Abstract

Efficient continuous-wave and passively Q-switched diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers at 946 nm are reported together with results on highly efficient frequency doubling. Periodically poled KTiOPO4 was employed as the nonlinear material because of its high nonlinearity and its resistance to photorefractive damage. In the blue spectral region we measured 76 mW in continuous wave and 285 mW in the Q-switched mode.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Woll, B. Beier, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, M. Hagberg, S. O’Brien, “1 W of blue 465-nm radiation generated by frequency doubling of the output of a high-power diode laser in critically phase-matched LiB3O5,” Opt. Lett. 24, 691–693 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Pierrou, F. Laurell, H. Karlsson, T. Kellner, C. Czeranowsky, G. Huber, “Generation of 740 mW of blue light by intracavity frequency doubling with a first-order quasi-phase-matched KTiOPO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 24, 205–207 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, R. L. Hutcheson, R. W. Equall, “Pulsed 4F3/2 to 4I9/2 operation of Nd lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2169–2177 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. D. Lindsay, M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Efficient continuous-wave and Q-switched operation of a 946-nm Nd:YAG laser pumped by an injection-locked broad-area diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3961–3970 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Kellner, F. Heine, G. Huber, S. Kück, “Passive Q switching of a diode-pumped 946-nm Nd:YAG laser with 1.6-W average output power,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7076–7079 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Liu, O. Hornia, Y. C. Chen, S.-H. Zhou, “Single-frequency Q-switched Cr:Nd:YAG laser operating at 946-nm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 26–28 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. J. Zayhowski, “Covering the spectrum with passively Q-switched Nd:YAG microchip laser systems,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 463.
  8. G. W. Ross, N. S. Felgate, W. A. Clarkson, P. G. R. Smith, P. E. Britton, D. C. Hanna, “Red and blue light generation by frequency doubling and tripling in periodically poled LiNbO3,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 384–385.
  9. P. Zeller, P. Peuser, “Efficient, multiwatt, continuous-wave laser operation on the 4F3/2—4I9/2 transitions od Nd:YVO4 and Nd:YAG,” Opt. Lett. 25, 34–36 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. W. Ross, M. Pollnau, P. G. R. Smith, W. A. Clarkson, P. E. Britton, D. C. Hanna, “Generation of high-power blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 23, 171–173 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Englander, R. Lavi, M. Katz, M. Oron, D. Eger, E. Lebiush, G. Rosenman, A. Skliar, “Highly efficient doubling of a high-repetition-rate diode-pumped laser with bulk periodically poled KTP,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1598–1600 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, H. Karlsson, “Ultraviolet generation by first-order frequency doubling in periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1883–1885 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, “Electric field poling of flux grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3474–3476 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Freitag, R. Henking, A. Tuennermann, H. Welling, “Quasi-three-level room-temperature Nd:YAG ring laser with high single-frequency output power at 946 nm,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2499–2501 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. Boulanger, J. P. Fève, Y. Guillien, “Thermo-optical effect and saturation of nonlinear absorption induced by gray tracking in a 532-nm-pumped KTP optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 25, 484–486 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. Wiechmann, S. Kubota, T. Fukuki, H. Masuda, “Refractive-index temperature derivatives of potassium titanyl phosphate,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1208–1210 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. Kato, “Parametric oscillation at 3.2 µm in KTP pumped at 1.064 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1137–1140 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (3)

1998 (4)

1997 (3)

A. Englander, R. Lavi, M. Katz, M. Oron, D. Eger, E. Lebiush, G. Rosenman, A. Skliar, “Highly efficient doubling of a high-repetition-rate diode-pumped laser with bulk periodically poled KTP,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1598–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, O. Hornia, Y. C. Chen, S.-H. Zhou, “Single-frequency Q-switched Cr:Nd:YAG laser operating at 946-nm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 26–28 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, “Electric field poling of flux grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3474–3476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

K. Kato, “Parametric oscillation at 3.2 µm in KTP pumped at 1.064 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1137–1140 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

Beier, B.

Boller, K.-J.

Boulanger, B.

Britton, P. E.

G. W. Ross, M. Pollnau, P. G. R. Smith, W. A. Clarkson, P. E. Britton, D. C. Hanna, “Generation of high-power blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 23, 171–173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Ross, N. S. Felgate, W. A. Clarkson, P. G. R. Smith, P. E. Britton, D. C. Hanna, “Red and blue light generation by frequency doubling and tripling in periodically poled LiNbO3,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 384–385.

Chen, Y. C.

H. Liu, O. Hornia, Y. C. Chen, S.-H. Zhou, “Single-frequency Q-switched Cr:Nd:YAG laser operating at 946-nm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 26–28 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

G. W. Ross, M. Pollnau, P. G. R. Smith, W. A. Clarkson, P. E. Britton, D. C. Hanna, “Generation of high-power blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 23, 171–173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Ross, N. S. Felgate, W. A. Clarkson, P. G. R. Smith, P. E. Britton, D. C. Hanna, “Red and blue light generation by frequency doubling and tripling in periodically poled LiNbO3,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 384–385.

Czeranowsky, C.

Ebrahimzadeh, M.

Eger, D.

Englander, A.

Equall, R. W.

Felgate, N. S.

G. W. Ross, N. S. Felgate, W. A. Clarkson, P. G. R. Smith, P. E. Britton, D. C. Hanna, “Red and blue light generation by frequency doubling and tripling in periodically poled LiNbO3,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 384–385.

Fève, J. P.

Freitag, I.

Fukuki, T.

Guillien, Y.

Hagberg, M.

Hanna, D. C.

G. W. Ross, M. Pollnau, P. G. R. Smith, W. A. Clarkson, P. E. Britton, D. C. Hanna, “Generation of high-power blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 23, 171–173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Ross, N. S. Felgate, W. A. Clarkson, P. G. R. Smith, P. E. Britton, D. C. Hanna, “Red and blue light generation by frequency doubling and tripling in periodically poled LiNbO3,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 384–385.

Heine, F.

Henking, R.

Hornia, O.

H. Liu, O. Hornia, Y. C. Chen, S.-H. Zhou, “Single-frequency Q-switched Cr:Nd:YAG laser operating at 946-nm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 26–28 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

Hutcheson, R. L.

Karlsson, H.

Kato, K.

K. Kato, “Parametric oscillation at 3.2 µm in KTP pumped at 1.064 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1137–1140 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Katz, M.

Kellner, T.

Kubota, S.

Kück, S.

Laurell, F.

Lavi, R.

Lebiush, E.

Lindsay, I. D.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, O. Hornia, Y. C. Chen, S.-H. Zhou, “Single-frequency Q-switched Cr:Nd:YAG laser operating at 946-nm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 26–28 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, H.

O’Brien, S.

Oron, M.

Pasiskevicius, V.

Peuser, P.

Pierrou, M.

Pollnau, M.

Rosenman, G.

Ross, G. W.

G. W. Ross, M. Pollnau, P. G. R. Smith, W. A. Clarkson, P. E. Britton, D. C. Hanna, “Generation of high-power blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 23, 171–173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Ross, N. S. Felgate, W. A. Clarkson, P. G. R. Smith, P. E. Britton, D. C. Hanna, “Red and blue light generation by frequency doubling and tripling in periodically poled LiNbO3,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 384–385.

Skliar, A.

Smith, P. G. R.

G. W. Ross, M. Pollnau, P. G. R. Smith, W. A. Clarkson, P. E. Britton, D. C. Hanna, “Generation of high-power blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 23, 171–173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Ross, N. S. Felgate, W. A. Clarkson, P. G. R. Smith, P. E. Britton, D. C. Hanna, “Red and blue light generation by frequency doubling and tripling in periodically poled LiNbO3,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 384–385.

Tuennermann, A.

Wallenstein, R.

Walsh, B. M.

Wang, S.

Welling, H.

Wiechmann, W.

Woll, D.

Zayhowski, J. J.

J. J. Zayhowski, “Covering the spectrum with passively Q-switched Nd:YAG microchip laser systems,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 463.

Zeller, P.

Zhou, S.-H.

H. Liu, O. Hornia, Y. C. Chen, S.-H. Zhou, “Single-frequency Q-switched Cr:Nd:YAG laser operating at 946-nm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 26–28 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, “Electric field poling of flux grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3474–3476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Kato, “Parametric oscillation at 3.2 µm in KTP pumped at 1.064 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1137–1140 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Liu, O. Hornia, Y. C. Chen, S.-H. Zhou, “Single-frequency Q-switched Cr:Nd:YAG laser operating at 946-nm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 26–28 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (9)

A. Englander, R. Lavi, M. Katz, M. Oron, D. Eger, E. Lebiush, G. Rosenman, A. Skliar, “Highly efficient doubling of a high-repetition-rate diode-pumped laser with bulk periodically poled KTP,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1598–1600 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Ross, M. Pollnau, P. G. R. Smith, W. A. Clarkson, P. E. Britton, D. C. Hanna, “Generation of high-power blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 23, 171–173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, H. Karlsson, “Ultraviolet generation by first-order frequency doubling in periodically poled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1883–1885 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pierrou, F. Laurell, H. Karlsson, T. Kellner, C. Czeranowsky, G. Huber, “Generation of 740 mW of blue light by intracavity frequency doubling with a first-order quasi-phase-matched KTiOPO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 24, 205–207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Woll, B. Beier, K.-J. Boller, R. Wallenstein, M. Hagberg, S. O’Brien, “1 W of blue 465-nm radiation generated by frequency doubling of the output of a high-power diode laser in critically phase-matched LiB3O5,” Opt. Lett. 24, 691–693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Zeller, P. Peuser, “Efficient, multiwatt, continuous-wave laser operation on the 4F3/2—4I9/2 transitions od Nd:YVO4 and Nd:YAG,” Opt. Lett. 25, 34–36 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Boulanger, J. P. Fève, Y. Guillien, “Thermo-optical effect and saturation of nonlinear absorption induced by gray tracking in a 532-nm-pumped KTP optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 25, 484–486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Wiechmann, S. Kubota, T. Fukuki, H. Masuda, “Refractive-index temperature derivatives of potassium titanyl phosphate,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1208–1210 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Freitag, R. Henking, A. Tuennermann, H. Welling, “Quasi-three-level room-temperature Nd:YAG ring laser with high single-frequency output power at 946 nm,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2499–2501 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. J. Zayhowski, “Covering the spectrum with passively Q-switched Nd:YAG microchip laser systems,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 463.

G. W. Ross, N. S. Felgate, W. A. Clarkson, P. G. R. Smith, P. E. Britton, D. C. Hanna, “Red and blue light generation by frequency doubling and tripling in periodically poled LiNbO3,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 384–385.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pulse length, pulse repetition rate, and energy versus average output power for a passively Q-switched laser at 946 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical fundamental pulse train for an average output power below 300 mW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical second-harmonic pulse train for T PPKTP ≠ 24.05 °C.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of Experimental and Theoretical Wavelength Shifts

Equations (4)

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λF,0=2ΛnSH-nF,
λFT δT+λF,0=2Λ+αΛnSHGT-nFTδT+nSHGλSHG δλSHG-nFλF δλF+nSHG,0-nF,0.
δλF=nSHGT-nFT12Λ-12nSHGλSHG-nFλF-1.
n946/T=0.051×10-5 °C-1, n473/T=1.094×10-5 °C-1, n473/λ473=-0.51 μm-1, n946/λ946=-0.050 μm-1.

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