. Drysdale, R. Jennings, A. P. Land, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, R. P. Singhal, M. H. C. Smyth, C. J. McLean, “Trace analysis using a commercial resonant ionization mass spectrometer,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, 309–320 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. J. McLean, J. H. Marsh, A. P. Land, A. Clark, R. Jennings, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, A. Marshall, R. P. Singhal, M. Towrie, “Resonant laser ablation (RLA),” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, R1–R7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ledingham, K. W. D.

M. Towrie, S. L. T. Drysdale, R. Jennings, A. P. Land, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, R. P. Singhal, M. H. C. Smyth, C. J. McLean, “Trace analysis using a commercial resonant ionization mass spectrometer,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, 309–320 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. J. McLean, J. H. Marsh, A. P. Land, A. Clark, R. Jennings, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, A. Marshall, R. P. Singhal, M. Towrie, “Resonant laser ablation (RLA),” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, R1–R7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Manuelli, P.

B. Maunit, A. Hachimi, P. Manuelli, P. J. Calba, J. F. Muller, “Formation of iron oxides clusters induced by resonant laser ablation/ionization,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 156, 173–187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, J. H.

C. J. McLean, J. H. Marsh, A. P. Land, A. Clark, R. Jennings, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, A. Marshall, R. P. Singhal, M. Towrie, “Resonant laser ablation (RLA),” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, R1–R7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, A.

C. J. McLean, J. H. Marsh, A. P. Land, A. Clark, R. Jennings, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, A. Marshall, R. P. Singhal, M. Towrie, “Resonant laser ablation (RLA),” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, R1–R7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maunit, B.

B. Maunit, A. Hachimi, P. Manuelli, P. J. Calba, J. F. Muller, “Formation of iron oxides clusters induced by resonant laser ablation/ionization,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 156, 173–187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCombes, P. T.

M. Towrie, S. L. T. Drysdale, R. Jennings, A. P. Land, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, R. P. Singhal, M. H. C. Smyth, C. J. McLean, “Trace analysis using a commercial resonant ionization mass spectrometer,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, 309–320 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. J. McLean, J. H. Marsh, A. P. Land, A. Clark, R. Jennings, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, A. Marshall, R. P. Singhal, M. Towrie, “Resonant laser ablation (RLA),” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, R1–R7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McCracken, G. M.

D. H. J. Goodall, G. M. McCracken, J. P. Coad, R. A. Causey, G. Sadler, O. N. Jarvis, “Measurement of tritium distribution in JET,” J. Nucl. Mater. 162/164, 1059–1064 (1989).

McLean, C. J.

C. J. McLean, J. H. Marsh, A. P. Land, A. Clark, R. Jennings, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, A. Marshall, R. P. Singhal, M. Towrie, “Resonant laser ablation (RLA),” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, R1–R7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Towrie, S. L. T. Drysdale, R. Jennings, A. P. Land, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, R. P. Singhal, M. H. C. Smyth, C. J. McLean, “Trace analysis using a commercial resonant ionization mass spectrometer,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, 309–320 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Muller, J. F.

B. Maunit, A. Hachimi, P. Manuelli, P. J. Calba, J. F. Muller, “Formation of iron oxides clusters induced by resonant laser ablation/ionization,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 156, 173–187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nogar, N. S.

C. G. Gill, A. W. Garett, P. H. Hemberger, N. S. Nogar, “Selective laser ablation/ioization for ion trap mass spectrometry: resonant laser ablation,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 51, 851–862 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Eiden, N. S. Nogar, “The two-photon spectrum of iron and silicon detected by resonant laser ablation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 226, 509–516 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Eiden, J. E. Anderson, N. S. Nogar, “Resonant laser ablation: semiquantitative aspects and threshold effects,” Microchem. J. 50, 289–300 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Okada, Y.

M. Yorozu, Y. Okada, A. Endo, “Detection of hydrogen isotope atoms by mass spectrometry combined with resonant ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 129–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sadler, G.

D. H. J. Goodall, G. M. McCracken, J. P. Coad, R. A. Causey, G. Sadler, O. N. Jarvis, “Measurement of tritium distribution in JET,” J. Nucl. Mater. 162/164, 1059–1064 (1989).

Singhal, R. P.

C. J. McLean, J. H. Marsh, A. P. Land, A. Clark, R. Jennings, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, A. Marshall, R. P. Singhal, M. Towrie, “Resonant laser ablation (RLA),” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, R1–R7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Towrie, S. L. T. Drysdale, R. Jennings, A. P. Land, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, R. P. Singhal, M. H. C. Smyth, C. J. McLean, “Trace analysis using a commercial resonant ionization mass spectrometer,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, 309–320 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, M. H. C.

M. Towrie, S. L. T. Drysdale, R. Jennings, A. P. Land, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, R. P. Singhal, M. H. C. Smyth, C. J. McLean, “Trace analysis using a commercial resonant ionization mass spectrometer,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, 309–320 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Terreault, B.

D. Keroack, B. Terreault, “Laser desorption study of deuterium implanted in beryllium,” J. Nucl. Mater. 212/215, 1443–1447 (1994).

Towrie, M.

C. J. McLean, J. H. Marsh, A. P. Land, A. Clark, R. Jennings, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, A. Marshall, R. P. Singhal, M. Towrie, “Resonant laser ablation (RLA),” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, R1–R7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Towrie, S. L. T. Drysdale, R. Jennings, A. P. Land, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, R. P. Singhal, M. H. C. Smyth, C. J. McLean, “Trace analysis using a commercial resonant ionization mass spectrometer,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, 309–320 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yorozu, M.

M. Yorozu, Y. Okada, A. Endo, “Detection of hydrogen isotope atoms by mass spectrometry combined with resonant ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 129–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

M. Yorozu, Y. Okada, A. Endo, “Detection of hydrogen isotope atoms by mass spectrometry combined with resonant ionization,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 129–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

G. C. Eiden, N. S. Nogar, “The two-photon spectrum of iron and silicon detected by resonant laser ablation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 226, 509–516 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes

C. J. McLean, J. H. Marsh, A. P. Land, A. Clark, R. Jennings, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, A. Marshall, R. P. Singhal, M. Towrie, “Resonant laser ablation (RLA),” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, R1–R7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Maunit, A. Hachimi, P. Manuelli, P. J. Calba, J. F. Muller, “Formation of iron oxides clusters induced by resonant laser ablation/ionization,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 156, 173–187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Towrie, S. L. T. Drysdale, R. Jennings, A. P. Land, K. W. D. Ledingham, P. T. McCombes, R. P. Singhal, M. H. C. Smyth, C. J. McLean, “Trace analysis using a commercial resonant ionization mass spectrometer,” Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes 96, 309–320 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Nucl. Mater.

D. Keroack, B. Terreault, “Laser desorption study of deuterium implanted in beryllium,” J. Nucl. Mater. 212/215, 1443–1447 (1994).

D. H. J. Goodall, G. M. McCracken, J. P. Coad, R. A. Causey, G. Sadler, O. N. Jarvis, “Measurement of tritium distribution in JET,” J. Nucl. Mater. 162/164, 1059–1064 (1989).

Microchem. J.

G. C. Eiden, J. E. Anderson, N. S. Nogar, “Resonant laser ablation: semiquantitative aspects and threshold effects,” Microchem. J. 50, 289–300 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part B

C. G. Gill, A. W. Garett, P. H. Hemberger, N. S. Nogar, “Selective laser ablation/ioization for ion trap mass spectrometry: resonant laser ablation,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 51, 851–862 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the TOF mass spectrometer. Laser light is conducted through an optical window and focused by an optical lens onto a sample. Ablation ions are accelerated by an electric field, transported through electrostatic lenses, then bent to a detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical TOF mass spectrum employed with a resonant wavelength for deuterium atoms. The resonant signal of the deuterium ions is clearly observed. Some fragmentation of the carbon molecules is also observed as a nonresonant signal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Depth profile of the deuterium atom: solid curve (Simulation), atomic density from the numerical simulation by TRIM95; open circles, depth profile determined by the etching rate analysis; Solid curve [S(n)], result of the least-squares fit for S(n) from Eq. (5); full circles, depth profile determined by the etching-profile analysis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Function definition of the analysis model: r(n, z) and r(n - 1, z) are functions of the etching profile produced by the nth and n - 1 laser shot; u(n, z) is a function of the amount etched by the nth laser shot; ρ(z) is the depth profile of the deuterium atoms.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical etched profile: filled circles, a typical etched profile; solid curve, a function of the etching profile from Eq. (5) for β = 3.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of Deuterium Implantation

Tables Icon

Table 2 Depth Profile of the Numerical Simulation and Measurementa

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Sn=ρz,  z=αn,
Sn= un, zρzdz,
un, z=πrn, z2-rn-1, z2,
Zn, r=αn exp-rβ, i.e., rn, z=-logz/αn1/β,
Sn=m un, m : βρm.

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